The Nine Days is time period from the beginning of the month of Av until Tisha BeAv during which there are a number of practices of mourning described below. While many of the laws below apply to the entire period of the Nine Days, some of them only apply during the week in which Tisha BaAv falls out (Shevua SheChal Bo). Additionally, these practices are very similar but generally more stringent than those that observed during the Three Weeks.
- 1 Business
- 2 Buying and Gifting
- 3 Taking Haircuts and Shaving
- 4 Building and Planting
- 5 Laundry
- 5.1 Ashkenazim and Sephardim
- 5.2 Shabbat Chazon
- 5.3 Preparing Non-Laundered Clothing
- 5.4 Undergarments
- 5.5 Doing it for Afterwards, Asking a Non-Jew
- 5.6 For Non-Jews
- 5.7 Tisha B'av Pushed Off
- 5.8 Sheitel
- 5.9 Shining Shoes
- 5.10 Children's Clothing
- 5.11 Towel and Sheets
- 5.12 Wearing Shabbat Clothing
- 6 Eating Meat and Drinking Wine
- 6.1 When Does the Minhag Apply?
- 6.2 Cooked with Meat or Meat Equipment
- 6.3 Liquors
- 6.4 Grape Juice
- 6.5 Accidentally Made a Bracha on Meat or Wine
- 6.6 Tasting on Erev Shabbat
- 6.7 Shabbat and Leftovers
- 6.8 Havdalah
- 6.9 Birkat Hamazon over Wine
- 6.10 Stores or Restaurants Selling Meat or Wine
- 6.11 Buying Meat or Wine on Sale
- 6.12 For Health Reasons
- 6.13 Children or Someone Sick
- 6.14 Brit Milah and Seudat Mitzva
- 6.15 Siyum
- 7 Showering, Bathing, and Swimming
- 8 Cutting Nails
- 9 Weddings
- 10 Trips and Pleasurable activities
- 11 Buying Clothing
- 12 The Week Tisha B'av Falls Out
- 13 Haftorot
- 14 Links
- 15 Sources
- From the beginning of the month of Av one should reduce one’s involvement in activities of happiness. 
- If one has a lawsuit with a non-Jew one should delay it until the month of Elul or at least until after Tisha BeAv.  Similarly, if one must have a surgery and it can be delayed, one should try to delay it until after Tisha BeAv.
- During the Nine Days, one should refrain from buying materials that are needed for a wedding. Some authorities are lenient if the groom has not yet fulfilled the mitzvah of Pru Urevu and one will not be able to prepare for the wedding after Tisha BeAv because the wedding is right after Tisha BeAv or if there is a concern that the price of the wedding needs will become expensive after Tisha BeAv.
- The minhag is to be lenient to allow one not to reduce one’s regular business during the Nine days. 
- One may not build houses or buildings for business purposes during the Nine Days. However, one may hire a non-Jew before the Nine Days with a fixed sum for the entire project and then, he may work during the Nine Days and even on Tisha BeAv. 
- If a wall is going to fall, even if there isn’t a concern of danger but only a concern of loss, one may restore it during the Nine Days. 
Buying and Gifting
- If there is a need, one may buy furniture if it is going to be delivered after the nine days.
- One shouldn't buy important items such as furniture or appliances during the nine days since it brings a person a lot of pleasure.
- Some Ashkenazim have the practice not to give gifts during the nine days unless there is a need but for a mitzvah such as for a bar mitzvah boy it is permitted.
Taking Haircuts and Shaving
- The Sephardic minhag is not to take a haircut during the week in which Tisha BaAv falls out (Shevua SheChal Bo), while the Ashkenazic minhag is not to take a haircut during the entire the Three Weeks, which includes the Nine Days. 
- Shaving one’s beard or mustache is forbidden just like it is forbidden to take a haircut.  If one moustache interferes with one’s eating, one may cut it. 
- It is permitted to comb and style one's hair during the Three Weeks and Nine Days and one doesn't have to worry that one will pull out hairs. 
- A married woman or one of marriageable age may shave her legs even during the Nine Days 
- If Tisha BeAv falls out on Shabbat and is pushed off until Sunday, according to Sephardim, it's proper not to take a hair cut the week prior to Shabbat Chazon. However, in regards to shaving, if one shaves regularly and it's difficult not to shave, one may shave during the week before Shabbat Chazon, especially if one is doing so for Kavod Shabbat. 
Building and Planting
- A person may not build or plant things that are related to simcha during the nine days.
- It is forbidden to plaster or paint one's house during the nine days.
- It is a dispute if it is permitted to wallpaper one's walls during the nine days.
- It is permitted to fix up one's house, such as to fix a door or fill in a hole.
- One may hire a contractor to make necessary repairs to his home during the three weeks. 
- A non-Jewish contractor is allowed to continue building a house during the three weeks and even on Tisha BeAv if he has already begun to build for a Jew 
- If there is a danger such as that a wall may collapse one is allowed to rebuild it even if this causes joy. 
