Text of Brachot

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Please note, that with all the brachot below, when reciting the actual Bracha one should replace ה' אלקינו (Hashem Elokenu) with אדני אלהינו (Adonay Eloheinu).

Mezonot

  1. Hebrew: ברוך אתה ה' אלוקינו מלך העולם בורא מיני מזונות
  2. Transliteration: Baruch Atta Hashem Elokeinu Melech HaOlam Boreh Minei Mezonot. [1]
  3. Translation: Blessed are You, Hashem, our God, King of the universe, Who creates species of sustenance.[2]

Shehakol

  1. Hebrew: ברוך אתה ה' אלקינו מלך העולם שהכל נהיה בדברו
  2. Transliteration: Baruch Atta Hashem Elokenu Melech HaOlam Shehakol (Ashkenazim:Neheyeh) (Sephardim: Neheyah) Bidvaro.[3]
  3. Translation: Blessed are You, Hashem, our God, King of the universe, through Whose word everything came to be.[2]

Netilat Yadayim (Upon washing one's hands for bread)

  1. Hebrew: ברוך אתה ה' אלוקינו מלך העולם אשר קדשנו במצותיו וצונו על נטילת ידים
  2. Transliteration: Baruch Atta Hashem Elokeinu Melech HaOlam, Asher Kid'shanu B'Mitzvotav, V'Tzivanu Al Netilat Yadayim.[4]
  3. Translation: Blessed are You, Hashem, our God, King of the universe, Who has sanctified us with his commandments, and commanded us regarding washing the hands.[5]

HaMotzei (Upon eating bread)

  1. Hebrew: ברוך אתה ה' אלוקינו מלך העולם המוציא לחם מן הארץ
  2. Transliteration: Baruch Atta Hashem Elokeinu Melech HaOlam, HaMotzei Lechem Min HaAretz. [6]
  3. Translation: Blessed are You, Hashem, our God, King of the universe, Who brings forth bread from the earth[7]

Birkat Ilanot (Upon seeing a fruit tree bloom in the spring-time)

  1. Hebrew: ברוך אתה ה' אלקינו מלך העולם, שלא חיסר בעולמו דבר ,וברא בו בריות טובות ואילנות טובים ליהנות בהם בני אדם[9]
  2. Transliteration: Baruch Atta Hashem Elokenu Melech HaOlam, Shelo Chisar BeOlamo Davar, Uvarah Vo Briyot Tovot Ve'ilanot Tovim, Lehanot Bahem Bnei Adam.
  3. Translation: Blessed are You, Hashem, our God, King of the universe, for nothing is lacking in His universe, and He created in it good creatures and good trees, to cause mankind pleasure with them.[10]

Asher Yatzar

  1. ברוך[11] אתה ה' אלוקינו מלך העולם אשר יצר את האדם וברא בו נקבים נקבים חלולים חלולים (ספרדים: גלוי וידוע לפניך) (אשכנזים וספרדים: שאם יפתח אחד מהם או) אם יסתם אחד מהם אי[12] אפשר להתקיים (ספרדים: אפילו שעה אחת) ברוך אתה ה' רופא כל בשר ומפליא לעשות.[13]
  2. Transliteration: Baruch Atta Hashem Elokenu Melech Haolam Asher Yatzar Et Haadam Ubara Bo Nekavim Nekavim Chalulim Chalulim (Sephardim: Galuy Vyadua Lifanecha) (Everyone: She'im Yiftach Echad Meyhem Oh) Im Yisatem Eched Mehem Iy Efshar Lekayem (Sephardim: Elifu Shaah Achat). Baruch Atta Hashem Rofeh Kol Basar Umafliy Lasot.
  3. Translation: Blessed are You, Hashem, our God, King of the Universe, that you created man and formed him with orifices and closed inner organs that (Sephardim: it is revealed before You) (Everyone: if one of them opened or) one of them closed a person couldn't live (Sephardim: even an hour). Blessed are You, Hashem, the one who heals all mankind and does wondrous acts.[14]

Why Chazal Formulated the Text of Brachot as They Did?

