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Rosh Hashana is the Jewish New Year which is both a holiday as well as a day of Judgement. Following Rosh Hashana until Yom Kippur, there is a period called Aseret Yemei Teshuva, the Ten Days of Repentance. The laws and customs for Rosh Hashana and Aseret Yemei Teshuva are outlined below:
Customs of Erev Rosh Hashana
- There are five main customs observed on Erev Rosh Hashana: 1) Laundering one's clothing for Rosh Hashana. 2) Cutting one's hair. 3) Dipping in the mikveh. 4) Visiting the cemetery. 5) Giving tzedaka.
- The reason that the custom is to put on freshly laundered clothing and get a haircut on Erev Rosh Hashana is to show our confidence in Hashem's mercy in our judgement.
- Tachanun is not recited on Erev Rosh Hashana for Shacharit or Mincha, even though during Selichot which are said by night or at least before Netz Hachama we do recite the yud gimmel middot and the nefilat apayim.
- On the day before Erev Rosh Hashana, tachanun is recited at mincha.
- We do not blow the shofar on Erev Rosh Hashana and if one needs to practice blowing for the holiday, he should do so in a private room.
- Some have the custom of receiving lashes on Erev Rosh Hashana, while others do so on Erev Yom Kippur.
Visiting the Cemetery
Fasting on Erev Rosh Hashana
Who Should Fast
- There is a custom to fast on Erev Rosh HaShanah.
- Where there is a Brit Milah that day, one may eat. Some are of the opinion that one can exempt himself with a Siyum Masechet or any other Seudat Mitzvah, as well.
- Some say that the minhag is that women do not fast on Erev Rosh Hashana. 
Accepting the Fast
When Does the Fast End
- Sephardim hold that one should complete the fast until tzet hakochavim.
- Ashkenazim hold that one should not fast until Tzeit HaKochavim, as that would cause him to enter Yom Tov famished. Instead, one should fast until either Mincha Gedolah or Plag HaMincha, daven mincha and eat afterwards. Others suggest that one should only fast until Chatzot, eat and then daven mincha afterwards.
Aneinu and Keriat HaTorah at Mincha
- One who is still fasting at mincha, should recite aneinu during mincha,  The chazzan does not recite aneinu in the chazarat hashatz at all, for the same reason Vayechal is not lained. 
- Regardless of how long one plans to fast for, one should not lain the traditional laining for a Ta'anit Tzibur ("Vayechal Moshe").
Dipping in the Mikveh
- The custom is to dip in a mikveh on Erev Rosh Hashana in honor of Rosh Hashana. However this isn't required according to the law and therefore a beracha isn't recited and the laws aren't as strict. If one cannot make it to a mikveh, he should try to spill 9 kav (approximately 12 liters) of water over himself, even if in the shower.
- A woman within her seven clean days of niddah and single women shouldn't go to the mikveh on Erev Rosh Hashana or Erev Yom Kippur.
- A person should try to do to the mikveh an hour before chatzot (midday) or after on Erev Rosh Hashana.
- If a person was together with his wife Rosh Hashana night he should go again to the mikveh on Rosh Hashana morning.
- The bracha on candle lighting for Rosh Hashana is "Baruch Attah... LeHadlik Ner Shel Yom Tov", without mention of "Yom Hazikaron."
- When Rosh Hashana falls out on a Friday night, the beracha for candle lighting is Lehadlik Ner shel Shabbat ViYom Tov.
- Sephardic women do not recite Shehecheyanu when lighting candles. Instead, they should have in mind to fulfill their obligation when they listen to Shehecheyanu during Kiddush. Most ashkenaz women do recite shehecheyanu with candle lighting.
Prayers of Rosh Hashanah
Note the relevant practices from Aseret Yimei Teshuva
- There is a well known minhag that the Shaliach Tzibur for Shacharit, standing at his seat, begins his tefillah by singing out the ה in the word HaMelech in a melody. Once he completes the word, he approaches the amud and continues the rest of the sentence.
Behavior During Prayer
- Some have the minhag to stand bent slightly (hunched over slightly) during the Tefillot of Rosh HaShana and if one does so, one should make sure to stand straight for the end and beginning of each Bracha.  Some say it’s preferable to stand straight for the Tefillot. 
- Some have the minhag to daven slightly out loud during Tefillot of Rosh Hashana. However, many authorities discourage this practice. 
- Some poskim encourage crying during the prayers of Rosh Hashana while some forbid it. 
- If one forgot to switch from Atta Kadosh to HaMelech HaKadosh the first night of Rosh Hashana one doesn't have to repeat Shmoneh Esrei as long as one said the Yom Tov Shmoneh Esrei, however, if one said the weekday Shmoneh Esrei or on the day of Rosh Hashana or the second night of Rosh Hashana one should repeat Shmoneh Esrei. Some disagree and hold that one needs to repeat Shemona Esrei.
- If one forgot Yaaleh VeYavo in Benching on Rosh Hashana during the day one does not have to repeat benching, but during the nighttime one must repeat benching. 
- If there's a Brit Milah in Shul on Rosh Hashana, the Milah should be preformed between Kriyat HaTorah and the blowing of the Shofar.