- One may move into a house during the nine days if necessary.
For a Mitzva
- One is permitted to build, renovate, or paint for a mitzva like building a shul or yeshiva.
Ashkenazim and Sephardim
- The Sephardic custom is only not to do laundry during the week of Tisha BeAv. Ashkenazic custom is to refrain already from Rosh Chodesh Av.
- Ashkenazim don't wear freshly laundered clothing during the nine days even if they were laundered beforehand. Sephardim don't wear freshly laundered clothing the week of Tisha BeAv.
- The minhag is to permit wearing Shabbat clothing on Shabbat Chazon. This is the practice of the Sephardim, Chasidim, and some Ashkenazim. However, some Ashkenazim have the practice not to wear Shabbat clothing on Shabbat Chazon.
- If Rosh Chodesh falls out on Friday and Tisha BeAv technically falls out next Shabbat, though it is delayed until Sunday, the Shabbat right after Rosh Chodesh doesn't have the status of Shabbat Chazon and one should wear Shabbat clothing according to everyone.
Freshly Laundered Clothing
- It is permissible to wear freshly laundered shirt on Shabbat.
- One shouldn't wear a new shirt on Shabbat Chazon unless one doesn't have any other laundered ones. The same applies to wearing a new pair of pants, belt, shoes, or sheitel on Shabbat Chazon.
- One may not wear a new suit that would require a Shehechiyanu on Shabbat Chazon.
- It is permitted to wear the Shabbat clothing even from Chatzot of Friday.
Preparing Non-Laundered Clothing
- Ideally a person should prepare in advance of the nine days clothing that are not freshly laundered to be worn every day until and including Tisha BeAv. The way to prepare the clothing is to wear the clothing for an hour or two and then change it and put it aside until the nine days.
- If one didn't prepare enough non-laundered clothing, many hold that it is permitted to prepare one's clothing for the week on Shabbat Chazon by changing one's clothing a few times so that one has enough clothes to wear during the next week. Others disagree. Nonetheless, he shouldn't state that he is doing so to prepare for the next week; such a statement is a violation of hachana, preparing on Shabbat for afterwards.
- Some say that undergarments which are designed to absorb sweat may be worn freshly-laundered. Others are strict.
Doing it for Afterwards, Asking a Non-Jew
- One shouldn't do laundry even if he doesn't plan on wearing the clothes until afterwards, as this distracts him from his mourning. He also should not give it to a non-Jew to do for him. Some poskim permit giving a non-Jew your clothing to launder if you specify that they do it after Tisha B'av.
- A Jewish laundromat that would have no money otherwise may wash non-Jews' clothing during this time.
Tisha B'av Pushed Off
- If Tisha BeAv falls out on Shabbat and is pushed off until Sunday, according to most Sephardim, one may launder clothing and wear laundered clothing the week prior to Shabbat Chazon. However, Ashkenazim don't wear laundered clothing the entire Nine Days in any event.
- A wig/sheitel is considered an article of clothing for the purposes of laundry during the nine days and therefore one should not wash it or have it set professionally during the nine days. However, one may curl or set the wig at home, provided that they are not professionals.
- One is permitted to shine their shoes for Kavod of Shabbat even during the week of Tisha B'av. If the paint started to fall off the shoes it is permitted to repaint them black to wear Shabbat clothing on Shabbat.
- According to Ashkenazim, it is permissible to wash children's clothing even the week of Tisha B'av. This applies to any children that commonly dirty their clothing.
- Even if one is doing children's laundry in a laundry machine one may not add other clothing to the load.
- One should wash the children's clothing in private.
Towel and Sheets
- A fresh towel may be used during the Nine Days if the towel one was using became soiled 
- Bed sheets may not be changed during the Nine Days  unless they are soiled. However, if a guest arrives during the Nine Days then one may place clean sheets on the bed 
- In hospitals, it is permitted to clean the linens and clothing because this is done to keep clean for health reasons and not for pleasure. In hotels and motels they can change the linens for new guests because people are disgusted by using what others have already used. 
- A clean tablecloth can be used on Shabbos during the Nine Days 
- A fresh handkerchief may be used only if the old one is dirty and unusable 
Wearing Shabbat Clothing
- The minhag is not to wear Shabbat clothing during the nine days.
- If there is a brit milah during the nine days, the father of the baby, the mohel, the sandak, and some say the grandfather may wear Shabbat clothing. Everyone else should not.
- If someone was traveling and they only have their Shabbat clothing he may continue to wear it even during the week.
Eating Meat and Drinking Wine
When Does the Minhag Apply?
- The Ashkenazic and Sephardic custom is to refrain from meat, poultry, and wine during the nine days. Ashkenazim include Rosh Chodesh in this prohibition, while Sephardim are lenient regarding the day of Rosh Chodesh itself and some Sephardim are strict. 