  1. All brachot are required to begin with Baruch Atta Hashem Melech Haolam unless they are adjoined to another bracha. This is called bracha hasemucha lchaverta, which is discussed on the Bracha Hasemucha Lchaverta page.
  2. Most birchot hamitzvah begin with the text of "al" or "le" which is written with the letter lamed. The rishonim debate the reason for each bracha. The primary motivation that the Gemara Pesachim 7a outlines as to why brachot have a certain text is in order to indicate that it is going to be fulfilled in the future. Lamed certainly has the implication of the future, whereas "al" is a dispute. Nonetheless, the conclusion is that "al" also refers to the future. Therefore, both are acceptable but for certain cases one is more appropriate than the other. The two main approaches in the rishonim as to explaining most brachot are espoused by Rabbenu Tam and the Riva. Rabbenu Tam[15] thinks that any mitzvah which is fulfilled at one time, isn't ongoing, and doesn't involve a duration with pauses should have the text of "al". If it is a mitzvah that endures for some time with a pause or is an ongoing mitzvah it should begin with a lamed.[16] Riva, on the other hand, thinks that the main consideration is whether a person can fulfill it through an agent or he must do so by himself. If he must do it by himself, the most appropriate text is "al", but if he must do it himself the text should begin with a lamed.[17] A slightly different version of this approach is found in the Ramban.[18] Rambam also subscribes to this approach; yet he holds that the bracha depends on whether a person is doing the mitzvah for himself or someone else is doing the mitzvah for another.[19]
  3. Erusin: The text is She'asar Lanu Et Harusot and doesn't begin with lamed or al but is a discussion if it is recited before or after the performance of the mitzvah. See Kiddushin page.
  4. Bedikat Chametz: Al Biur Chametz. Some explain that the text of the bracha begins with "al" because it can be fulfilled by an agent.[20] Some explain that the text of the bracha begins with "al" because it is a quick mitzvah that doesn't endure for a long time.[21]
  5. Sefirat Haomer: Al Sefirat Haomer. Some explain that it is because of the fact that it is a bracha as a result of a past event, the bringing of the korban haomer.[22]
  6. Chanuka: Lehadlik Ner Shel Chanuka. Some explain that it is because the bracha upon seeing the candles can only be fulfilled by a person himself and not through anyone else.[23] Some explain that the text begins with lamed because the candles need to belong to a person himself and no one else.[24] Some explain that the text of the bracha begins with a lamed because it is a mitzvah that endures for some period of time.[25]
  7. Sitting in the Sukkah: Some explain that the reason the text starts with a lamed is because the mitzvah can only be fulfilled by a person himself and not through anyone else.[26] Some say that the bracha starts with a lamed because it endures for some time.[27]
  8. Shaking Lulav: Some explain that the reason the text starts with a lamed is because the mitzvah can only be fulfilled by a person himself and not through anyone else.[28]
  9. Tefillin: Lhaniach Tefillin: Some explain that the reason the text starts with a lamed is because the mitzvah can only be fulfilled by a person himself and not through anyone else.[29] Some say that the bracha starts with a lamed because it endures for some time.[30] This approach also explains why for Tefillin Shel Yad the bracha starts with a lamed because it continues and includes the Tefillin Shel Rosh, however, the bracha for Tefillin Shel Rosh, begins with "al".[31] Alternatively, really both should have had the language of lamed because they are enduring mitzvot but since chazal didn't want to establish two identical brachot to be recited one after another they instituted the Shel Rosh bracha to be with "al".[32]
  10. Tzitzit: Lihitatef Btzitzit. Some explain that the reason the text starts with a lamed is because the mitzvah can only be fulfilled by a person himself and not through anyone else.[33] Some explain that the text of the bracha begins with a lamed because it is a mitzvah that endures for some period of time.[34]
  11. Maror: Al Achilat Maror. Some argue that the text should read Lachol Maror and explain that it is because the mitzvah can only be fulfilled by a person himself and not through anyone else.[35] Some explain that the text of the bracha begins with "al" because it is a quick mitzvah that doesn't endure for a long time.Cite error: Closing </ref> missing for <ref> tag
