This is the approved revision of this page, as well as being the most recent.
Texts for Bedikat Chametz
- Before the Bedika one should make the Bracha of Asher Kidishanu BeMitzvotav VeTzivanu Al Biur Chametz.  If one accidentally made the Bracha of Al Bitul Chametz after the fact one has fulfilled the obligation. One has also fulfilled his obligation if he recites "livaer chametz." 
- One may not speak between the Bracha and beginning the Bedika, and if one did make an interruption not related to the Bedika one must make another Bracha. 
- After one began it’s preferable not to speak until one completes the Bedika, however it’s permissible to speak even in matters not related to Bedika. 
- If one didn’t make the Bracha before beginning Bedika one can make it as long as one hasn’t finished Bedika. Nonetheless, if one has finished the Bedika, one should make it without Shem UMalchut in the morning before burning the Chametz and some say that one may make it then with Shem UMalchut. 
- One may make the Bracha on the Bedika with many people listening and then split up for each person to check an area in the house. If someone didn’t hear the Bracha and it’s difficult to finish the Bedika without that person’s help, he may help without making a Bracha. 
- If one is checking two houses one may should make only one Bracha and do Bedika on both. 
- There’s no Shehecheyanu on the Bedika. 
- Some say that one should wash one’s hands before performing Bedika. 
- After the Bedika one should recite the following form of bitul chametz: "כל חמירא וחמיעא דאיכא ברשותי, דלא חזיתיה ודלא בערתיה, לבטיל ולהוי הפקר כעפרא דארעא" meaning "All chametz or leaven in my possession that I have not seen, and have not destroyed, shall be nullified and become ownerless, like the dust of the earth." For more information, see the Bitul Chametz page.
- One should perform bedikat chametz in the beginning of the night on the fourteenth of Nisan. Generally, one may not do it earlier by day or the night before.
- If one usually follows רבינו תם, some say that one should make sure to start the Bedika after Tzet HaKochavim of רבינו תם. and some say that one should begin before Tzet HaKochavim of רבינו תם at the time of accepted Tzet HaKochavim (while it’s still slightly light outside).
- If one is praying with a minyan one should pray first and then perform Bedika. However, if one is praying at home, preferably one should appoint someone else to do Bedika while one prays, otherwise, pray first, unless one usually prays at home in which case some say one should check first and some say one should pray first. Some recommend for a person davening at home that they should daven maariv at the ideal time, which is Tzet Hakochavim, and then starting the bedika.
- If one is going to come home after Tzet HaKochavim one should appoint someone as an agent (Shaliach) so that it can be done at the proper time. However, if the man is working at night and wants to fulfill the mitzvah himself, he may appoint his wife to do Bedika (with a Bracha) on the whole house except for one room and then do Bedika (with a Bracha) in that room when he returns. 
- If a person did Bedikat Chametz on the 13th at night he doesn't need to redo the bedikat on the 14th at night, though the institution was to check on the 14th at night specifically. Some say that one doesn't need to do Bedika again but one should do at least one room again.
- An area with three walls and is very open to sunlight should be checked on the 14th at night and after the fact can be checked during the day without a candle since there is a lot of sunlight there.
- Some poskim say that one must search even for crumbs of Chametz and remove them. However, most poskim say that there's no obligation to check for crumbs of chametz, but the places where one will have kosher for pesach food must be cleaned of all crumbs of chametz so that not even a crumb gets into the food which will be eaten on Pesach.
- Chametz that is buried in the cracks in the floor or between the back of a cabinet and the wall and people can’t reach one doesn’t have to do Bedika there.
Cleaning the House Beforehand
- Thirty days before Pesach a person should begin to be cognizant of the fact that he will need to clean and remove all chametz in his house. Therefore, he should not leave chametz in any place that will be difficult to remove later.
- One should sweep (or vacuum) the house before the bedika in order to clean it well.
- The minhag is to clean the house well and remove all the chametz from around the house before the bedika, and then do a cursory check of the house without checking every crack or crevice. The same applies if the house was cleaned and washed well by non-Jews.
- In rooms that you eat chametz you should check under the beds and cabinets, however, in rooms that you don’t eat chametz it is sufficient to sweep under the beds and cabinets without checking there carefully.
- One who is sick must appoint a שליח to do Bedika in his place.
- One who is an Onen, one who is in the first day of mourning, must appoint a שליח to do Bedika in his place.
Bedika before Leaving for Pesach
- If a person leaves one’s house more than 30 days before Pesach and doesn’t plan to return for Pesach one doesn’t have to do Bedika. Nonetheless one must do Bitul when the times comes wherever one is.
- If a person leaves one’s house within 30 days of Pesach and doesn’t plan to return for Pesach one must do Bedika with a candle the night before one leaves and then do Bitul Chametz afterwards, however, the Bedika is done without a Bracha. Even if one plans on returning before Pesach one should do bedika before leaving in case one gets delayed until right before Pesach when it is too late to do bedika upon returning.This only applies if one left for a long trip but if one left for a short trip then there's no concern that one will be delayed. The determination of what is a long trip or short trip all depends on the circumstances. The most factor is whether one left oneself enough time to return home to do bedika even in the event of a delay.
- However, if possible it’s preferable to appoint a שליח to do Beidika for oneself at the proper time.  Some say that it’s better to do it oneself before going rather than have a non-family member (such as a neighbor) do it for oneself. 
- If one plans on returning before Pesach if there’s a fear one will return on Erev Pesach without time for Bedika one should do it before going, otherwise do it when one returns.
- If one is not going to be home for Pesach it is sufficient to do a proper Bedika according to the law by just looking for the Chametz (though not just a superficial look) and one doesn’t have to drive oneself crazy like one does every year.
- When doing bedika before the night of the fourteenth one should still scatter the pieces of chametz before bedika. Some say one shouldn't scatter the pieces when doing bedika early.
- When doing bedika early a person should sweep or vacuum like he would normally would for bedika.
- The night before he leaves he should do bedika and it is forbidden to do melacha or eat before bedika just like bedika on the night of the 14th.
Personal Obligation to Do Bedika
- If a Jew was living or renting a non-Jew's house and was there until within 30 days of Pesach and then left for the duration of Pesach, there is a discussion whether he is obligated in Bedikat Chametz in the house he was staying at before leaving. Sephardim hold that if he is going to fulfill bedikat chametz in another house he isn't obligated to do bedikat chametz in the house that he is leaving since it is a non-Jew's house. However, if he isn't going to fulfill bedikat chametz someone else then he should do it in the house he is leaving since bedikat chametz is secondarily a personal obligation. Of course, bedikat chametz is an obligation upon a house that a Jew lived in where he ate chametz but it is also a personal obligation to take care of in some location. However, according to Ashkenazim there is no personal obligation of bedikat chametz. Therefore, in this case since he moved out of the house and left it to a non-Jew before Pesach he was exempt from bedikat chametz in that house. Some say that he it is only exempt if the non-Jew moved in before Pesach.
- If a Jew was living or renting a Jew's house and left it within 30 days of Pesach, the owner of the house is obligated in bedikat chametz. If the owner is not religious and won't do bedikat chametz a person should do bedikat chametz before he leaves the house.