Cooked with Meat or Meat Equipment
- One should refrain from eating food cooked with meat. Nevertheless, one is permitted to eat food that was cooked in meat pots, as long as no meat was cooked with it, and one cannot taste the taste of the meat in his food. 
- Parve food which looks like meat may be eaten during the Nine Days. 
- Although the custom is not to drink wine during the nine days, one may drink beer, whiskey, liquor, cognac and arak. 
- The practice is to avoid drinking grape juice as well, including it in the practice of avoiding wine. 
Accidentally Made a Bracha on Meat or Wine
- If, by mistake, one recited a blessing over meat or wine, he should taste a bit so that his blessing will not have been in vain. 
Tasting on Erev Shabbat
- One may taste the meat food on Erev Shabbat during the nine days but should try not to swallow any meat ingredients. 
Shabbat and Leftovers
- One may eat meat on Shabbat during the Nine Days. If one began a meal (seudat shelishit) on Shabbat and it continued into the night, one may continue to have meat, however, some are strict in this situation.
- One should not refrain from eating meat on Shabbat during the nine days, or even if Tisha B'av falls out on Shabbat and is pushed off until Sunday, one should eat meat on that Shabbat.
- Some poskim allow eating meat leftovers on motzaei shabbat even during the nine days while some poskim say that it's prohibited. 
- Some say that there is what to rely on to have meat leftovers from Shabbat during the nine days, while others forbid. 
- Since the minhag is not to drink wine, a question arises as to what we should do with Havdalah. For Sephardim one is permitted to use wine and drink it as usual, while for Ashkenazim there are several possibilities. 
Birkat Hamazon over Wine
- Even somebody who normally uses a cup of wine for Birkat HaMazon, should not during the nine days except for on Shabbat. 
Stores or Restaurants Selling Meat or Wine
- Although the custom is not to eat meat or drink wine during the nine days, stores that sell meat or wine may continue to sell meat or wine because someone who is permitted to eat it, such as a sick person or for a seudat mitzvah may need it. One is permitted to leave his meat restaurant open during the nine days, because the people who are eating meat during the nine days, without the availability of kosher meat, may go to a non-kosher restaurant but he should preferably serve only chicken. 
Buying Meat or Wine on Sale
- One is permitted to buy meat and wine during the Nine days for use after the Nine days if there is a sale, or he won't have time afterwards.
For Health Reasons
- One who needs to eat meat for health reasons such as a child, pregnant woman, nursing woman, or an elderly or sick person is permitted to eat meat, but if he can eat chicken that is preferable. 
Children or Someone Sick
- One who needs to eat meat for health reasons such as a child, a pregnant woman, a nursing woman, or an elderly or sick person is permitted to eat meat, but if he can eat chicken that is preferable. 
- According to Ashkenazim, it is preferable not to even feed children (who understand what we are mourning) meat during the nine days, but if you do you may have on who to rely. Sepharadim however, allow it.
- It is permitted to give children meat for their Firday night Shabbat meal even if it is earlier than plag mincha.
Brit Milah and Seudat Mitzva
- One may eat meat at a meal for a mitzvah such as the meal of a Brit Milah and this includes the relatives and friend invited to the meal however, it doesn’t include those who just walk in to eat.
- One may eat meat a meal held for a Bar Mitzvah only if it’s held the day that the son becomes 13. 
- One may eat meat at a meal held for a siyum and this includes the friends and family invited to the meal.
- A siyum can be made on a masechta of gemara, seder of mishna, or book of Tanach studied with the rishonim.
- If a woman learns a Masechet well and makes a siyum, men may eat at the Seudat Mitzvah that follows.
- Some say that from the 7th of Av they shouldn't serve meat at a siyum.
- If a person missed hearing the siyum itself a rav should be consulted.
- Some say that one shouldn't delay a siyum in order to have it during the nine days, while others allow it.
Showering, Bathing, and Swimming
- The Ashkenazic minhag is not to go swimming even in cold water in the Nine Days. Some Poskim agree that it is permitted to go swimming for exercise, but not for fun.
- The Sephardic minhag, however, is to refrain from swimming in cold water only during the week in which Tisha BeAv falls (Shevua SheChal Bo).
- The Ashkenazic minhag is to avoid pleasure bathing all nine days. The Sephardi minhag is only to refrain from bathing in warm water during the week which Tisha BeAv falls out.
- If someone is sweaty or dirty it is permitted to shower during the nine days to clean off and not for pleasure. Some say that it should only be done with cold water and only with part of the body at a time.
- On Friday before Shabbat Chazon some permit someone who always takes a shower on Friday to take a shower before Shabbat. See sources on the Shabbat Chazon page.
- Cutting nails is permitted during the three weeks up until the week in which Tisha BeAv falls out. 