  12. Trumot and Maaserot: Lhafrish Trumot Umaaserot. Some explain that the reason the text starts with a lamed is because the mitzvah can only be fulfilled by a person himself or an agent with the permission of the owner.[36] Some explain that the text of the bracha begins with "al" because it is a quick mitzvah that doesn't endure for a long time.[37]
  13. Hafrashat Challah: Al Hafrashat Challah. Some explain that the text of the bracha begins with "al" because it is a quick mitzvah that doesn't endure for a long time.[38]
  14. Shofar: Lishoma Kol Shofar. Some explain that the text of the bracha begins with a lamed because it is a mitzvah that endures for some period of time.[39] Alternatively within the same approach, the mitzvah involves pauses for reciting the sections of Shemona Esrei relevant to the shofar between blows.[40] Some rishonim explain that the reason for this text is because a person must listen to the shofar by himself and the mitzvah is listening and not blowing.[41] Some rishonim have the text Al Tekiyat Shofar. Some explain that the reason that the text starts with "al" is because it can be fulfilled with an agent.[42] Others explain that the reason fof this text is because it is a quick mitzvah.[43]
  15. Lulav: Al netilat lulav. The Gemara Pesachim 7b explains that the text of "al" is because once a person picks it up he already fulfilled the mitzvah and the term "al" implies the past more than "L".
  16. Megilah: Al Mikra Megillah. Some explain that the reason that the text starts with "al" is because it can be fulfilled with an agent.[44] Some explain that the text of the bracha begins with "al" because it is a quick mitzvah that doesn't endure for a long time.[45] Meaning, even if the megillah itself takes a long time, there's no pauses involved in the mitzvah; from the very beginning of the mitzvah to the end there is no institution to have a pause of a duration of time.[46]
  17. Shechita: Al Hashechita. Some explain that the reason that the text starts with "al" is because it can be fulfilled with an agent.[47] Some explain that the text of the bracha begins with "al" because it is a quick mitzvah that doesn't endure for a long time.[48] Some explain that it begins with a lamed since it isn't an obligatory mitzvah and if a person doesn't want to eat meat he doesn't need to do shechita.[49]
  18. Milah: Al Hamilah. Some explain that the reason that the text starts with "al" is because it can be fulfilled with an agent.[50] Some explain that the text of the bracha begins with "al" because it is a quick mitzvah that doesn't endure for a long time.[51]
  19. Milah: Lehachniso. Some explain that the reason that the text starts with a lamed is because the mitzvah endures for some time.[52]
  20. Tevilah: Al Hatevilah. Some explain that the reason that the text starts with "al" is because even though tevilah of a person can't be fulfilled with an agent and must be fulfilled by himself, since tevilat kelim can be fulfilled with an agent the bracha for all of tevilah established with "al".[53] Some explain that the text of the bracha begins with "al" because it is a quick mitzvah that doesn't endure with any pauses.[54]
  21. Tevilat Kelim: Al Tevilat Kelim. Some explain that the reason that the text starts with "al" is because it can be fulfilled with an agent.[55] Some explain that the text of the bracha begins with "al" because it is a quick mitzvah that doesn't endure for a long time.[56]
  22. Kisuy Hadam: Al Kisuy Hadam. Some explain that the text of the bracha begins with "al" because it is a quick mitzvah that doesn't endure for a long time.[57]
  23. Pidyon Haben: Al Pidyon Haben. Some explain that the text of the bracha begins with "al" because it is a quick mitzvah that doesn't endure for a long time.[58]
  24. Netilat Yadayim: Al Netilat Yadayim. Some explain that the text of the bracha begins with "al" because it is a quick mitzvah that doesn't endure for a long time.[59]
  25. Birchot Hatorah: Lasok Bdivrei Torah. Some say that the bracha starts with a lamed because it endures forever and isn't quickly fulfilled.[60]
  26. Hallel: Ligmor/Likroh Et Hahallel. Some say that the bracha starts with a lamed because it involves breaks for the chazan to wait for the congregation to respond to his reading and the congregation needs to wait for the chazan. Additionally, it could be said at any time that there's a salvation for the Jews.[61]
  27. Eruvin: Al Mitzvat Eruv. Some say that the bracha begins with "al" because the mitzvah can be fulfilled through someone else.[62]
  28. Mezuzah: Likvoh Mezuzah. Some say that the bracha begins with a lamed since it could be fulfilled through an agent.[63]
  29. Building a Fence Around One's Roof: Lasot Maakeh. Some say that the bracha begins with a lamed since it could be fulfilled through an agent.[64]