- One only has to check in area where one would have brought Chametz.
- If one has small children one must do Bedika in all rooms in the house because one doesn’t know where Chametz was brought. 
- One should do Bedika on the area where one plans to eat after the Bedika for that night and the next morning and then one should check that area again in the morning. 
- In an apartment building one person should check the stairwell, closets, etc. for everyone after having made a Bracha for Bedika in his own house (without making interruptions that aren’t relevant to the Bedika). 
- The minhag is not to do Bedika in the areas where one stores Chametz and is going to sell to a goy for Pesach. 
- If one's porch is roofed and fenced in, it is considered like any other room that needs to be checked with a bracha.
Renting one's house to a non-Jew
- If one is renting out one’s house and the Chametz in it to a non-Jew for Pesach one will have exempted oneself from Bedika but it’s not proper to do so, rather it’s correct to rent one’s house except for one room and do Bedika without a Bracha in that room before one leaves for Pesach. 
- The room which one leaves not rented in order to Bedika should be a room which one usually brings Chametz otherwise there’ll be no obligation of Bedika and one will have accomplished nothing by leaving that room not rented. 
- If the owner/landlord has the keys at the time of the Bedika, then the owner is obligated in Bedika.
- If the renter has the key to the house at the time of Bedika (14th at Tzet HaKochavim) and he has made a halachic acquisition (paying with cash), then he’s obligated to do Bedika.
- However, if the renter has the key to the house but didn’t do a halachic acquisition, many say that the owner is obligated and some say that the renter is obligated. Certainly the owner or renter can be appointed a שליח by the other and fulfill the obligation of Bedika. 
- A person who rents a house for Pesach, the areas which one will put one’s food utensils and actual food should be checked perfectly well. The rest of the house should be checked well, however, the areas which are private areas and the renters are not supposed to open (explicitly mentioned or implicitly understood) the renters do not have to Bedika on those areas.
- If someone rented a house for Pesach and it was stipulated that the owner did Bedikat Chametz beforehand and it is revealed that it isn't the case, nonetheless, the renter must do the Bedikat Chametz. Some say that the owner must pay the renter the cost of doing the Bedikat Chametz on his behalf. It isn't an option for the renter to blame the owner for not having done Bedikat Chametz and live there anyway, he needs to do it himself.
- If someone rents a house from a Jew after the night of the fourteenth one can assume that it had Bedikat Chametz.
- If one arrives in the hotel before the 14th at night and plans on staying Pesach, then one should perform Bedika in the room with a Bracha.  Some maintain that one should check without a Bracha. 
- If the room is cleaned well one should bring Chametz into the room before doing Bedika. 
- If one arrives in the hotel on the day of the 14th, if the hotel did a Bedika on the 14th at night one doesn’t need to do Bedika, however, if the hotel didn’t do Bedika, one should do so with a Bracha. 
- If one is a guest in the hotel only for the 14th and plans on leaving before Pesach one should still do Bedika but without a Bracha. 
- If a Yeshiva student is leaving his dorm or apartment within 30 days of Pesach, even if he isn’t returning on Pesach, he has an obligation to do Bedikat Chametz the night before he leaves, without a Bracha , but with a candle or flashlight , and then do Bitul. 
- One shouldn’t eat, work, or learn prior to performing this Bedika, just like one who performs Bedika on the 14th.
- If a student in Yeshiva is in Yeshiva on Pesach, he is obligated to perform Bedika in his dorm room and if it’s done on the 14th at night it should be done with a Bracha.  However, some hold that the Bedika should be made without a Bracha. 
- However, if the Yeshiva decides to sell all the rooms to a goy for Pesach, then there’s no obligation to perform Bedika. 
Going to a Relative for Pesach
- If one is staying at a relative for Pesach and has a room where will one be staying one should participate in the Bedika by listening to the Bracha on the Bedika and then checking the room one will be staying in. 
- If one leaves one’s bungalow colony house within 30 days of Pesach one has to Bedika before one leaves, however if one leaves longer than 30 days before Pesach one doesn’t have to Bedika and it’s sufficient to do Bitul Chametz on the Chametz in that house unless one is going to come to the house on Pesach in which case one has to Bedika before Pesach. 
Areas which were Cleaned before Pesach
- One has to clean the house before Pesach and still do Bedika (with a Bracha) the night before Pesach.
- If one cleaned a closet completely by removing every single vessel, checked using an electric light and there no small confined areas or hidden places in the closet then it’s considered checked and doesn’t require Bedika. However, if there are areas which require close examination (like getting down on one’s hands and knees) one should still do Bedika at the appropriate time. 
- Nowadays, one doesn’t have to check in the cracks in the floor because no one actually hides Chametz in the few and small cracks in the floor. 
- If a piece of Chametz is too difficult to reach one doesn’t have to go crazy in order to remove that Chametz (and Bitul is sufficient). 
- Many authorities maintain that there is no obligation to check sefarim for Chametz crumbs. If one is going to check one may do so in advance and doesn’t have to wait until the night of the 14th.
- Benchers and Zemiros booklets of the rest of the year should not be used on Pesach but rather sold to a non-Jew with Mechirat Chametz. 
- One should check the pockets of clothing in which one sometimes puts Chametz. Many permit checking the pockets before the night of the 14th.
- If one never put Chametz in the pocket, some say that one doesn’t have to check but others hold that one must check because Chametz may have been placed there inadvertently.
- A person should check under the refrigerator, stove, couches, and all movable furniture. Some say that one doesn't need to move a heavy oven or furniture which isn't regularly moved to get chametz behind or to the side of it if one's hand can't reach it as is. He can rely upon bitul chametz.
- A crack or crevice very low to the ground, within 3 tefachim, doesn't need to be checked since a person doesn't usually use that area. If a person has children he does need to check since they could easily put chametz there.
On Top Of Furniture
- A person should check on top of the furniture, ovens, and cabinets unless they have a slanted roof which would make it abnormal to store things there.
- Chametz which is stuck inside of a machine, for example a mixer, and can't be accessed unless dissembled by a professional doesn't need to be removed.
- If a person uses his roof he needs to do bedikat chametz there. If it is a slanted roof and he doesn't use it it wouldn't require bedikat chametz.
Renting or Selling the House to a Non-Jew
See Selling Chametz for the main topic of selling chametz.
- If someone rents their house and sells the chametz in it to a non-Jew for Pesach, if he sells it on the 14th (standard sale of chametz) some say he isn't obligated to do bedikat chametz, while others hold he is obligated since it wasn't sold at the time of bedika.
- If he rents his house and sell the chametz in it on the 13th (early sale), he is certainly exempt from doing bedikat chametz.
- Some say that one should specifically rent the rooms and not sell them in order that the rooms not become exempt in mezuzah over Pesach and then after Pesach the mezuzah's are invalid since they were exempt and then left up.
- Some poskim question if it is proper to use these leniencies to exempt oneself from bedikat chametz altogether without a reason.
- One should do Bedika in the place where one works. Some say that this should be at night using a candle after one does bedika at home relying on the bracha that one made for one's home. Others say that that it doesn’t have to be done on the night of the 14th rather one should do it the last day one is there before the 14th of Nissan. Additionally, it doesn’t have to be done with a candle nor does one have to put out pieces of Chametz. No bracha is made on this bedika. 