- Even according to those who prohibit cutting nails during the week of Tisha BeAv permit cutting nails on the friday preceding Tisha BeAv, if Tisha BeAv falls on shabbat.  According to some Poskim only one who cuts his nails every Friday for shabbat may cut his nails on the friday preceding Tisha BeAv. 
- A mohel is permitted to cut his nails in order to perform a Brit Milah. 
- A women going to the mikveh may cut her nails. 
- Even if the man has not yet fulfilled the mitzvah of Pru Urevu the minhag is not to get married during the Nine Days including Rosh Chodesh.
Trips and Pleasurable activities
- Some say that one shouldn't take a pleasure trip during the nine days, while others disagree. 
- It is permitted to have one's grass cut during the nine days, however, one should refrain from doing so on Tisha BeAv.
- There is a restriction on buying new items which would warrant a Shehechiyanu during the entire Three Weeks ( Three_Weeks#Saying_Shehecheyanu).
- In the Nine Days in particular, it is forbidden to buy new clothes even if there is no Shehechiyanu.  This practice applies to Ashkenazim and also Sephardim.
- The Ashkenazic minhag is not to wear new clothing during the Nine Days includes Shabbat of the Nine Days.
The Week Tisha B'av Falls Out
- Sephardim may not cut their hair, shave, do laundry, or wear newly laundered clothing the week of Tisha B'av. Ashkenazim are strict about hair cutting and shaving for all Three Weeks and laundry for all Nine Days.
- If Tisha B'av falls out on Shabbat and is pushed off until Sunday, according to Sephardim the practices of the weeks before Tisha B'av do not apply that year.
- When Rosh Chodesh Av falls out on Shabbat, the minhag is to read the haftorah חזון ישיעיהו (Yishayahu 1).
- Article on The Laws Of Bein HaMetzarim by Rabbi Josh Flug
- Halachos of the Nine Days and Rosh Chodesh by Rabbi Hershel Schachter
- Halachos of the Nine Days by Rabbi Aryeh Lebowitz
- Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 551:1
- Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 551:1, Mishna Brurah 551:2
- Yalkut Yosef (Moadim p. 557)
- Mishna Brurah 551:11
- Yalkut Yosef (Moadim p. 558)
- Mishna Brurah 551:11, Yalkut Yosef (Moadim p. 559)
- Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 551:2, Mishna Brurah 511:12
- Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 551:2, Mishna Brurah 551:13
- Halichot Shlomo (p. 426, 14:22)
- Guidelines of the Three Weeks by Rabbi Elozor Barclay (p. 47) citing Igrot Moshe 3:80 and MeBeyt Levi p. 8 n. 4
- Nitai Gavriel Ben Hametzarim 1:18:4
- Nitai Gavriel Ben Hametzarim 1:18:6
- Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 551:3, Yalkut Yosef (Shevua SheChal Bo #1)
- Rama Orach Chaim 551:3
- Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 551:12
- Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 551:13
- Eliya Rabba 551:7, Shaare Teshuva 551:12, Mishna Brurah 551:20, Aruch Hashulchan 551:15, Sh"t Yechave Daat 6:35
- Kitzur Hilchos Bein HaMetzarim pg. 4:5 in the name of Rav Moshe Feinstein
- Yalkut Yosef (Shevua SheChal Bo #11), Yechave Daat 3:39
- Shulchan Aruch O.C. 551:2
- Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 551:2 forbids plastering or doing tizyur, decorating one's house. Regarding painting one's house, Mikrei Kodesh 4:5 quotes the poskim who forbid this including Yalkut Yosef Moadim p. 559, Torat Hamoadim 5:19, and Kovetz Mbet Levi Av 5758 p. 23. Though he also quotes Rav Mordechai Eliyahu as originally having permitted painting a plain color but later he retracted.
- Mikrei Kodesh 4:5. See Igrot Moshe 3:82.
- Mikrei Kodesh 4:5 quoting Rav Mordechai Eliyahu
- Piskei Teshuvot 551:8, even though construction for joy is not done as per Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 551:2, based on a gemara Yevamot 43a and Tosafot s.v. "milisa."
- Chazon Ovadia Taaniyot page 329.
- Mishna Brurah 551:13
- Chazon Ovadia - Arba Taaniyot pg. 169
- Mishna Brurah 551:12, Kaf Hachayim 551:25. Aruch Hashulchan 551:7 says anything for the public is considered for a mitzva and is permissible.
- Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 551:3 based on gemara in taanit 26b.
- Rama Orach Chaim 551:3.
- Shulchan Aruch and Rama Orach Chaim 551:3, Yechave Daat 1:39
- Mishna Brurah 551:5 based the Gra writes that the minhag Vilna was to wear Shabbat clothing on Shabbat Chazon.