Related Pages

Sources

  1. Shulchan Aruch 168:6, Bet Menucha (Dinei Dvarim SheMevarchin Aleyhem Mezonot)
  2. 2.0 2.1 Berachot.org
  3. Magen Avraham 167:8 writes that based on Gemara Brachot 38a that says that Brachot should be formulated in the past tense one should say Neheyah with a Kamatz, but he quotes the Chachmat Manoach who says to say Neheyeh with a Segol which is present tense. Maaseh Rav n. 76 and Aruch Hashulchan 167:7 agree with Chachmat Manoach. Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 52:2 writes that the one should say Neheyah with a Kamatz like the Magen Avraham. Kaf Hachaim 204:21 agrees. The RCA Artscroll Siddur pg 225 has the Ashkenazic pronunciation of the [[Bracha]] with the word Neheyeh. However, Avodat Hashem LeBat Yisrael pg 314 records the Sephardic Minhag to say Neheyah. Sidur Sukat Dovid p. 250 also has the Syrain minhag to say Neheyah.
  4. Shulchan Aruch 158:1, Mishna Brurah 158:6
  5. The Artscroll Weekday Siddur (Nachalat Shimon), p. 225
  6. Mishna Brachot 35a, Rambam (Brachot 3:2), Shulchan Aruch 167:2
  7. Berachot.org
  8. The Artscroll Weekday Siddur (Nachalat Shimon), p. 228
  9. The Artscroll Weekday Siddur (Nachalat Shimon), p. 228
  10. The Artscroll Weekday Siddur (Nachalat Shimon), p. 229
  11. Tosfot Brachot 46a s.v. samucha writes that Asher Yatzar starts with Baruch since it is a regular stand alone bracha and isn't directly connected to Netilat Yadayim, otherwise it wouldn't start with Baruch as it would be Bracha Hasemucha Lchaverta. Conceptually it isn't connected to Netilat Yadayim since one says it only after going to the bathroom and it wouldn't be said in the morning if one didn't go to the bathroom.
  12. Mishna Brurah 6:4 cites a dispute whether one should say אֵי (as in the word אֵין) or אִי (as in אִי כבוד).
  13. Shulchan Aruch OC 6:1. Mishna Brurah 6:2 adds that although Shulchan Aruch and Rambam only mentioned יסתם אחד מהם our text based on many rishonim is to first mention שאם יפתח אחד מהם. Mishna Brurah 6:3 comments that our practice is not to mention אפילו שעה אחת unlike Shulchan Aruch since some of a person's orifices can be closed momentarily and not be in danger. Mishna Brurah 6:5 quotes many achronim who say that one shouldn't say רופא חולי כל בשר just רופא כל בשר unlike Shulchan Aruch.
  14. Tur and Shulchan Aruch 6:1 in explaining Asher Yatzar.
  15. Ramban Pesachim 7a s.v. vlashon quoting the Raavad in name of Rav Moshe Ben Rabbi Yosef espouses an approach just like that of Rabbenu Tam. Any mitzvah which is done consistently and isn't fulfilled at one point in time has a bracha that starts with lamed such as tefillin and tzitzit. However, lulav, milah, shechita, and bedikat chametz are mitzvot that only need to be fulfilled one time and that is sufficient.
  16. The Rabbenu Tam in Sefer Hayashar ch. 340 presents his approach as though it all depends on whether the mitzvah can be fulfilled at one time and be completed or it involved an ongoing obligation or endures for a period of time. This is also the presentation of the Rabbenu Peretz Pesachim 7b and Ramban Pesachim 7a of the Rabbenu Tam. The Rosh Pesachim 1:10 has a slightly different version of Rabbenu Tam. He reformulates the rule to state that mitzvot which include necessary pauses have a bracha that begins with "al", while mitzvot which don't have any pauses, even if they take time, starts with "al". This explanation answer's the Rabbenu Peretz's question on Rabbenu Tam with respect to Megillah. The Rabbenu Peretz wondered what was the difference between Hallel and Megillah for the Rabbenu Tam, both seem to endure for some time and yet Megillah starts with "al". Rosh Pesachim 1:10 answers that although the Megillah takes time it doesn't involve any breaks from the beginning to the end of the mitzvah a person is actively involved in performing it. Whereas Hallel necessitates breaks for the chazan to wait for the congregation to respond to his readings and the congregation must wait for the chazan to read each pasuk. This coral chants back and forth are described in Sukkah 38a and Sotah 30b.
  17. Rosh Pesachim 1:10, Rabbenu Peretz Pesachim 7b