- If Rosh Hashanah falls out on Shabbat, Sephardim still recite Tzidkatecha at Mincha, but Ashkenazim do not.
Text of the Bracha
- The proper beracha is lishmoa kol shofar. However, if one recited litkoa shofar or al tekiat shofar, he fulfills his obligation.
- The Sephardic custom is that on the first day of Rosh Hashana, the beracha of shehecheyanu is recited after lishmoa kol shofar. If the first day is Shabbat and therefore we do not blow the shofar, shehecheyanu is recited on the second day after lishmoa kol shofar. If a Sephardic person is blowing shofar for an Ashkenazic congregation on the 2nd day of Rosh Hashana, then one of the Ashkenazi congregants should recite the shehecheyanu. If the Sephardic shofar blower recites shehecheyanu anyway, the congregation has nevertheless fulfilled their obligation of reciting it.
Standing for Shofar Blowing
- The Ashkenazi custom is to stand even for the tekiot which are referred to as the tekiot dimiyushav, the 1st 30 tekiot, 3 sets of Tashrat, Tashat and Tarat. A weak, ill, or old person can be lenient. For Sephardim, the congregation should stand while the Baal Tokeah makes the Brachot on the shofar and then they may sit for the blows prior to Mussaf. For the blows during Mussaf and the Chazarat HaShatz, the congregation should stand.
- The 30 tekiot after that are referred to as the tekiot dimeumad because one is required to stand for those. However, if one sat during these tekiot he has nevertheless fulfilled his obligation.
- One who couldn't go hear the shofar with a congregation and is having it blown for him at home, must stand for the shofar blowing.
- If a person just heard parts of the Chazarat Hashatz of Mussaf that make up the main part of Malchiyot, Zichronot, and Shofarot that would constitute enough of hearing Chazarat Hashatz to be considered as though one heard the shofar blasts in the context of Shemona Esrei (tekiyot al seder habrachot). Others hold it is necessary to hear the entire thing.
Keeping the Shofar Covered
- There is a minhag to keep the Shofar covered while it is not being used, including while the berachot on the shofar are being recited. With this said, the Ba'al Tokeah should hold the shofar in his hand under the cover while he is making the berachot. 
Talking Between Blows
- One should refrain from talking from when the beracha is recited until after all 100 tekiot are blown.  One should also try not to cough or yawn during the shofar blowing so as not to confuse any listeners.
- Some hold that one should not recite vidduy between the first set of shofar blows of תשר"ת and תש"ת or between תש"ת and תר"ת.
Unsure if One Fulfilled the Mitzvah
Blowing from the Right Side
- Ideally, the shofar blower should try to blow it from the right side of his mouth, but this certainly doesn't prevent one from fulfilling his obligation if he doesn't. 
Who is Obligated?
- Women are exempt from blowing or listening to the shofar. Nonetheless, it is a mitzvah for women to voluntarily hear the shofar. According to Ashkenazim she can recite the bracha or the one blowing can recite the bracha even if blowing only for women, while according to Sephardim she may not recite a bracha and someone blowing just for women also may not recite the bracha.
- A child who reached chinuch should hear the shofar being blown but can fulfill his obligation by blowing himself.
Borrowing a Shofar without Permission
- One may borrow a shofar to perform the mitzva without asking permission. However, if the borrower has a cold, or if he suspects that the owner might be a finicky about germs, he should not use it without permission.
If Rosh Hashana Falls out on Shabbat
- If Rosh Hashana falls out on Shabbat, we do not blow the Shofar. This is a rabbinic decree because there is a risk that one will take the shofar and go to an expert to learn how to blow it, and he will carry it four cubits in the public domain.
Second Day of Rosh Hashana
- In Kiddush of the second day of Rosh Hashana one should recite Shehechiyanu. Since it is a dispute whether we should include Shechiyanu it is proper to have a new fruit or wear a new garment and have that in mind while saying Shehechiyanu.
- Some poskim hold that the new fruit should be tasted after kiddush before the Netilat Yadayim and Hamotzei. However, others say one can wait until the meal.
Simanim (Symbolic Foods)
- There is a custom to eat certain fruits and vegetables as a good omen for the coming year on both nights of Rosh Hashana. If one cannot, for whatever reason, eat one of the foods, he can simply point to the food and recite the Yehi Ratzon.
- Some have this minhag only the first night, but most do both nights.
At Which Point in the Meal
- Some have the custom to eat the Simanim before Hamotzi, while others insist on eating them after reciting Hamotzi and eating a Kezayit of bread.
- These fruits and vegetables include: dates, pomegranates, beets, gourd, black eyed peas, and fish head. Some add apples in honey.
- There is a minhag of dipping the challah in honey on Rosh Hashana. Some only dip the challah in honey, while others dip the challah in salt as well as honey.
- Some avoid eating walnuts ("Egoz") on Rosh Hashanah, as אגוז is the same Gemtria as חטא (sin).
- Also, some avoid spicy or sharp foods on Rosh Hashana.