- It’s proper to check one’s car(s) for Chametz on the night of the 14th using a flashlight. Otherwise, one should check it during the day. No Bracha is required for performing Bedika in a car. This is true even of a car that will not be used on Pesach itself. Some say that one can check the car with a flashlight by day even initially.
- Public bus companies or airplane companies that are Jewish must check for Chametz before Pesach.
- If one checked the car and it is clean before the night of the 14th some say that it doesn't need to be checked the night of the 14th.
- A gabbai or other appointed individual should perform Bedika in the Shul or Bet Midrash. Some say that one should make a Bracha on this Bedika , and some say that one shouldn’t make a Bracha  and it’s preferable to have the one doing the Bedika to make a Bracha for Bedika of his home and then do Bedika in the Shul (without making an interruption not relevant to the Bedika). 
Eating or Working before Bedika
- A person shouldn’t start a job or start eating (a KeBeitzah of bread) from a half hour before Tzet HaKochavim, until one has done Bedika. However, one may continue to eat fruit a half hour before Tzet HaKochavim, but not after Tzet HaKochavim.
- A person shouldn’t start learning from Tzet HaKochavim until one has done Bedika. Some add that one may not learn from a half hour before Tzet HaKochavim and some permit until Tzet HaKochavim.
- If one began to learn, work, or eat during the day and continued into the night, according to Sephardim one doesn’t have to stop to do Bedika, and according to Ashkenazim one must stop at Tzet HaKochavim in order to perform Bedika.
- Even someone who is doing bedika the night before he leaves shouldn't eat or do activities beforehand after nightfall.
- One should check using a single wax candle and not a torch (or even two candles together).
- If one is unable to use a candle, one should use a flashlight. Some say that one can fulfill the obligation with a flashlight, but the minhag is to use a candle or to begin with a candle.
- One doesn’t have to turn off the electric lights while performing the Bedika. Furtherfore, some say that specifically one should turn on the lights because one can check better with the lights on.
- See also Hebrew sources for using a flashlight for Bedikat Chametz
If one didn’t do Bedika
- If one didn’t do Bedika at night one should do so during the day before the sixth hour (halachic hours) and if one forgot to do it before the sixth hour one should still do it on Erev Pesach with a Bracha. One can only do Bitul Chametz after the Bedika until the sixth hour of Erev Pesach. 
- If one didn’t do it before Pesach, do it on Pesach unless one did Bitul Chametz before Pesach in which case one shouldn’t do Bedika on Pesach with a Bracha.
- If one didn’t do Bedika during Pesach, do it after Pesach without a Bracha.
- Any Bedika not at the appropriate time should be done with a candle. 
If one finds Chametz
- If one finds Chametz on Yom Tov one shouldn’t burn it but rather cover it and then burn it after Yom Tov. some say that nowadays one should have a non-Jew flush it down the toilet. 
- If one finds Chametz on Chol HaMoed one should burn it but not make a Bracha if one either did Bitul Chametz or selling of Chametz to a non-Jew before Pesach.
- Some say that if one sold one’s Chametz before Pesach and then one finds Chametz on Pesach, one should store it away with the other Chametz that’s sold to the non-Jew and not burn it.
Performing a Cursory Bedika
- Nowadays, when people clean the house of Chametz in advance, it’s enough to quickly double check to see if that area was cleaned from Chametz and if it wasn’t to remove the Chametz. However, others disagree and hold that even if one cleaned the house well it is necessary to do a serious and thorough bedika. One is strict will be blessed.
- A person doesn’t have to make themselves crazy, one just to be reasonable not to overwork oneself so that one can enjoy the Seder.  It’s a judgment call and one should do a peripheral check (not too peripheral).
- Even if a person works really hard to check every crevice of the house for chametz, as is necessary in a house with little kids, he should know that according to his effort he is rewarded.
Scattering Ten Pieces of Chametz
- The minhag is to scatter ten pieces of Chametz to be found during the Bedika.
- Nowadays, when people clean the house of Chametz in advance, some poskim maintain that it is an absolute obligation to put out pieces of chametz, while others hold it is still just a minhag.
- These pieces should be hard Chametz that doesn’t cause crumbs and it should be placed in an area that’s protected from children or mice. Additionally, it may be advisable to wrap it so that it doesn’t make crumbs.
- One should be careful not to lose any of the pieces.Therefore, it is a wise practice to write down where the pieces were hidden so that they're not accidentally forgotten.
- Each of the pieces of chametz should be less than a kezayit so that in case one is lost there will be no question that bitul chametz suffices to nullify it.
- The minhag is that some family member hides the pieces and someone else finds them. If he is doing bedika by himself he should nonetheless hide the pieces and find them himself.
If one found Chametz after the Bedika
- If one found Chametz after the Bedika one doesn’t have to recheck the house. 
If one did Bedika before the night of the 14th
- If one did Bedika during the day of the 13th to the light of a candle one should do Bedika the night of the 14th without a Bracha. 
- If one did Bedika during the night of the 13th to the light of a candle, one doesn’t have to do Bedika on the 14th at night if one was careful not to bring Chametz there and if one wants to do Bedika it should be done without a Bracha. 
- Yalkut Yosef Hilchot Pesach vol. 1 (Hebrew, 5775)
- Bedikas Chametz - Crumbs, cleaning early, and-going-away by Rabbi Daniel Stein
- The Search for Chametz on Aish.com
- Tur and Shulchan Aruch O.C. 432:1, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 111:7. Mishna Brurah 432:3 and Chazon Ovadia Part 1 page 44 explain that we don't recite al bedikat chametz because the search is only for the purpose of the destruction.
- Mishna Brurah 432:3
- Chazon Ovadia Pesach 5763 Part 1 page 44. See Rosh (Pesachim 1:10) as to why the bracha is with "Al Biur" and not "Leva'er".
- S”A 432:1, Mishna Brurah 432:5
- S”A 432:1, Mishna Brurah 432:6
- Mishna Brurah 432:4
- S”A 432:2
- Mishna Brurah 432:11
- S”A 432:2 writes that with one Bracha one can perform Bedika in many houses. Mishna Brurah 432:7 quotes a dispute whether one should make another Bracha once one moved from one courtyard to another courtyard. Halichot Shlomo 5:13 rules that one should make one Bracha for Bedika in two houses even if they are in different courtyards.
- Bear Hetiev says it’s includes in Shehecheyanu of Yom Tov, Pri Megadim M”Z 431:2 says it’s not a mitzvah of Simcha, Meiri says there’s no Shehecheyanu on Bedika which is just done to prevent you from a prohibition.