  18. A slightly different version of this approach is found in the Ramban Pesachim 7a. Originally the Ramban starts with this exact approach that it all depends on whether a person must do it himself or it can be fulfilled with an agent. Accordingly, removing trumot and maaserot should have be with "al" since that can be fulfilled with an agent. At the end of his piece he says that later after his original writing, he found a Tosefta and Yerushalmi that indeed proved that the bracha for removing trumot and maaserot was with a lamed. Therefore, he amended his approach. Any mitzvah which needs to be done by oneself or can be done with an agent that is either appointed by oneself or at least has a person's permission would warrant a bracha with a lamed. That includes Tefillin, Tzitzit, Matzah, Maror, and Hallel as well as removing Trumot and Maaserot. However, a mitzvah which could be fulfilled by others even without appointing them specifically warrants a bracha with "al". These include Bedikat Chametz, Milah, and Shechita. A seeming exception is Megillah that can be done by oneself or through agency of the chazan and yet it has a bracha with "al". The Rabbenu Dovid answers that Megillah is a mitzvah upon each person to listen to a formal kriyah - reading from a kosher handwritten Megillah. That aspect of the mitzvah is fulfilled by someone else. This type of approach with nuances can be found in the Ritva Pesachim 7b, Ri Mnarvona Pesachim 7b, Meiri Pesachim 7b s.v. elah, and Rabbenu Dovid Pesachim 7b s.v. vachshavv. Meiri 7b s.v. vchachmei is very stuck on the Megillah for the Ramban.
  19. Rambam Brachot 11:11-13 explains that any bracha that a person does for himself begins with a lamed, such as Tefillin, Tzitzit, Sukkah, Shabbat candles, Hallel, Mezuzah, making a fence on one's roof, removing Trumot and Maaserot, and Milah. However, if he is doing the mitzvah for someone else then he starts the bracha with "al". For example, if a person put up a mezuzah for others, put up a mezuzah for others, made a fence on another's roof, removed trumah for others, or did milah for another's child should recite a bracha with "al". Rambam Brachot 11:11-15 sets several principles: 1) If the mitzvah already has been partially fulfilled the bracha starts with “al”. 2) If it is a mitzvah done by oneself for oneself the bracha starts with a lamed. If someone is doing a mitzvah for someone else the bracha starts with “al”. 3) If the mitzvah isn’t obligatory the bracha starts with “al”. Lulav and Bedikat Chametz are included in the first rule. Rule two explains Tefillin, Tzitzit, Sukkah, Shabbat candles, Hallel, Mezuzah, Building a Fence, Removing Trumot and Maaserot, Milah, Shechita of a korban pesach. Setting up an Eruv, Shechita, and Netilat Yadayim are included in the third rule. The Raavad notes how the Rambam’s rules do not explain the bracha for Megillah, Matza, and Maror. Hagahot Maimoniyot 11:6 echoes this challenge. The Migdal Oz answers that the Rambam held that the bracha upon Megillah is “al” since ideally the mitzvah was established to be said in public with at least a minyan. Also, Matzah and Maror which originally were eaten together with a korban pesach are established with “al” since the korban pesach is generally done with a group. To highlight this aspect of the mitzvah the rabbis established with “al” which is the appropriate bracha for fulfilling someone else’s obligation. The Kesef Mishna rejects the Migdal Oz’s answers and leaves the Raavad’s question unanswered. He answers why Birchot Hatorah starts with “al” according to the Rambam. He says that since the obligation to learn Torah is continual it starts with “al” similar to a mitzvah that was partially fulfilled. Or Same’ach endorses the Migdal Oz and adds another reason for the korban pesach since when one eats it the mitzvah of sacrificing it is already partially fulfilled.
  20. Rabbenu Peretz 7b s.v. lechen citing Riva, Ri Mnarvona Pesachim 7a s.v. vani
  21. Rabbenu Peretz 7b s.v. lechen citing Rabbenu Tam