Order of Simanim
- If one is eating dates and other fruits, one should make a HaEitz on the dates because they’re from the seven species with which Eretz Yisrael is praised.
- Some say that one doesn’t make a HaAdama on vegetables during the meal.
When to Recite the Yehi Ratzon
- Some have the custom to recite the Beracha on the Siman, then the Yehi Ratzon, and then eat. Others argue that doing so is an unwarranted interruption, so one should instead recite the Bracha of HaEitz, eat a little of the fruit, then make the Yehi Ratzon before continuing to eat, while others hold that one should say the Yehi Ratzon prior to the Bracha.
- One may say the Yehi Ratzon’s with Hashem’s name.
Sleeping on Rosh Hashana
- It's a proper minhag not to sleep on Rosh Hashana. Someone who has a headache should sleep a little after midday in order to perform the mitzvot and prayers better.
- After the meal a person should go to the shul to learn according to his ability. Some have the practice of reading Tehillim twice over Rosh Hashana. A person who usually studies halachot should learn halachot rather than say Tehillim. In any event, one shouldn't waste time on this holy day of Rosh Hashana and wasting one's time on Rosh Hashana is like sleeping.
- Some poskim advise that it isn't appropriate to have tashmish on Rosh Hashana unless it is her Tevilah night.
Minhag of Tashlich
Where and When?
- The minhag is to say Tashlich near an ocean or river on the first day of Rosh Hashana.
- It is preferable for there to be living fish in the body of water. 
- The minhag is to recite Tashlich on the first day of Rosh Hashana after mincha.
- If one didn't get a chance to do it on the first day, one should do it on the second day after mussaf, while others say to do it after Mincha.
- When the first day of Rosh Hashana falls out on Shabbat, some poskim say to postpone Tashlich, while others say just to say Tashlich then. 
- If one didn't get to recite tashlich on Rosh Hashana it may be recited all of Aseret Yemey Teshuva. Some recite tashlich during chol hamoed Sukkot before Hoshana Rabba.
- Tashlich should be recited by day and even past sunset until nightfall.
- The custom is to recite certain pesukim that are printed in the machzorim. 
- Many have the custom of shaking out their pockets as a symbol of throwing at one's sins. 
- Many poskim suggest that men and women should avoid being there at the same time so that it doesn't become an inappropriate, mixed social scene on our day of Judgment. 
Fasting on Rosh Hashana
- It's forbidden to fast on Rosh Hashana.  Nonetheless, it's permissible to allow prayers to extend past chatzot (halachic midday) and fast until the afternoon. 
- There is a mitzvah of Kavod and Oneg on Rosh Hashana since it is called "mikreh kodesh".
- Shulchan Aruch and Rama OC 581:4
- The custom of wearing freshly laundered clothing on Rosh Hashana and taking a haircut on Erev Rosh Hashana is based on the Yerushalmi Rosh Hashana 1:3. The Yerushalmi explains that unlike a typical person who is getting ready for judgment, the Jewish people wear fancy, white clothing and get haircuts because we have confidence in God's kindness and the outcome of the decision.
- Shulchan Aruch O.C. 581:3, Kaf HaChaim on Shulchan Arukh, OC 581:73, Chazon Ovadia (Yamim Noraim page 46).
Mishna Brura 581:23 adds based on the Magen Avraham that even if the Selichot continue past Alot Hashachar, since they are typically said before that you would recite the Tachanun during Selichot. Kaf Hachaim 581:73 agrees.
- Yalkut Yosef (Moadim page 21), Kaf Hachayim 581:74, Chazon Ovadia Yamim Noraim pg. 46
- Yalkut Yosef Moadim page 21
- Kaf HaChaim 581:58
- Rama 581:4. Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 128:13 points out that we are obviously not praying to the dead people themselves as that would be Avoda Zara, but rather that Hashem perform kindness and listen to our prayers thanks to the merit of these great tzaddikim. Mishna Brurah 581:27 and Chazon Ovadia Yamim Noraim pg. 52, as well as the Sefer Ikarim 4:35 write likewise. see Rabbi Doniel Neustadt for a lengthy discussion
- Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 581:2 based on a Midrash Tanchuma
- Rama, Orach Chaim 581:2
- Orchot Rabbeinu Vol. 2, pg 172 in the name of the Steipler Gaon. Elef HaMagen S"K 77.
- Magen Avot (Lebhar, Orach Chaim 581:2
- Mishna Brurah 581:16 writes that women also fast, but Rabbi Yissachar Dov Krakowski says this isn't the custom.
- Mishna Brurah 581:16, Rabbi Yissachar Dov Krakowski. This is also the ruling of Rabbi Eli Mansour However, Revach.net quotes Rav Elyashiv as saying that if you don't fast every year, you should accept it during mincha the day before.
- Kaf Hachaim 581:62, Or Letzion 4:2:1. Rabbi Eli Mansour also writes that one shouldn't eat until Kiddush that night. See Yalkut Yosef Moadim pg. 20 and Halichot Olam 2:pg. 233.