- Mishna Brurah 432:2
- Shulchan Aruch 434:2, Mishna Brurah 434:8
- Shulchan Arukh O.C. 431:1. Mishna Brurah (431:1) writes that according to the Shulchan Arukh one should check after tzeit ha-kochavim. Raavad in Katuv Sham on Rif Pesachim 2a writes that the language of the Mishna אור implies that bedika should be done while there is light outside in the beginning of the night. Ran 1a quotes this Raavad and explains it should be done at the beginning of the night so you don't delay and become lazy about it or forget. However, The Gr”a (431:1) cites the Raavad as holding that it should be done while there is light outside because that is more accurate than saying it should be done at night. See Maaseh Rav (#178) who says that the Gra would begin Bedika slightly before Tzet HaKochavim. Nonetheless, Rabbi Eliyahu Spira in Eliyah Rabbah (431:5) explains that even the Raavad agrees that one shouldn’t begin until tzeit ha-kochavim, however, at that time there still is a little bit of light outside.
- Baal Hameor Pesachim 4a writes that it is acceptable to do the bedikat chametz on the day of the thirteenth as long as one uses a candle. However, the Ramban (Milchamot 4a) argues that there's an insistence on night in the Gemara since a candle is more effective at night than the day. He proves this from the Yerushalmi Pesachim 1:1 as well. Raavad (Katuv Sham 4a), Ran 1b, Ritva 4a, and Maharam Chalavah 4a all accept the position of the Ramban and reject the Baal Hameor. Furthermore, the Maharam Chalavah Pesachim 4a s.v. amar writes that one may not do bedika on the night of the thirteenth since one may not do a complete job since it isn't the time for the mitzvah and then one will rely on that incomplete bedika.
- Halichot Shlomo (vol 1, 5:10). Haggadah of the Roshei Yeshivah (pg 13) records Rav Moshe's minhag to start the Bedika 50 minutes after sundown which according to many opinions is Tzet HaCochavim of Rabbenu Tam.
- Moadim UZmanim (Vol 4 Siman 286 pg 46), Piskei Teshuvot 431:3
- Mishna Brurah 431:8, Rav Moshe Feinstein (cited by A Guide to Practical Halacha v. 5 p. 41 n. 1)
- Mishna Brurah 431:8
- Rav Shmuel Fuerst (min 1-5)
- Sh”t Teshuvot VeHanhagot 2:214. Listen to “Bedikas Chametz part 1” (min 3:30) by Rabbi Aryeh Lebowitz who asks on this. For possible resolution of this question see Mishna Brurah 431:8.
- Pri Chadash 433:11, Olot Tamid 433:8, Nechpeh Bkesef v. 2 p. 1, Chok Yakov 433:23, Mekor Chaim 433:15, Chazon Ovadia Pesach p. 40. The Nechpeh Bekesef is addressing the concern of the Mikraei Kodesh that if a person does bedika on the 13th he needs to do it again because of marit ayin. He holds that there's no marit ayin since it is done inside the house. However, Bach 433:1 concludes that if someone checked the night of the 13th they need to check again the night of the 14th since the institution was to do bedika the night of the 14th in all cases.
- Mishna Brurah 433:6
- Gemara Pesachim 8a establishes that a house with three walls that is exposed to the sunlight can be checked to the sunlight. Bach 433:2 organizes three approaches in the rishonim: 1) Rashi 8a, Rif 4a, Smag Asin 39, and Smak 98 hold that even initially it is permitted to check the area exposed to the sunlight during the day. 2) Rambam Chametz Umatza 2:4 holds that initially one should check the night of the 14th and after the fact one should check during the day. 3) Rabbenu Yerucham 5:1 38c holds that one may not check the area on the 13th by day but even initially one can check it during the day of the 14th. He concludes that initially it may not be checked during the day. This is also the opinion of the Taz 433:2, Magen Avraham 433:3, Biur Hagra 433:2, Chok Yaakov 433:3, and Mishna Brurah 433:5.
- Chazon Ish OC 116:18 writes that you need to section off chametz crumbs like chametz of a non-Jew (Pesachim 6a). See regarding checking sefarim that the Chazon Ish checked his sefarim for crumbs. See, however, Gemara Pesachim 6b that implies that crumbs aren't significant and don't need bedika. Maharam Chalavah 6b s.v. may maintains that one doesn't need to destroy a crumb less than a kezayit except for dough pieces which could combine into a kezayit. This also seems evident from Piskei Rid 6b and Rosh Pesachim 1:9. Magen Avraham 432:5 also implies that crumbs don't need bedika.
- Pesachim 6b implies that crumbs are unimportant and don't need to be checked for. Rabbi Eliezer Melamed in Peninei Halacha says that the halacha is that one doesn't have to check for crumbs of chametz but in the areas where one will have kosher pesach food one must remove all crumbs of chametz. He brings the Shaar HaTziyun 442:60 as his proof. Yabia Omer OC 7:43, Or Letzion 1:32, and Halichot Shlomo ch. 5 fnt. 10 agree.
- For more details see Yabia Omer 7:43 who quotes many sources on the matter. Rashi Pesachim 45a s.v. mklal writes that it isn't necessary to destroy chametz that is less than a kezayit and one doesn't violate Baal Yiraeh on less than a kezayit. (It isn't clear if this assumption changes on a biblical level throughout the discussion of the gemara.) Ri Mlunil Pesachim 45a s.v. amar, Talmidei Harashba 45a, Trumat Hadeshen (Pesakim 164), Shulchan Aruch O.C. 442:11, and Magen Avraham 442:10 in understanding Shulchan Aruch all agree with this opinion. The Taz 442:5 wonders why it isn't necessary to destroy chametz less than a kezayit, even though there is no Baal Yiraeh because of the concern that one will come to eat it. Bigdei Shesh 442 explains that even though eating chametz that is less than a kezayit is biblically forbidden it isn't karet and therefore, it isn't necessary to remove. Peni Yehoshua 45a s.v. mishna and Magen Haelef 442:11 agree. This is also the opinion of the Meiri 45b s.v. shni, Maharam Chalavah Pesachim 6b s.v. may, Shulchan Gavoha 442:22, and Pri Chadash 442:8 that one doesn't have to remove chametz less than a kezayit unless it is like dough that could stick together. Maharil (Drashot Afiyat Matzot), Magen Avraham 460:2, Shiurei Knesset Hagedola, Eliya Rabba, Graz, Pri Chadash, Zera Emet 1:48, and Mateh Moshe 579 there agree. Riaz (Pesachim ch. 2 2:2) quotes his grandfather the Rid who says that crumbs which do not stick do not need to be removed, however, the Riaz disagrees and thinks that there's no distinction between dough and crumbs and everything needs to be removed. Also, Magen Avraham 442:10 quotes poskim who are strict with owning less than a kezayit, though the Magen Haelef 442:10 argues. Yabia Omer rules like the Meiri, Rid, and Maharam Chalavah as well as the many achronim who think it isn't necessary to remove or destroy crumbs. See however, the Maharam Chalavah 45a s.v. amar and Rabbenu Dovid 6b s.v. iylayma who explicitly state that there is a biblical violation of baal yiraeh on less than a kezayit. Maharam Chalavah 45b explains that even though there is baal yiraeh on less than a kezayit there is no reason to remove crumbs on the floor since they get dirty.