- Rama 551:3. Aruch Hashulchan 551:11 notes that the minhag Ashkenazim that he observed was to wear regular Shabbat clothing on Shabbat. He explained that the Rama only said that the minhag was not to wear Shabbat clothing if the weekday and Shababt clothing look similar except that it is slightly nicer. Therefore, it isn't obvious that if you're wearing your weekday clothing on Shabbat that it isn't Shabbat clothing. However, the minhag developed when it was common for Shabbat clothing to be very different than the weekday clothing and if someone wore weekday clothing on Shabbat it would be obvious that they were publicly mourning on Shabbat, which may not be done. Nonetheless, he says that since in his time the weekday clothing is similar to the Shabbat clothing they should revert to the Rama's minhag. Nitai Gavriel (Ben Hametzarim 1:45:1) writes that minhag Chasidim is like the minhag Sephardim to wear Shabbat clothing on Shabbat Chazon.
- Nitai Gavriel (Ben Hametzarim 1:45:2) citing Yad Efraim 551:20 and Shaar Hatziyun 551:46
- Rama O.C. 551:3, Mishna Brurah 551:6, Aruch Hashulchan 551:10
- Igrot Moshe OC 3:80, Nitai Gavriel (Ben Hametzarim 1:45:4). Pri Megadim 551:20 writes that it would be permitted to wear a new shirt on Shabbat Chazon. Biur Halacha 551:6 s.v. kelim agrees and compares it to wearing freshly laundered clothing on Shabbat Chazon which is permitted. However, Magen Avraham 551:6 and Mishna Brurah 551:9 state that wearing new clothing on Shabbat Chazon is forbidden. Igrot Moshe explains that the Pri Megadim and Biur Halacha are only talking about when one doesn't have any other laundered shirts, then it would be permitted to wear a new one. See shulchanaruchharav.com for more sources and description of this topic.
- Rav Baruch Rubanowitz on dinonline.com writes that a person shouldn't wear a new belt, shirt, pants, sheitel or shoes during the nine days and including Shabbat Chazon.
- Mishna Brurah 551:45 writes that even those who are lenient to make Shehecheyanu on Shabbat during the Three Weeks will agree to be strict on Shabbat Chazon not to wear new clothes (which has a special element of happiness that a new fruit doesn’t have). Sh”t Yechave Daat 1:37 and Torat HaMoadim 5:7 concurs to the opinion of Mishna Brurah.
- Nitai Gavriel (Ben Hametzarim 1:45:6)
- Kaf HaChayim on Shulchan Arukh, Orach Chayim 551:91, Betzel Hachachma 4:138
- Orchot Rabbenu (vol 2, p. 130) quoting the Steipler, Betzel Hachachma 4:138, Rav Hershel Schachter (Relevant Laws to the Nine Days)
- Kaf HaChayim on Shulchan Arukh, Orach Chayim 551:91 citing Ben Ish Chai Devarim n. 6 holds that one may not prepare several garments on Shabbat to be considered pre-worn. Rather one can switch one's clothing one's to freshly laundered clothing for Shabbat.
- Betzel Hachachma 4:138
- Rav Ovadia Yosef on halachayomit.co.il based on Chazon Ovadia pg. 229. see there where he says that it is better if possible to prepare non-laundered clothing from before.
- Rabbi Eli Mansour in the name of the Ben Ish Chai, Chacham Bentzion Abba Shaul (Or Letzion 3, p. 248) and the English Yalkut Yosef (pg. 207)
- Shulchan Aruch and Rama Orach Chaim 551:3 and Mishna Brurah 551:34. Rabbi Aryeh Lebowitz at about 9:45 also says allowing a non-jewish housekeeper to do your laundry is prohibited even though this doesn't really distract you from mourning.
- Mishna Brurah 551:34 citing the Eliya Rabba who argues with the Rama. The Eliya Rabba compares it to Chol Hamoed where this is permitted (S"A 543:3). Rabbi Eider (Halachos Of The Three Weeks p. 8) is strict.
- Mishna Brurah 551:43
- Yalkut Yosef (Shevua SheChal Bo #11), Yechave Daat 3:39
- Piskei Teshuvot 551:20. Nitei Gavriel 21:5:footnote 8 permits fixing or cutting a wig until the nine days.
- Iggerot Moshe 3:80, Yabia Omer OC 3:31
- Igrot Moshe 3:80
- Shulchan Aruch O.C. 551:14 is strict about laundering children's clothing during the week of Tisha B'av, but the Rama is lenient. Rabbi Eider (Halachos Of The Three Weeks p. 9) follows the Rama. Ben Ish Chai (Devarim n. 6) and Kaf Hachaim 551:179 write that Sephardim who are lenient to launder children's clothing the week of Tisha B'av shouldn't be protested but it should only be for children three years old and younger. Yalkut Yosef (Mdinei Yemey Tisha B'av n. 13) also writes that the minhag is to be lenient with laundering children's clothing the week of Tisha B'av.
- Rabbi Eider (Halachos Of The Three Weeks p. 9) quotes Rav Moshe Feinstein as holding that it is permitted to launder children's clothing even if they aren't in diapers but constantly soil their clothing with dirt and the like.