- Rama Orach Chaim 581:2 writes that one doesn't need to complete the fast of Aseret Yemey Teshuva. Magen Avraham 581:10 and Mishna Brurah 581:16 apply this to Erev Rosh Hashana as well. Mateh Efraim Siman 38
- MaChazit HaShekel Orach Chaim 581 S"K 10. Mishna Berurah 562:10 writes one can rely on this opinion in the event one cannot fast until Plag Mincha. This is the widespread practice.
- Mateh Efraim, Siman 35. Mishna Berurah 562:10. In either case, one should not formally declare the fast at Mincha of the day before, as doing so without stipulating that he will not complete the fast will require him to do Hatarat Nedarim to finish it before Yom Tov begins.
- Shu"t Yaavet"z 2:147, Elef HaMagen S"K 73, Likutei MaHariach- Dinei U'Minhagei Aseret Yimei Teshuva.
- Mishna Brurah 562:7 says this is true even if you do not plan on finishing the fast. For sephardim, the Kaf Hachayim 562:8 says if you do not plan on finishing the fast to recite aneinu during elokay nitzor.
- Kaf Hachaim 581:2
- Rama, Orach Chaim 581:2
- Rama 581:4
- Chacham Ovadia Yosef (Chazon Ovadia pg. 57 and Halichot Olam 2: page 225), Moed Likol Chai 12:11 based on the Rosh (Yoma 8:24) who quotes Rav Saadya Gaon who says to recite a beracha on going to the mikveh on Erev Yom Kippur and argues strongly.
See Chazon Ovadia pg. 59 in the note where he writes that if it is difficult for someone on Erev Rosh Hashana, can be lenient since the Shulchan Aruch only mentions the custom to go on Erev Yom Kippur
- Yalkut Yosef (Moadim page 22), Chazon Ovadia (Yamim Noraim page 51, 57).
- Chazon Ovadia Yamim Noraim page 59, although the Magen Avraham O.C. 606:8 does mention a practice of single women to go to the mikveh on Erev Yom Kippur for teshuva.
- Mishna Brurah 581:26
- Mishna Brurah 581:26
- Chazon Ovadia Yamim Noraim pg. 62. see there where he writes that it wouldn't be a problem of a hefsek between the beracha and the candle lighting to mention yom hazikaron, but lechatchila one shouldn't do say it.
- Chazon Ovadia Yamim Noraim pg. 62
- Chacham Ovadia Yosef (Chazon Ovadia Yamim Noraim pg. 62 and Shu"t Yechave Daat 3:34), Chesed La'alafim 263:5
- see Rabbi Ari Enkin
- Aruch HaShulchan, Orach Chaim 584:1, Shu"t Menachem Meishiv Siman 91 on reciting the word HaMelech before approaching the amud. The sefer Minhag Yisrael Torah explains the minhag to sing the ה in a melody comes from the Gemara in Mesechet Menachot (daf 29) that Olam HaZeh (this world) was created with the letter ה as it is a letter with a large gap on the bottom and a smaller gap towards the top. Those who wish to descend down a wayward path can do so with ease, while those who wish to repent and elevate themselves will be exalted amongst their peers. Similarly, the Shaliach Tzibur should request in his tefillot that Hashem should create an opening to receive our Teshuva.
- Shulchan Aruch 582:4 writes that those who have the minhag to stand bent over for Tefillot on Rosh Hashanah should stand straight at the end of the Bracha. Mishna Brurah 582:14 writes that starting from Baruch Atta Hashem through the beginning of the next Bracha one should stand erect so that it doesn’t appear like one is adding the established bows of Chazal.
- Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 129:2
- Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 582:9 writes that one may daven out loud during Tefillot of Rosh Hashana and not worry about bothering others Davening since everyone has a machzor. Mishna Brurah 582:24 writes not to raise one’s voice too much. Rav Mordechai Lebhar (Magen Avot, Orach Chaim 582:9) writes how in some Moroccan communities, one person recites the entire silent Shemoneh Esrei out loud, and everyone else follows along silently.
- Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 129:2, Chaye Adam 139:2, Kaf HaChaim 582:17, and Rav Mordechai Eliyahu’s footnote on Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 129:2. Kaf HaChaim 582:17 adds that if one doesn’t have kavana another way one may raise one’s voice slightly.
- Rav Moshe Shternbuch in Teshuvot Vihanhagot 2:268 quotes the Vilna Gaon in his Sefer Maaseh Rav 207 that it is forbidden to cry, but also quotes the Arizal (brought down in Baer Heitev 584) that any person with a good soul would cry on Rosh Hashana. He claims that they aren't disagreeing, but rather that the Vilna Gaon is talking about crying from fear of the day of judgement and viewing the day as one of sadness and gloom. But if the tears come spontaneously from a longing for Hashem during the prayers, that it praiseworthy.
- Chaye Adam 24:10, Sh"t Igrot Moshe 1:170. Rabbi Hershel Schachter in a shuir (min 43-45:30) explains the dispute. In Batei Yosef (p. 20), Rav Schachter is quoted as saying safek brachot lhakel and one should not repeat shemona esrei.
- Mishna Brurah (Shaar Hatziyun 582:4). Rav Chaim Pinchas Sheinberg in Moriah Elul 5759 22:10-12 p. 100 writes that one doesn't fulfill one's obligation since the theme of Malchut is a main theme of Shemona Esrei.