- Rabbi Akiva Eiger 1:218 likes the suggestion of the questioner that even though there is no baal yiraeh on less than a kezayit there is a mitzvah of tashbitu. Shagat Aryeh 81 holds that there’s no baal yiraeh on less than a kezayit and proves it from Pesachim 29b and Beitzah 7b. He answers the Taz's question by explaining that eating less than a kezayit of something prohibition is forbidden because it could combine with more forbidden food and become forbidden retroactively. Owning chametz less than a kezayit at a time would only be forbidden once one has the full kezayit and not retroactively.
- Piskei Teshuvot 433:4
- Mishna Brurah 436:31, Kaf HaChayim on Shulchan Arukh Orach Chayim 436:54:1
- Mordechai (Pesachim 1:536) writes that one should sweep the house before the bedika because without sweeping you can’t check well. Also, he says you need to check besides sweeping because some chametz might get stuck in a hole. This is quoted by the Bet Yosef 433:11 and Darkei Moshe 433:5 and is codified by the Rama 433:11 and Kaf HaChaim 433:84.
- Kaf HaChaim 433:85, Rav Shmuel Fuerst (min 1-5), Halichot Shlomo 5:1. Mishna Brurah 433:46 acknowledges the minhag to clean the house well in advance but doesn't write any leniency during the bedika.
- Kaf HaChaim 433:86
- Kaf HaChaim 433:24
- Halichot Shlomo (vol 1, 5:8)
- Halichot Shlomo (vol 1, 5:8)
- Gemara Pesachim 6a, Rif Pesachim 2b, Rambam Chametz Umatza 2:19, Rosh Pesachim 1:8, Shulchan Aruch O.C. 436:1.
- *Rashi Pesachim 6a s.v. afilu holds that it is unnecessary even to do bitul if one is leaving prior to 30 days. He doesn't explain why there is no problem of Baal Yiraeh owning chametz on Pesach. The Bach 436:1 answers that chametz left out for 30 days will be destroyed by dicentrgrating, putrifying, or being eaten by rodents or bugs. Thus, it is possible on a Torah level not to be concerned for the chametz if it was left in the house for 30 days.Baal Haitur (Biur Chametz p. 120a) seems to explain that Rashi is lenient because it is like chametz that a wall fell upon. Even though it is true that even if a wall collapses upon chametz bitul is still necessary (Gemara Pesachim 31b) that is only rabbinic and might not apply in this case (see Bach). See Petach Dvir (fnt. 80 to Baal Haitur) who rejects that understanding of the Baal Haitur.
- The Tosfot Harosh Pesachim 6a s.v. iy, Chidushei Haran Pesachim 6a, Ran on Rif 2b s.v. garsinan dispute Rashi and all hold that it is necessary to do bitul even when you leave before 30 days and are exempt from bedika. The Bet Yosef 436:1 quotes the Ran without any dispute and Rama 436:1 codifies it as the halacha. The Gra 436:4 clarifies that it indeed a biblical problem if one doesn't do bitul. Sephardim also agree with this Rama as the Kaf HaChayim on Shulchan Arukh Orach Chayim 436:12:1 writes.
- Shulchan Aruch and Rama O.C. 436:1. Biur Halacha 436:1 s.v. vlo notes that according to many rishonim and poskim one should recite a bracha when doing bedika before the night of the 14th. Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach (Halichot Shlomo ch. 5 fnt. 29) writes that the minhag is not to recite a bracha.
- Rambam Chametz Umatza 2:19 writes that if one leaves and intends to return home for Pesach one should do bedika before leaving in case one gets delayed and can't bedika when one returns. Shulchan Aruch O.C. 436:1 agrees. Rashi Pesachim 6a s.v. dayto implies that only if one intended to return in the middle of pesach is it necessary to do bedika before leaving, otherwise one could do beidka upon returning. Ran Pesachim 2b s.v. chemso spells this out and notes the disagreement with the Rambam. He supports Rashi's reading based on the Yerushalmi.
- Mishna Brurah 436:9
- Mishna Brurah 436:1
- Piskei Teshuvot 436:1
- Mishna Brurah 436:9
- Rav Schachter on OU Pre-Pesach Webcast 5771 between minutes 2:30 and 5
- Nitai Gavriel (v. 1 8:10) explains that according to the reason of the Chok Yakov that scattering the pieces is to motivate checking well that also applies before the 14th. Also, the Arizal's reason for scattering chametz also applies before the 14th. He also quotes Minchat Yitzchak 8:35 who held that one shouldn't scatter them when checking before the 14th so that one doesn't accidently forget one. Dirshu 436:10 quotes Rav Elyashiv (Kovetz Teshuvot 3:73) as holding that one should scatter the pieces even when doing the bedika before the 14th.
- Kaf Hachaim 436:6
- Pri Megadim E"A 436:1, Kaf Hachaim 436:6
- Ravyah (Pesachim ch. 426), Mordechai Pesachim n. 535, Shulchan Aruch O.C. 436:3. Bet Yosef 436:3 makes it clear that the Ravyah thinks that there is a personal obligation of bedikat chametz and the Tur disagrees. Kaf HaChayim on Shulchan Arukh Orach Chayim 436:49:1 notes that Shulchan Aruch follows the Ravyah even though he quotes him with the language of some say since he doesn't quote any other opinion. Also, in the Bet Yosef he answered the Tur's challenge to the Ravyah.
- Tur and Rama O.C. 436:3
- The Shulchan Aruch Harav 436:22 writes that the Rama was specific in his language and the Jew is only exempt if the non-Jew moves in. Gra 436:15 also understood the Rama precisely like the Shulchan Aruch Harav but disagrees with the Rama that it isn't necessary for the non-Jew to actually enter. Similarly, the Chok Yakov 436:18 thinks that the Rama's language isn't precise and it is equally true that the Jew is exempt if the non-Jew was allowed in but didn't move in. Mishna Brurah 436:32 is strict for the Shulchan Aruch Harav since some achronim follow the Shulchan Aruch against the Rama to begin with.
- Magen Avraham 436:16, Taz 436:7, Chok Yakov 436:15, Mishna Brurah 436:29. Shaar Hatziyun notes that even though that the inference is reasonable in the words of the Ravyah, seemingly the Jew who left is still not fulfilling his personal obligation which the Ravyah believes is incumbent upon each Jew. He answers that the second Jew is a shaliach (trans. agent, Hebrew: שליח) of the first Jew.
- Dirshu 436:18 inferring from Shaar Hatziyun 436:29 that the only reason that the first Jew is exempt is because the second Jew is going to do the bedikat chametz on his behalf as his agent. However, if the second Jew or owner isn't religious and isn't going to do bedikat chametz, then the first Jew leaving has an obligation to do bedika before leaving.
- Shulchan Aruch O.C. 431:1, Mishna Brurah 431:4
- Rav Schachter on OU Pre-Pesach Webcast 5771 between minutes 6 and 7
- Halichot Shlomo (vol 1, 5:2)
- Piskei Teshuvot 433:3
- Mishna Brurah 436:32 quotes those who obligate a Bedika and those who exempt and so it’s preferable to sell it on the 13th. However, Halichot Shlomo (vol 1, 5:3) writes that the accepted minhag is not to do Bedika in those areas and only have it sold afterwards.