- Piskei Teshuvot 551:45 quotes the Shraga Hameir 6:162 who writes that adding more clothing to a load during the Nine Days is forbidden since it distracts one from mourning properly.
- Mishna Brurah 551:83
- Kitzur Hilchos Bein Hametzarim p. 10:9. Yalkut Yosef (Mdinei Yemey Tisha B'av n. 13) writes that Sephardim shouldn't launder towels or hand towels during the week of Tisha B'av.
- Mishna Berura 551:33
- Shu”t Tzitz Eliezer 13:61
- Tzitz Eliezer 13:61
- Taz OC 551:4
- Shu”t Rivevos Ephraim OC 2:555
- Rama 551:1
- Rama 551:1, Shaarei Teshuva 551:1, Shaarei Teshuva 551:1, Nitai Gavriel Ben Hametzarim v. 1 p. 192, Piskei Teshuvot 551:3
- Nitai Gavriel Ben Hametzarim v. 1 p. 190 either because it is considered an extenuating circumstance or because once they wear it during the week before the nine days it indicates that the clothing aren't specifically designated for Shabbat.
- The Gemara Baba Batra 60b quotes the opinion of Rabbi Yishmael Ben Elisha that after the destruction of the Beit HaMikdash, it would have been appropriate for the rabbis to ban eating meat and drinking wine in order to properly mourn. However, since most of the congregation would not be able to abide by this, the rabbis never made it. Biur HaGra OC 551:9 writes that this is the source for refraining from eating meat and drinking wine prior to Tisha B'Av, that although it is impossible to ban eating meat and drinking wine throughout the year, it is possible to refrain from meat and wine for a short period of time. The Gemara in Taanit 30a discuss the prohibition of eating meat during the seudat hamafseket prior to tisha b'av. Rambam Hilchot Taaniot 5:6 says that the custom is to extend the prohibition beyond that meal. He says that some don't eat meat during the week of tisha b'av, and some don't eat from Rosh Chodesh av and onward. Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 551:9 writes that there are three customs about not eating meat and drinking wine; some refrain only for the week on Tisha BeAv, some refrain for the nine days (from Rosh Chodesh Av), some refrain for the whole three weeks.
- Mishna Brurah 551:58 writes that the Ashkenazic custom is not to eat meat or drink wine for the nine days including Rosh Chodesh Av but excluding Shabbat (Mishna Brurah 551:59). This is also written in the Weekly Halacha by Rabbi Neustadt.
- Sh"t Yechave Daat 1:41, Moed Likol Chai 9:15, Rav Bentzion Mussafi, and Kaf Hachayim 551:125 write that the Sephardic custom is to refrain from eating meat and wine during the nine days, but on Rosh Chodesh the minhag is to be lenient. However, they add that some are strict. See also Chazon Ovadyah (Arba Taniyot pg 169), Rabbi Mansour on dailyhalacha.com, and Halachot and History of The Three Weeks (by Rabbi Shlomo Churba, pg 37) who all write that the Sephardic custom is not to eat meat, poultry or wine in the nine days.
- Although Shulchan Aruch O.C. 551:10 says that some allow you to eat foods cooked with meat, Mishna Brura 551:63 and Kaf Hachaim 551:142 say that the custom is to refrain from doing so. Ish Matzliach footnotes to Mishna Brura 551:10:note 4 agrees.
- Mishna Brurah 551:63, Kaf Hachayim 551:142, Orchot Chaim 31, Nitei Gavriel 38:5. Shaar Hatziyun 551:68 writes that even if a small piece of meat that will not be tasted fell into a dish, it may still be eaten.
- Nitei Gavriel 38:6, Rav Mordechai Eliyahu (Maamar Mordechai - Lemoadim Uleyamim 25:37 and yeshiva.co)
- Ohr Letzion 3:26:8, Drinking Liquor, Beer and Cognac During the Nine Days by Rabbi Eli Mansour, Ish Matzliach footnotes to Mishna Brura 551:9:note 5
- Ohr Letzion 3:26:8, Chazon Ovadia - Arba Taaniyot pg. 176. see See Shu”t Minchas Shlomo (vol. 1, 64), Shu”t Rivevos Efraim (vol. 8, 177), Moadei Yeshurun (pg. 130) and Mesores Moshe (vol. 1, pg. 174 s.v. mitz) quoting Rav Moshe Feinstein. see also Grape Juice during nine days by Rabbi Gil Student
- Sdei Chemed (Bein ha-Metzarim 1:4), Yabea Omer 2: YD 5. See also the topic of mistakenly making a Bracha on food on a fast day at Fast_Days#Other_Halachas_of_fast_days.
- Shemirat Shabbat Kihilchita 42:61 since the Magen Avraham 250:1 quotes the Arizal that this is part of the mitzva of kavod shabbat to taste the food to make sure it tastes good.
- Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 552:10
- Nitei Gavriel 38:4
- Mishna Brura 551:59
- Shaare Teshuva 551:11 quotes the Birkei Yosef allowing one to eat leftover meat for melave malka but concludes himself that this is not the custom. See Rabbi Mansour on Dailyhalacha.com who quotes Rav Chayim Palachi in moed likol chai who says it is permissible and Chacham Bentzion Abba Shaul who says it is definitely preferable not to, especially if that is not that person's usual practice. Chelkat Yaakov 3:21 and Iggerot Moshe OC 4:21:4 both forbid it even for somebody who would usually eat it. Rabbi Daniel Neustadt on Torah.org agrees.
- Chazon Ovadyah (Arba Taniyot pg 177) writes that there is what to rely on, as does the Torat Moadim 5:46. Birkei Yosef 551:6 says that in order to encourage proper for fulfillment of the meal itself we allow the leftovers to be eaten later. However, the Weekly Halacha by Rabbi Neustadt quotes Sh"t Igrot Moshe 4:21(4) who forbids (see there). Aruch Hashulchan 551:24 also forbids it, also see Piskei Teshuvot 551:34. Kaf Hachayim 551:144 says that for melave malka one is permitted to eat meat leftovers as long as he doesn't prepare extra for shabbat with the intention of having leftovers. Rabbi Eli Mansour quotes that Rav Chaim Palachi allows this while Chacham Benzion Abba Shaul says it's better not to. Rabbi Mansour also says that for the remainder of the week kids can eat it lechatchila and if adults eat it one cannot rebuke them. Piskei Teshuvot 551:34 says there are some poskim who permit eating meat for melave malka for someone who usually eats meat for melave malka.
- Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 551:10. Yalkut Yosef page 574 adds that one may drink the entire cup.
- The Aruch HaShulchan 551:26 says some people have the Minhag to drink beer or another drink that qualifies as Chamar Medina. The Eshel Avraham 551 and the Chazon Ish (quoted in Imrei Yosher, pg. 4) says that those who say Havdalah every week over wine or grape juice should do the same during the Nine Days as well. Rav Shmuel Fuerst (Three Weeks and Nine Days, min. 26) ruled to use wine as usual like Rav Moshe Feinstein and Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach. Rav Moshe Harari in his Mikraei Kodesh 1:14 say it is preferable to use grape juice as this doesn't cause any joy, and Rav Moshe Karp in Hilchot UMinhagei Ben HaMetsarim chapter 4 note 74 says that in this situation an adult can drink it lechatchila. Rama Orach Chaim 551:10 says to preferably give it to a child. Mishna Brurah 551:70 says that it should be a minor above the age of chinuch but doesn't fully comprehend the concept of mourning the destruction of the beit hamikdash. Rav Moshe Feinstein quoted in Moadei Yeshurun page 154 says the adults should drink the Havdalah wine. Darkei Moshe 551:9 says in the name of the Maharil that this can be done lechatchila. See piskei teshuvot 551:35 and Hilchot UMinhagei Ben HaMetsarim chapter 4 note 74 for more poskim who say this.
- Rama Orach Chaim 551:10 with Mishna Brurah 551:69, Kaf Hachayim 551:152, Ohr Letzion 3:26:8
- Iggerot Moshe 4:112
- Yechave Daat 3:38. For more on whether a meat restaurant may remain open, see Rabbi Chaim Jachter: Restaurants Serving Meat During the Nine Days
- Iggerot Moshe 4:112
- Mishna Brurah 551:64. Yechave Daat 1:41 adds that if they do, they are not required to make a hatarat nedarim.
- Mishna Brurah 551:64. Yechave Daat 1:41 adds that if they do, they are not required to make a hatarat nedarim.
- Magen Avraham 551:31 says you can give a child (who is below the age of Chinuch, meaning who doesn't yet understand why we mourn) meat even during the week of Tisha BeAv because we never had the minhag for kids to mourn. However, a child at the age of Chinuch or above should not be given meat. Mishna Brurah 551:70 and Shaar Hatziyun 551:76 say that although there is no requirement for the child to mourn for the beit hamikdash, the prohibition of feeding children prohibited items discussed in SA OC 343 extends to things that are only prohibited by custom and therefore one shouldn't feed meat to his kids unless for health reasons. The reason that the Rama permitted Havdalah wine for children, was that it is for a mitzva.
- Iggerot Moshe 4:21:4 says even to feed the children meat on Friday afternoon before shabbat would not be allowed unless they usually eat their Friday night meal at that hour.
- Rav Hershel Schachter explains that although normally a child is not obligated to observe practices of a mourner, even when he reaches the age of chinuch, the practice of not eating meat is not a function of mourning (as a mourner during shiva is allowed to eat meat and drink wine.) Instead, it is part of the obligation to mourn and remember the Beit Hamikdash. (See Gemara Baba Batra 60b). Children do not have an obligation to observe the laws of mourning, but they do have an obligation to remember the beit hamidkash. Therefore they refrain from eating meat and drinking wine during the nine days once they have reached the age of chinuch.