- Mishna Brurah 188:19 quotes the Magen Avraham 188:7 who says one doesn't repeat Birkat HaMazon and the Eliyah Rabba who argues and the Mishna Brurah leaves it unresolved. Shemirat Shabbat Kehilchata 57:7(4) quotes both opinions and in note 25 he concludes that one doesn't have to repeat benching because it's a Safek Brachot LeHakel. Similarly, Rabbi Hershel Schachter in a shuir (min 41-43) mentions that some achronim hold that one doesn't have to repeat benching because there is an opinion that one is allowed to fast on Rosh Hashana. When asked whether this would be considered Safek Deoritta Lechumra he explained that even if one forgot Yaaleh VeYavo one fulfills the Deoritta obligation of benching it just that one didn't fulfill the din derabbanan to have a meal for Yom Tov.
- Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chaim 584:4. Kaf HaChaim, Orach Chaim 584:28 quotes those who recommend waiting until the Tefillah is over, but Magen Avot ad loc. writes how the Minhag is like Shulchan Aruch.
- Shulchan Aruch and Rama, Orach Chaim 595:1, Magen Avot ad loc.
- Yalkut Yosef 583:1 (Moadim pg. 36) from the pasuk in Bamidbar 29:1 יוֹם תְּרוּעָה, יִהְיֶה לָכֶם
- Yalkut Yosef Moadim pg. 36
- Yalkut Yosef Moadim pg. 36, Chazon Ovadia Yamim Noraim pg. 116
- Yalkut Yosef Moadim pg. 36,48, Chazon Ovadia Yamim Noriam pg. 112, 116
- Yalkut Yosef pg. 36, Sh"t Yabia Omer 1:29:11
- Mishna Brurah 585:2
- Shaar Hatziyun 585:2.
- Yalkut Yosef 583:3 (Moadim pg. 36). Netsiv (Emek Hasheylah Bracha 171:2) explains that the practice of the Sephardim is to sit for the tekiyot d'meumad since one doesn't want to fulfill one's obligation with those tekiyot since the main tekiyot are the ones that are part of the Shemona Esrei (tekiyot al seder habrachot). Therefore, they sit in order to demonstrate that they don't want to fulfill their obligation. However, the one blowing stands because he might fulfill his obligation either way according to those who hold that having negative intent doesn't help to fulfill a mitzvah. The Ashkenazic custom he explains is based on the concern that there will be talking and so it is in our best interest to fulfill one's obligation when those tekiyot immediately following the bracha.
- Mishna Brurah 592:2
- Sh"t Haridbaz 4:25
- Chazon Ish OC 137:5, Minchat Yitzchak 4:48, Yalkut Yosef (Yamim Noraim, 5775 edition, p. 212)
- Griz (Chidushei HaGriz on Shas v. 2, 5732 edition, p. 224, on topic Baal Tosif on Tos R"H 28b), also cited by Mpeninei HaRav p. 164-6 and Moadim Uzmanim 1:8
- Bei'ur Heitev Orach Chaim, end of Siman 593, see also Kitzur Shnei Luchot HaBrit, Kaf HaChaim Siman Katan 14.
- There are two main reasons for this minhag, one rooted in fundamental Halacha (Torat Nigleh) and one rooted in Kabbalah (Torat Nistar). Shu"t Avnei Nezer (Siman 431), based on the Rambam, states that the main mitzvah is to hear the sound of the Shofar (l'ishmoa kol Shofar) and that one should cover the Shofar during the berachot so that the Shofar does not see its embarrassment that the beracha is on the sound and not on the body of the shofar itself- a similar logic as to why one covers the Challah from the beginning Kiddush on Shabbat until HaMotzei. The Elef HaMagen (Siman Katan 7) explains in the name of the Rada"l's introduction to the Zohar that the sounding of the Shofar corresponds to the Akeidah, when, according the Midrash, Avraham hid Yitzchak so Yitzchak would not injure himself with the knife and become blemished, rendering himself unfit to be slaughtered at the Akeidah. Therefore, covering the Shofar is a remembrance to this aspect of the Akeidah. Finally, the Likutei MaHari'ach posits that one should cover the Shofar so the Satan does not power over it.
- Kaf HaChaim Siman Katan 14 in the name of the Ben Ish Chai. The sefer Zeh HaShulchan (Siman 593) cites this as the minhag of various Gedolim and Tzaddikim. See also Siddur Yaivet"z, Elef HaMagen Siman Katan 7.
- Chayei Adam 141:9. Sh"t Minchat Yitzchak 3:44 and 4:47 says that Asher Yatzar may be recited during this time.
- Yalkut Yosef Moadim pg. 40
- Yalkut Yosef (Siman 8 fnt. 31) unlike Or Letzion 1:39 who permitted. Or Letzion is based on Tosfot Pesachim 115a and Mishna Brurah 475:26. However, Rav Ovadia argued based on Ramban, Rashbatz, and Ran who seem to disagree with Tosfot.