- Nitei Gavriel (Pesach v. 1, p. 112)
- Rav Schachter on OU Pre-Pesach Webcast 5771 between minutes 2:30 and 5
- Rav Yisrael Belsky on OU Pre-Pesach Webcast 5771 between minutes 10:30 and 11:30
- Shulchan Aruch O.C. 437:1, Mishna Brurah 437:2, Halachos of Pesach (pg 98)
- Shulchan Aruch O.C. 437:1, Mishna Brurah 437:2, Halachos of Pesach (pg 98)
- Shulchan Aruch O.C. 437:1, Mishna Brurah 437:2, Halachos of Pesach (pg 98)
- Mishna Brurah 437:2, Halachos of Pesach (pg 99)
- Rav Yisrael Belsky on OU Pre-Pesach Webcast 5771 between minutes 16:45 and 19:15 explaining that we assume that the children didn’t put Chametz there and they are even renting those private areas
- Gemara Pesachim 4b, Shulchan Aruch and Rama Orach Chaim 437:3. The Gemara establishes that even if the owner lied that he did Bedikat Chametz on the house, the renter can't renege on the deal since a person would want to do the mitzvah of Bedikat Chametz himself or by paying someone else to do it.
- Tosfot 4b s.v. hamaskir writes that we're discussing a rental that began prior to the 14th of Nissan in which case it is reasonable that the renter has to do Bedikat Chametz, otherwise it would be obvious that there is an obligation upon the owner to do it.
- The Ran Pesachim 1b s.v. hamaskir learns that it is discussing a rental that happened on the fourteenth on the assumption that Bedikat Chametz was done and one can't retract because people like to do mitzvot themselves or pay for them. Maharam Chalavah 4b s.v. iybaya agrees.
- The Ramban takes it a step further and says that even if it was stipulated explicitly that they did Bedikat Chametz it isn't a void sale since people like to do mitzvot themselves or pay for them. However, the Ramban says that people would only like to do the mitzvah themselves or pay for it if they are later going to be paid back. Certainly the owner should have done the Bedikat Chametz and if he is around the renter can force him to do it but if it isn't possible then it isn't a voided deal. This approach of the Ramban is cited by the Rabbenu Dovid 4b vharav, Maggid Mishna (Chametz Umatza 2:18), Ritva Pesachim 4b s.v. hamaskir, Ran Pesachim 1b s.v. hamaskir, and Meiri 4b s.v. hamaskir. The Rama 437:3 quotes the opinion of the Ramban.
- Ran Pesachim 1b s.v. hamaskir clarifies that even though the responsibility of the Bedikat Chametz was upon the owner the night of the fourteenth but if he neglected or intentionally didn't do it, the renter may not live there without Bedika. He explains that even with a non-Jew's chametz in one's house one needs to section it off with a wall of ten tefachim. This implies that it is necessary to find and remove the chametz in the house even though it isn't one's chametz.
- Gemara Pesachim 4a, Rosh Pesachim 1:2, Rambam Chametz Umatzah 2:17, Rabbenu Dovid 4b s.v. iybaya and Maharam Chalavah 4b s.v. ule'inyan in explaining the opinion of the Rif 1b, Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 437:2. However, the Talmid Harashba 4b s.v. garsinan thinks that we hold that we assume that the house wasn't checked.
- Chovat Hadar (end of Sefer Dinei Bedikat Chametz), Siddur Pesach KeHilchato 12:8, Chag HaMatzot (Halachot VeMinhagim 5:32), Otzar Halachot vol 2 pg 124, Piskei Teshuvot 437:1. Rav Hershel Schachter on OU Pre-Pesach Webcast 5771 between minutes 4:30 and 5:30 explains that even though the room is cleaned by the cleaning staff before one gets there that doesn't mean it is sufficiently checked so that there's no chametz in there on Pesach. Rabbi Aryeh Lebowitz in Ten Minute Halacha - Bedikas Chameitz when Staying in a Hotel agrees. Also, Rav Schachter added that in order to recite a bracha one should bring in some chametz such as a cookies before the time of the bedika.
- Sh”t Kinyan Torah 1:120, 5:33
- Rav Schachter on OU Pre-Pesach Webcast 5771 between minutes 2:30 and 5
- Siddur Pesach KeHilchato 12:8, Piskei Teshuvot 437:1
- Halichot Shlomo 5:19, Piskei Teshuvot 437:1
- The Gemara Pesachim 6a says that one who leaves his house within 30 days of Pesach, should do Biur even if he doesn’t plan on being home during Pesach. Rambam (Chametz 2:16) explains that this includes doing Bedika. Shulchan Aruch 436:1 agrees. Mishna Brurah 436:6 writes that one should do Bedika with a candle the night before leaving. Rama 436:1 writes that there’s no Bracha for this Bedika since it’s not performed on the night of the 14th. Torat HaYeshiva 14:2 applies this halacha to a Yeshiva student in dorms.
- Halachos of Pesach (p. 86) quotes Rav Moshe saying that a flashlight is better than using a candle and Rav Aharon Kotler as saying it is equivalent to a candle. Rav Moshe Feinstein (cited by A Guide to Practical Halacha v. 5 p. 41 n. 4) writes that some start with a candle and then switch to a flashlight because of areas that a candle would be dangerous. Halichot Shlomo 5:11 writes that if one can’t use a candle, one should use a flashlight. Chazon Ovadyah (p. 38) and the Debrecener (cited by A Guide to Practical Halacha v. 5 p. 41 n. 5) agree.
- Taz 436:2 writes that besides the Bedika, one should do Bitul on Erev Pesach; Magen Avraham 436:1 argues that one should also do Bitul after the Bedika as one does by Bedika on the 14th. Biur HaGra 436:4, Mishna Brurah 436:3, and Kaf HaChaim 436:8 agree.
- Pri Megadim E”A 436:1 writes that one who does Bedika the night before leaving his house, shouldn’t eat, work, or learn just like one who performs Bedika on the 14th. Kaf HaChaim 436:7 and Nitei Gavriel 28:4 agree. Kovetz MeBet Levi (Nissan 5761 pg 85) writes that this also applies to a Yeshiva Student doing Bedika in his dorm the night before he leaves. See above regarding the laws of not eating, working, or learning within a half hour of Tzeit Hakochavim.
- Halichot Shlomo (vol 1, 5:17), Dinim VeHanhagot 17:18 quoting the Chazon Ish, Siddur Pesach KeHilchato 12:9, Kovetz MeBet Levi (Nissan 5756), Chut HaSheni (Pesach pg 88), and Torat HaYeshiva write that a yeshiva student should perform Bedika in his dorm with a Bracha if it’s done on the 14th.