  22. Ramban Pesachim 7a s.v. vani explains that Sefirat Haomer has the text of Al because it is a counting from a past event, namely, the bringing of the korban haomer and "Al" implies the past more than "L". Ri Mnarvona Pesachim 7a s.v. vsefirat agrees. Meiri Pesachim 7b s.v. vmata explains that the reaping of the omer is the primary action of the mitzvah and therefore the bracha upon the counting from there begins with "al". However, in discussing the Ramban, Meiri 7b s.v. vchachmei argues that this is a weak reason.
  23. Ri Mnarvona Pesachim 7a s.v. vani, Ramban Pesachim 7a s.v. vani. Meiri 7b s.v. vchachmei argues that this is a very weak reason.
  24. Rabbenu Peretz 7b s.v. lechen citing Riva, Ramban Pesachim 7a s.v. vani. Meiri 7b s.v. vchachmei argues that this is a weak reason.
  25. Rabbenu Tam in Sefer Hayashar ch. 340, Rabbenu Peretz 7b s.v. lechen citing Rabbenu Tam, Rosh Pesachim 1:10 citing Rabbenu Tam
  26. Ramban Pesachim 7a s.v. vani, Ri Mnarvona Pesachim 7a s.v. vani
  27. Sefer Hayashar ch. 340, Rabbenu Peretz 7b s.v. lechen citing Rabbenu Tam, Rosh Pesachim 1:10 citing Rabbenu Tam, Michtam Pesachim 7b s.v. zeh citing the Ramban
  28. Ri Mnarvona Pesachim 7a s.v. vani
  29. Ri Mnarvona Pesachim 7a s.v. vani, Talmid Harashba Pesachim 7a s.v. al citing Riva, Ramban Pesachim 7a s.v. vani
  30. Sefer Hayashar ch. 340, Rosh Pesachim 1:10 citing Rabbenu Tam, Michtam Pesachim 7b s.v. zeh citing the Ramban
  31. Sefer Hayashar ch. 340
  32. Rosh Pesachim 1:10
  33. Ri Mnarvona Pesachim 7a s.v. vani, Talmid Harashba Pesachim 7a s.v. al citing Riva, Rabbenu Peretz 7b s.v. lechen citing Riva, Ramban Pesachim 7a s.v. vani
  34. Sefer Hayashar ch. 340, Rabbenu Peretz 7b s.v. lechen citing Rabbenu Tam, Rosh Pesachim 1:10 citing Rabbenu Tam
  35. Talmid Harashba Pesachim 7a s.v. al citing Riva, Ri Mnarvona Pesachim 7a s.v. velinyan achilat
  36. Ramban Pesachim 7a s.v. vani, Ri Mnarvona Pesachim 7a s.v. ulinyan hafrashat, Ritva Pesachim 7b s.v. vhilchata
  37. Sefer Hayashar ch. 340, Rosh Pesachim 1:10 citing Rabbenu Tam
  38. Sefer Hayashar ch. 340
  39. Rabbenu Peretz 7b s.v. lechen citing Rabbenu Tam
  40. Rosh Pesachim 1:10 citing Rabbenu Tam
  41. Ramban Pesachim 7a s.v. vani, Rosh Pesachim 1:10 citing Riva
  42. Rabbenu Peretz 7b s.v. lechen citing Riva
  43. Rabbenu Tam in Sefer Hayashar ch. 340
  44. Rabbenu Peretz 7b s.v. lechen citing Riva
  45. Rabbenu Tam in Sefer Hayashar ch. 340
  46. Rosh Pesachim 1:10 citing Rabbenu Tam
  47. Rabbenu Peretz 7b s.v. lechen citing Riva, Ramban Pesachim 7a s.v. vani
  48. Rabbenu Tam in Sefer Hayashar ch. 340, Rabbenu Peretz 7b s.v. lechen citing Rabbenu Tam
  49. Meiri Pesachim 7b s.v. elah
  50. Rabbenu Peretz 7b s.v. lechen citing Riva, Ramban Pesachim 7a s.v. vani
  51. Rabbenu Tam in Sefer Hayashar ch. 340, Rabbenu Peretz 7b s.v. lechen citing Rabbenu Tam
  52. Rabbenu Tam in Sefer Hayashar ch. 340
  53. Rabbenu Peretz 7b s.v. lechen citing Riva
  54. Rosh Pesachim 1:10 citing Rabbenu Tam
  55. Rabbenu Peretz 7b s.v. lechen citing Riva
  56. Rabbenu Tam in Sefer Hayashar ch. 340
  57. Rabbenu Tam in Sefer Hayashar ch. 340
  58. Rabbenu Tam in Sefer Hayashar ch. 340
  59. Rabbenu Tam in Sefer Hayashar ch. 340, Rosh Pesachim 1:10 citing Rabbenu Tam
  60. Sefer Hayashar ch. 340
  61. Rosh Pesachim 1:10 citing Rabbenu Tam
  62. Ramban Pesachim 7a s.v. vani
  63. Meiri Pesachim 7b s.v. vchachmei. The Meiri notes that this is a difference between the Riva and Ramban. The Riva thinks that anything which can be done through an agent starts with a lamed, while the Ramban thinks that even mitzvot done with an agent by appointment or permission start with an "al". Only mitzvot that can be fulfilled by someone else who isn't an agent start with a lamed. If so, putting up a mezuzah seems to be an exception since it can be fulfilled by someone else without appointment or permission.
  64. Meiri Pesachim 7b s.v. vchachmei. The Meiri notes that this is a difference between the Riva and Ramban. The Riva thinks that anything which can be done through an agent starts with a lamed, while the Ramban thinks that even mitzvot done with an agent by appointment or permission start with an "al". If so, building a fence around one's roof seems to be an exception since it can be fulfilled by someone else without appointment or permission.