- Yalkut Yosef Moadim pg. 37, Chazon Ovadia Yamim Noraim pg. 161
- Yalkut Yosef Moadim pg. 41
- Shulchan Aruch and Rama Orach Chaim 589:6. There is a major dispute surrounding women and the recitation of a beracha upon performing the mitzvot that are time bound, which they are exempt from. The Rambam (Hilchot Tzitzit 3:9) holds that since women are exempt from the Mitzvah of Tzitzit they can't make a Bracha on it (see also Hilchot Shofar Sukkah Vilulav 6:13 about sitting in a Sukkah). On the other hand, the Raavad (Hilchot Tzitzit 3:9) and Tosfot (Eruvin 96a, Rosh Hashanah 33a, Kiddshin 31a s.v. lo mifkadana) quoting Rabbenu Tam argue that even if women are exempt from a mitzvah they may recite the bracha if they opt to perform the mitzvah. The Maggid Mishna Hilhot Sukkah 6:13 explains the Rambam as saying that it is impossible to say VeTzivanu if a person is exempt from the mitzvah. Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 589:6 follows the Rambam, while the Rama Orach Chaim 17:2 accepts the Rabbenu Tam.
- What emerges from the halacha is that Ashkenazim hold that women may recite the bracha upon a mitzvah that they are volunteering to do, while according to Sepharadim they may not.
- Chacham Ovadia Yosef (Shu"t Yabea Omer 2:OC 6, Shu"t Yechave Daat 1:68, Chazon Ovadia Sukkot 149-151) very strongly encourages following Shulchan Aruch that women do not say the beracha.
- However, See Chida (Birkei Yosef 654:2) who opines that even Sephardim have what to rely upon to follow Rabbenu Tam and Kaf Hachaim Orach Chaim 17:4 who quotes this. Similarly, given the dozens of Poskim who rule that a Sephardic woman may recite the beracha and that that was the custom in their communities, Rav Mordechai Lebhar (Magen Avot, Orach Chaim 589:6) writes that women from those communities may continue with their traditions, but others may not, as the Shulchan Aruch rules stringently and we would say Safek Berachot Lehakel.
- Rav Yitzchak Yosef (Motzei Shabbat Netsavim 5779 min 29) explained that Rav Elyashiv Haarot Rosh Hashana and Gittin wrote that a child who reached chinuch needs to hear the shofar from an adult because the blowing of a child isn't considered the blowing of a mitzvah. However, Rav Yosef argued that it is considered a shofar blast for himself.
- Magen Avraham 586:4, Mishna Brura 586:9, Halachos of Other People's Money pg. 68
- Halachos of Other People's Money pg. 68 based on Aruch Hashulchan 14:11
- Shulchan Aruch 588:5 based on Mishna Rosh Hashana 29b
- Mishna Brura 588:13 based on Gemara Rosh Hashana 29b. see more on Chabad.org
- Shulchan Aruch OC 600:2, Rabbi Eli Mansour pg. 10
- Machasit Hashekel 600:22
- Rav Elyashiv (cited by Ashrei Haish 3:14:4 and Dirshu)
- The Gemara (Horayot 12a) says that a person should see gourds, fenugreek, leek, beets, and dates (though these definitions are the subject of controversy) on Rosh Hashana as a good omen. The Gemara (Keritut 6a) records the same statement with the text that a person should eat these fruits and vegetables as a good omen. Beit Yosef 583:1 notes the different versions and rules in Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 583:1 that a person should eat these foods as a good omen.
- Kaf HaChaim 583:6 writes that if one can’t eat a certain food, he may just look at it and say the Yehi Ratzon nonetheless. Nitei Gavriel 29:24 agrees.
- Eliyah Rabba 583:1 writes that the minhag is to eat simanim on both nights of Rosh Hashana. Machazik Bracha 583:2, Chazon Ovadyah (p. 93), Teshuvot VeHanhagot 2:266 Yalkut Yosef Moadim pg. 29, Halichot Olam v. 2 p. 227 and Rivevot Efraim 6:308:1 agree. However, Bnei Yisaschar 2:11 and Eishel Avraham MeButchach 583 explain the minhag of eating the simanim only on the first night of Rosh Hashana. Magen Avot (Orach Chaim 583:1 fn. 479) notes both traditions.
- Rav Ovadia (Chazon Ovadyah, Yamim Noraim p. 93) writes in favor of after HaMotzi. Rav Mordechai Lebhar (Magen Avot, Orach Chaim 583:1) writes how the Moroccan custom is to eat them before. However, he writes that since it's very easy to accidentally eat a Kezayit and complicate one's situation with respect to a Beracha Acharonah, many Poskim prefer one wait until after HaMotzi, including Shemesh uMagen 3:72
- Horayot 12a, Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 583:1, Torat HaMoadim 4:1
- Rama Orach Chaim 583:1
- Magen Avraham 583:1, Mishna Brurah 583:3, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 129:9. Magen Avot (Orach Chaim 583:1) says they did this from Rosh Hashanah until the end of Sukkot.
- Nitei Gavriel (Rosh Hashana p. 209, n. 17) writes that the Chazon Ish and Stiepler's practice was to eat challah without salt on Rosh Hashana. See there for other sources on this matter.