- Teshuvot VeHanhagot 1:287, Chovat Hadar (end of Sefer Dinei Bedikat Chametz), Mishpat HaSechirut 5:32
- Torat HaYeshiva 14:4
- Rav Schachter on OU Pre-Pesach Webcast 5771 between minutes 6 and 7
- Rav Yisrael Belsky on OU Pre-Pesach Webcast 5771 between minutes 11 and 12
- Rav Yisrael Belsky on OU Pre-Pesach Webcast 5771 between minutes 12:45 and 15:45
- Mishna Brurah 433:1
- Rav Yisrael Belsky on OU Pre-Pesach Webcast 5771 between minutes 12:45 and 15:45
- Rav Schachter on OU Pre-Pesach Webcast 5771 between minutes 16 and 16:30
- Rav Schachter on OU Kosher Pre-Pesach Webcast 5770 between minutes 5:00 and 5:30
- Halichot Shlomo 5:6 writes that even though there’s a dispute whether the possible existence of crumbs necessitates Bedika, since the crumbs in sefarim would be disgusting sefarim don’t require Bedika. Chazon Ovadyah (p. 35), Or Letzion 1:32, Rav Mordechai Willig in Am Mordechai (p. 154), and Halachos of Pesach (p. 72) quoting Rav Moshe Feinstein agree. Maaseh Rav #178, however, writes that one should do Bedika on sefarim that he used during a meal. Chazon Ish 116:18 and Mishna Halachot 7:64 agree. Orchot Rabbenu (vol 2 pg 6) records the Steipler and Chazon Ish’s practice to check sefarim in advance of the night of 14th.
- Orchot Rabbenu (vol 2 pg 6) regarding the practice of the Steipler and Chazon Ish.
- Halachos of Pesach (Rabbi Eider; pg 72)
- Mishna Brurah 433:47
- Piskei Teshuvot 433:7, Kaf HaChaim 433:89, Halachos of Pesach (pg 71) in name of Rav Moshe Feinstein
- Mishna Brurah 433:47 obligates checking even if one never put Chametz in there, however, S”A HaRav 433:43 and Kaf HaChaim 433:87 hold that one doesn’t need to check but it’s praiseworthy.
- Rav Shmuel Fuerst (min 8)
- Rav Nissim Karelitz (Chut Shani Pesach 2:11) holds that doesn't have to check behind or to the side of a heavy furniture if he can't fit his hand in there to check without moving anything. He can rely on bitul. Rav Mordechai Eliyahu in Maamar Mordechai 1:18 seems to agree. He exempts cleaning the elbow pipe under the sink, chametz stuck under cement, or chametz stuck inside a mixer. Pitchei Teshuva 433:4 agrees.
- Gemara Pesachim 8a, Shulchan Aruch O.C. 433:4
- Mishna Brurah 433:19
- Gemara Pesachim 8a, Shulchan Aruch O.C. 433:5, Mishna Brurah 433:20
- Rav Nissim Karelitz in Chut Shani Pesach p. 67, Rav Chaim Kanievsky and Rav Elyashiv in Shoneh Halachot (Siman 433 fnt. 34 v. 3 p. 57), Rav Mordechai Eliyahu in Sh"t Maamar Mordechai 1:18, Eshel Avraham (Hilchot Pesach Lifshitz p. 13). Shoneh Halachot explained that Rav Karelitz exempted removing chametz if it would require a professional to open up, while Rav Elyashiv exempted even chametz stuck inside the mixer that wasn't normal to open even if it didn't require a professional. Rav Mordechai Gross in Kovetz Pesakim Uteshuvot Nissan p. 31 writes that chametz stuck inside a mixer that can't be completely removed needs to be taken apart or have chametz inside sold to a non-Jew.
- Mishna Brurah 433:23
- Mishna Brurah 436:31 quotes a major dispute between the Mekor Chaim and Binyan Olam. The Mekor Chaim thinks that the rooms which were only sold on the 14th are obligated in bediakt chametz since at the time of bedikat chametz they were in the hands of a Jew. Chayei Adam agrees. However, the Binyan Olam holds that they aren't obligated in bedikat chametz since they aren't going to be sold tomorrow. Chatom Sofer 131 agrees as long as one leaves out a room to do bedikat chametz on. Eshel Avraham agrees. He concludes that this is the minhag. Nonetheless, it is better to sell it on the 13th and then certainly it is exempt from bedikat chametz. Kaf HaChayim on Shulchan Arukh Orach Chayim 436:54:1 agrees with the Mishna Brurah that the minhag is like the Binyan Olam but it is better to sell on the 13th. Dirshu 436:24 cites the Chazon Ish (Chut Shani p. 107, Orchot Rabbenu 2:7) and Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach (Halichot Shlomo Dvar Halacha 5:6) who hold that the rooms sold on the 14th are exempt from bedikat chametz.
- Dirshu 436:19 cites the Rav Elyashiv (Ashrei Haish 3:51:36, Halichot Vahanhagot p. 15) as holding that if the rooms were sold to a non-Jew for the duration of Pesach then the rooms were exempt from mezuzah during Pesach and afterwards even though the mezuzah's are already there it is a problem. Mezuzah's need to be taken down and put back up, otherwise they were never put up properly since they were left hanging up from when they were previously exempt (taseh vlo min ha'asuy, trans. "do it and not have it done", Hebrew:תעשה ולא מן העשוי). To obviate this issue one should rent the rooms and not sell them.
- Halichot Shlomo (v. 1, p. 101 fnt. 14)
- Halichot Shlomo (vol 1, 5:4), Teshuvot Vehanhagot 1:286, Mishna Halachot Haggadah p. 9 n. 21
- Rabbi Sobolofsky at yutorah.org between minutes 2 and 4. Similarly, Rav Yisrael Belsky on OU Pre-Pesach Webcast 5771 between minutes 8 and 11 said that one should do bedika on the night before one leaves the office before Pesach. Shaarei Yemey Hapesach (R' Yehuda Technezer 4:16) writes that if it is difficult to travel to one's office at night because it is far one can do bedika before the night of the 14th without a bracha.
- Yechave Daat 1:5 and Halichot Shlomo (vol 1, 5:5) write that one should check the cars on the night of the 14th and if not then it should be checked on the day. Rav Moshe Feinstein (cited by A Guide to Practical Halacha v. 5 p. 41 n. 2) agrees. Halichot Shlomo and Halachos of Pesach (pg 71) in name of Rav Moshe Feinstein hold that no Bracha is made on this Bedika. Yechave Daat 1:5 also agrees.
- Yechave Daat 1:5
- Nitai Gavriel 1:21:1 reasons that since one doesn't use a candle in a car since it is difficult to do so he may check it even during the day like the Eshel Avraham said about checking for chametz in pockets by day.
- Yechave Daat 1:5
- Rav Shmuel Fuerst (min 1-5) explained that a car is considered a vessel and not a house and as long as it is cleaned before the night of the bedika it doesn't need to be checked that night.
- Mishna Brurah 433:10, Shulchan Aruch HaRav 433, Sh”t Teshuvot Vehanhagot 1:287
- Sh”t Maharsham 5:49, Aruch HaShulchan 433:12
- Piskei Teshuvot 433:6
- Mishna Brurah 433:43, Aruch HaShulchan 433:12
- Halachos of Pesach (Rabbi Eider; pg 73)
- Shulchan Aruch O.C. 431:2, Mishna Brurah 432:5-6, Rav Shmuel Fuerst (min 3). Gemara Pesachim 4a forbids learning once it is the time for bedika and the Ritva writes that if learning is forbidden, certainly other activities. Meor Yisrael Pesachim 4a shows that most rishonim think that the prohibition indeed only starts at Tzet Hakochavim, however, the Magen Avraham has a nuance that it begins from a half hour beforehand and one shouldn't veer from that ruling unless there is a great need.