- Kaf HaChaim 583:4. See Nitei Gavriel (Rosh Hashana p. 209) for different minhagim about whether to dip the challah in salt on the same side as it is dipped in honey or on the other side. See there also for a difference in minhagim whether to dip the challah in salt before dipping it in honey or afterwards.
- Rama Orach Chaim 583:2
- Magen Avot (Orach Chaim 583:2)
- Halichot Shlomo (1:17) writes that one should make the HaEitz upon the dates because they’re from the seven species with which Eretz Yisrael was praised and they come before pomegranates on that list (see Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 211:4). Ben Ish Chai (Nitzavim #4) and Nitei Gavriel 29:4 agree. Kaf HaChaim 583:13 records the practice of some people to make a HaEitz on the apple to exempt the dates. He explains that perhaps they brought out the apple first, and in such a case, one need not wait for the dates to come out to make the bracha upon them. Rav Mordechai Lebhar (Magen Avot, Orach Chaim 583:1 fn. 472) reports how the Moroccan custom is to have the apples first and recite HaEtz on them, and that all the Machzorim list the Simanim that way. He argues that it's not an issue of Kedimah, because one doesn't really want to eat both the apple and the dates right now. This, he says, resolves Rav Shlomo Zalman's issue. Rivevot Efraim 8:558:3 writes that after making HaEitz on the dates, one may eat the apples prior to the pomegranates because the rules of precedence apply only regarding the Bracha, not regarding when each food should be eaten.
- Chazon Ovadyah (p. 98) writes that one shouldn’t make a Bracha upon the cooked vegetables because they’re considered as part of the meal. Halichot Shlomo (1:18), however, writes that one should make a HaAdama upon the gourd and exempt the other vegetables. To avoid all doubt, Nitei Gavriel 29:18 writes that one should make a HaAdama on a banana. Chut Shani (Rosh Hashana p. 48) agrees. It is noteworthy to mention that Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 211:2 rules that when eating a food which is HaEitz and a food which is HaAdama one should make the bracha on the food which one prefers first.
- Magen Avot (Orach Chaim 583:1) notes how this is the Morrocan Minhag and not an issue of Hefsek, since the Yehi Ratzon is for the purpose of eating.
- Magen Avraham 583:2 quotes the Magalei Tzedek as saying that one should say the Yehi Ratzon in between the Bracha and eating. He explains that the Yehi Ratzon is a prerequisite for eating and thus does not constitute an interruption. The Magen Avraham, however, argues that it’s not such a requirement to say the Yehi Ratzon, and as such it is preferable to say the Yehi Ratzon after taking a bite. Mishna Brurah 583:4 and Chazon Ovadyah (p. 93) agree with the Magen Avraham. Rabbi Eli Mansour writes this as well.
- Rav Hershel Schachter (quoted in Halachipedia Article 5773 #3) said that it makes sense to say the Yehi Ratzon before the Bracha so that the Yehi Ratzon can function as a Tefilla and the eating as an action enhancing the Tefilla. Teshuvot VeHanhagot 2:266 agrees. See Chazon Ovadyah (pg. 93) who quotes the Chemdat Yamim who argues that one shouldn’t say the Yehi Ratzon prior to the Bracha because that is a violation of asking for one’s personal needs before praising Hashem (See Gemara Brachot 32a).
- Mishna Brurah 583:2 writes that the text of the Yehi Ratzon begin with Yehi Ratzon Milfanecha Hashem Elokeinu VeLokei Avoteinu with Hashem’s actual name. Teshuvot VeHanhagot 2:266 and Chazon Ovadyah (p. 93) agree. Nitei Gavriel 29:22, however, writes that from some poskim it seems that there was a text without Hashem’s name. Rav Shlomo Zalman’s minhag (Halichot Shlomo p. 12 note 70) was to say the first Yehi Ratzon with Hashem’s name and the others with Avinu SheBaShamayim. He explained that he did so because it’s difficult to have the proper kavana when saying Hashem’s name. Similarly, the Steipler’s minhag (Orchot Rabbenu vol 2, p. 175) was to say them without Hashem’s name.
- Rama (Orach Chaim 583:2), Chazon Ovadyah (Yamim Noraim, pg 183-4), Kaf HaChaim 584:38,39, Ben Ish Chai Parashat Nitzavim:11, Yalkut Yosef Moadim page 33, Magen Avot (Orach Chaim 583:2)
- Yalkut Yosef (Moadim p. 33), Sh"t Yechave Daat 3:44
- Knesset Hegedola 581:8, Pri Chadash 581:4, Birkei Yosef 581:18, Machzik Bracha 581:4
- Chazon Ovadyah (Yamim Noraim, pg 186), Yalkut Yosef Moadim page 44. The name of this ritual comes from a verse in Michah 7:19 which says וְתַשְׁלִיךְ בִּמְצֻלוֹת יָם, כָּל חַטֹּאותָם. This minhag is mentioned by the Rama 583:2. Mishna Brurah 583:8 says that this is in remembrance of the akedat yitzchak, because the midrash says that on his way, Avraham had to cross a river, and when the water level was up to his neck he called out to Hashem and Hashem saved him. Rama in Torat HaOlah 3:56 explains that when one goes to an ocean or rivers and sees the greatness of Hashem's creations, he will immediately regret his sins and will be forgiven. The Kaf Hachayim 583:30 calls this an Ashkenazic minhag but adds that the custom in his times in Jerusalem was to say it. Maaseh Rav 209 writes that the minhag of the Gra and his student Rav Chaim Volozhin was not to do tashlich at all, but Rav Moshe Harari in Mikraei Kodesh Rosh Hashana 14:note 4) writes that many people who generally follow the customs of the Gra do not follow him for this.