- Mishna Brurah 432:6
- Gemara Pesachim 4a, Mishna Brurah 431:7. Rav Ovadia Yosef in Meor Yisrael Pesachim 4a is lenient for learning within the half hour of Tzet until it is actually Tzet.
- Shulchan Aruch and Rama 431:2, Mishna Brurah 431:12
- Pri Megadim E”A 436:1 writes that one who does Bedika the night before leaving his house, shouldn’t eat, work, or learn just like one who performs Bedika on the 14th. Kaf HaChaim Orach Chaim 436:7 and Nitei Gavriel 28:4 agree.
- Shulchan Aruch and Rama O.C. 433:2, Mishna Brurah 431:3
- Halichot Shlomo (vol 1, 5:11), Haarot of Rav Elyashiv Pesachim 8a, Piskei Teshuvot 431:2. However, Chut Shani (Pesach p. 59) writes that one may not use a flashlight for bedikat chametz.
- Halachos of Pesach (pg 86) quoting Rav Aharon Kotler and Rav Moshe Feinstein that the flashlight suffices. Yechave Daat 1:4 completely allows using a candle for bedikat chametz. His reasoning is that an electric bulb isn't considered a torch like the Tzitz Eliezer 1:20:11 suggested since it is all a connected unit. Additionally, when people use flashlights they're not afraid that it will start a fire as long as they're careful. Lastly, the filament that is red hot is considered a fire and since the glass is very clear a person can see the candle through the glass. He just concludes that the minhag is to use a candle.
- Halachos of Pesach (pg 86) quoting Rav Moshe Feinstein, A Guide to Practical Halacha v. 5 p. 42 n. 5 quoting Rav Moshe Feinstein, Minchat Asher responsa 3:31, Piskei Teshuvot 431:2 saying that such is the minhag, Mishna Halachot 15:92, Shalmei Moed p. 312 citing Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach, Halichot Shlomo p. 110 fnt. 57, Or Letzion 3:7:7, and Nitei Gavriel (Pesach v. 1, p. 112). Avnei Derech 13:100:2 cites numerous poskim who allow leaving on the lights during bedikat chametz including Hagadah Shel Pesach Hachazon Ish p. 19, Chut Shani (Pesach p. 59), Chazon Ovadia Pesach p. 40, Orchot Rabbenu (v. 2 p. 2 Pesach n. 6), Shevut Yitzchak Pesach p. 34, and Hilchot Chag Bchag 5:7 p. 78. Rav Shlomo Zalman (Halichot Shlomo) is cited as having turned on the lights. The only one who cites on the other side is that the Torat Hamoadim p. 433 writes that the Brisker Rav would turn off the lights for bedikat chametz. Also, Imrei Sofer (Halichot Vehanhagot 8:6 p. 53) writes that a person should turn off the electric lights when doing bedikat chametz and this was the minhag of the Hitorerut Teshuva (Minhagei Raboteynu 3:4). Rav Yitzchak Yosef (Motzei Shabbat Parshat Vayakel Pekudei 5781 min 10) said that Rav Tzvi Pesach Frank and Rav Chaim Pinchas Sheinburg would turn off the lights before doing the bedika, but most others like Rav Moshe Feinstein, Rav Elyashiv, and Rav Ovadia did not turn off the lights.
- S”A 435:1, Mishna Brurah 435:5
- Mishna Brurah 435:1
- S”A 435:1, Mishna Brurah 435:3,5
- Shulchan Aruch O.C. 435:1
- Mishna Brurah 435:4
- Shulchan Aruch O.C. 446:1
- Piskei Teshuvot 446:2
- Piskei Teshuvot 446:1
- Mikrei Kodesh 1:74, Piskei Teshuvot 446:1
- Halichot Shlomo (vol 1, 5:1), Piskei Teshuvot 433:8, Or Yisrael (vol 35, pg 100-102, article by Rav Shlomo Wolfson)
- Chazon Ovadia p. 36 quotes Mahari Shapira who writes that nowadays when people clean very well for pesach in advance it is sufficient to do a cursory check for bedikat chametz. Machzik Bracha 433:6 and Shaarei Teshuva 433:11 quote this. Chazon Ovadia, however, quotes Mikrei Kodesh who disagrees and adds that Shulchan Aruch O.C. 433:11 implies this as well. Chazon Ovadia concludes that one who is strict will be blessed.
- Rav Schachter on OU Pre-Pesach Webcast 5771 between minutes 19:30 and 21
- Rav Yisrael Belsky on OU Pre-Pesach Webcast 5771 between minutes 24 and 25. See Haggadah of the Roshei Yeshiva (pg 13) which records the minhag of Rav Moshe to perform a bedika in his small apartment for longer than an hour. This bedika doesn't need to be done as if no cleaning was done, but is required anyway. This is the opinion of Sha’arei Teshuvah 433:2, Daat Torah 433:2, Chochmat Shelomo 433:11, Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach quoted in Mevakshei Torah Ohr Efrayim page 532), Kinyan Torah 2:122.
- Chazon Ovadia p. 36. Maaseh Rav 178 records Gra's practice to do a thorough bedikat chametz for a very long time.
- Mishna Brurah 432:13 quotes that Arizal held that specifically ten pieces should be scattered before bedika. Nitai Gavriel (v. 1 8:4) quotes this as well.
- Rama O.C. 432:2, Mishna Brurah 432:13, Nitai Gavriel (v. 1 8:1). Rama (432:2) quotes one opinion who says that the minhag to leave pieces of bread around the house is to ensure that one finds chametz to prevent a berakhah of biur chametz being said in vain. However, the Rama concludes, that it is not necessary since one’s intent in the berakhah is to destroy the chametz that one finds. Taz (432:4) discourages this minhag because one may misplace one of the placed pieces. On the other hand, Rabbi Yaakov Reischer in Chok Yaakov (432:13) defends the minhag and argues that putting out pieces encourages one to do a thorough check and not abandon the job if chametz is not found immediately.
- Shaar HaTziyun 432:12 quotes the Emek Halacha who maintains that nowadays when people clean the house in advance one must put out these 10 pieces of Chametz so that the Bracha on Bedika isn’t a Bracha Levatala. Rav Ovadia Yosef (Chazon Ovadia Pesach p. 36, Yabia Omer 9:88:12, 9:92:2, Yachava Daat 5:31) and Nitai Gavriel (v. 1 8:2) agree with the Emek Halacha. However, Halichot Shlomo 5:12 argues that one can still make the Bracha without putting out these pieces because the Bedika includes checking that the areas have been cleaned properly, nonetheless it’s still the minhag to do so.
- Mishna Brurah 432:12
- Halachos of Pesach (pg 80)
- Mishna Brurah 432:13
- Nitai Gavriel (v. 1 8:8)
- Chazon Ovadia p. 36, Nitai Gavriel (v. 1 8:7)
- Nitai Gavriel (v. 1 8:5). He writes that this was the practice of the Steipler.
- Mishna Brurah 438:4, Halichot Shlomo 5:22
- Mishna Brurah 433:1
- Mishna Brurah 433:1