- Mishna Brurah 583:8. Mishna Brurah elaborates that this is symbolic of our wish to be immune to the ayin hara and that we want to be as fruitful as the fish of the sea. Mateh Ephraim 598:4-5 also says it should be done with fish, but criticizes the minhag that some have of feeding the fish crumbs of bread. The Machatzit Hashekel 583:5 also says it is forbidden to throw food into the water.
- Nitai Gavriel Rosh Hashana 69:1, Chazon Ovadia Yamim Noraim page 186. Rav Moshe Shternbuch in Teshuvot Vehanhagot 1:346 agrees but says that mincha should be said earlier in the day so tashlich could be said immediately afterwards because he doesn't think it is so simple that it's permissible to carry the siddur. Also see Moadim U'Zmanim 1:34 where he discusses this issue.
- Yalkut Yosef Moadim page 35, Sh"t Torah Lishma 145, Ben Ish Chai Netsavim 12
- Nitai Gavriel (Rosh Hashana 69:14)
- Ben Ish Chai (Nitzavim 12) says to say it even on Shabbat. Kaf Hachayim 583:31 says that is the custom in Yerushalayim. Yalkut Yosef Moadim page 35, Sh"t Yabia Omer 4:47, Sh"t Yechave Daat 1:53, Halichot Olam 2:pg. 231 say that you should do it on that day but if there is no eruv then you cannot carry a book with you. If there is a concern that people will carry books anyway, it should be done the next day. If there is an eruv however, one should do it. If one normally doesn't rely on the eruv to carry, in this case he can give it to a child to carry for him. Shvut Yaakov 3:42 quotes the Shnei Luchot Habrit that it should be postponed, but disagrees and says to say it on shabbat, and quotes the Maharil (Teshuva 136) as saying the same. This is also the ruling of the Mateh Ephraim 598:4, Shaare Teshuva 583:6. The Elef Hamagen 598:11 says to postpone it. Rabbi Eli Mansour says this is the custom of the Brooklyn Syrian Community based on the psak of Chacham Baruch Ben Chaim, and Magen Avot (Orach Chaim 583:1) writes in favor of postponing, as well, especially since people will make mistakes and end up carrying even if there is an Eruv. See Yabia Omer 4:47 and Yalkut Yosef Moadim page 34 for a summary of the opinions on this matter.
- Nitai Gavriel Rosh Hashana 69:16
- Seder Tashlich Vminhagav p. 26 citing the Kedushat Yisrael of Rav Yisrael Yakov of Chust
- Mateh Efraim 598:4, Nitai Gavriel 69:9. Mishna Brurah 583:8 implies that it is recited before sunset. Kovetz Halachot of Rav Shmuel Kamenetsky (Yamim Noraim p. 259) writes that it is permissible to recite at night.
- Yalkut Yosef Moadim page 35
- The Mateh Efraim 598:4 and Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 129:21. Eliya Rabba 596:3 writes based on kabbala that shaking out your pockets is like shaking off the kelipot (layers) that stick to us when we sin. Rabbi Eli Mansour points out that this is in no way a substitute for repenting, just a symbolic act to show that our repentance is sincere.
- Aruch Hashulchan 583:4 and Elef Hamagen 583:7. Rabbi Eli Mansour, Ketzeh Hamateh 598:7 and Yalkut Yosef Moadim 35 say that women aren't obligated to do tashlich and therefore shouldn't in order to prevent inappropriate mingling between genders.
- Magen Avot (Orach Chaim 583:1) notes how the Minhag in Morocco and Tunis was for the women not to attend Tashlich. He also quotes Erech HaShulchan as saying that women should not go, but, if they do, then the men should not go. Tashlich should not be used as an opportunity to mingle.
- Nitai Gavriel 69:8 writes that women aren't obligated to say tashlich but the minhag is that they do recite it.
- Shulchan Aruch 597:1, Chazon Ovadyah (Yamim Noraim, pg 180)
- Mishna Brurah 597:2 writes that even though usually on Shabbat and Yom Tov one shouldn't fast until after chatzot on rosh hashana it's permissible to allow the davening to extend past chatzot. Rav Hershel Schachter on yutorah.org (min 40-42) explains that this leniency is based on the fact that there are opinions in the Geonim who even permit fasting completely on Rosh Hashana.
- Shulchan Aruch HaRav 529:5
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|Yom Tov - Chol HaMoed - Rosh Chodesh - Fast Days|