- Rabbi Eider (The Halachos Of The Three Weeks p. 7) writes that generally the minhag not to eat meat even applies to children. But if it is hard to feed a child dairy and he is used to eating meat every day he can continue to eat meat in the Nine Days.
- Aruch Hashulchan 551:26 as well says there is room to be lenient, especially in a case where it is a weak child who can gain a lot from eating the meat.
- Chazon Ovadia Arba Taaniyot pg. 190 allows feeding meat to children until the year before Bar/Bat Mitzva. Rabbi David Yosef in torat hamoadim Siman 5 page 190 agrees. Ohr Letzion 3: pg. 245 3:26:6 allows it until Bar Mitzva. See Yalkut Yosef Chinuch p. 279 where he says that for a child who is even a little bit weak can eat meat during the nine days. He cites Yabia Omer YD 3:3 and 4:4.
- Rav Shmuel Fuerst (Three Weeks and Nine Days, min 29-30) quoting Rav Moshe Feinstein
- Chazon Ovadyah (Arba Taniyot pg 196-7). Rama Orach Chaim 551:10 allows eating meat for a seudat mitzva, and the Taz there explains that only someone would normally be invited to this seuda, may partake in this meat seuda during this time. If the Brit Milah is scheduled to be performed before the nine days, even if it has already been postponed, Shaare Teshuva 551:10 says you cannot postpone any further to allow eating meat, and one who does this is considered someone who breaches fences.
- Chazon Ovadyah (Arba Taniyot pg 200), Halichot Shlomo (Moadim vol 2 pg 415), Yad Yitzchak 3:230, Yad Efrayim 551:31, Divrei Yatziv 2:238. Divrei Yatziv actually says that if the bar-mitzva boy says words of torah, even if it's not the actual day that he turns 13 they can nevertheless eat meat. Even though this is not mentioned by the Rama Orach Chaim 551:10 as one of the meals you can eat meat for, Magen Avraham 225:4 says that a bar mitzva meal is a seudat mitzva, because just like siyum on a masechet is the celebration of the culmination of a mitzva, so too a bar mitzva is celebrating culminating the mitzva of chinuch.
- Chazon Ovadyah (Arba Taaniyot pg 196-8). Although the Rama Orach Chaim 551:10 writes that one should minimize the amount of guests invited to this meal, Rav Moshe Feinstein and Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach (cited in Nitei Gavriel 18:7), rule that if the one who completes the masechet eats in a communal dining room (such as a camp or hotel), all those who eat with him may participate. Rav Moshe Feinstein quoted in Moadei Yeshurun page 132 says that preferably one shouldn't hold a siyum of a masechet after the sixth of av. Aruch Hashulchan 551:28 says that since nowadays we do not properly celebrate the torah, preferably no siyums should be held during the nine days.
- Rav Eider in Halachos Of The Three Weeks p. 7
- She'erit Yosef vol. 2 page 56 by Rav Shlomo Wahrman
- Rav Moshe Feinstein (cited by Rav Eider in Halachos Of The Three Weeks p. 7) holds that after the 7th of Av they should not serve meat even at a siyum.
- Rav Eider in Halachos Of The Three Weeks p. 8 writes that it seems to him to be permitted to eat from the meal even if he missed hearing the siyum but he concludes that a rav should be consulted.
- Mishna Brurah 551:73 quotes the Eliya Rabba as forbidden to hasten or slow down one's learning in order to schedule a siyum for the nine days. He adds that if one wouldn't make a siyum if it weren't the nine days then one shouldn't make a special siyum just because it is the nine days. Kaf Hachayim on Shulchan Arukh, Orach Chayim 551:161 quotes the Pitchei Olam 551:45 who brings a proof from Moed Katan 9a that it is permitted to save the last bit of learning in order to make a siyum later and the Kaf Hachayim applies it to the nine days. See Shem Aryeh. Kaf Hachayim also says that it is permitted to hasten one's learning in order to make a siyum as long as one doesn't sacrifice in understanding. Rav Shmuel Fuerst (Three Weeks and Nine Days, min 30-31) permitted delaying a siyum for the nine days.
- Sh"t Teshuvot VeHanhagot 2:263, Piskei Teshuvot 551:46
- Rabbi Ayreh Lebowitz, Moadei Yeshurun (pg 128) quoting Rav Moshe Feinstein, Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach in Halichot Shlomo (Moadim, vol 2, chap 14, note 7), MeBayit Levi (vol 13, pg 22, note 5) quoting Rav Wosner, Sh"t Rivevot Ephraim 3:333, 4:135:14, 6:285:2, and Shevet HaKehati 1:169:4. Rabbi Eider quotes Rav Moshe Feinstein (Iggerot Moshe Even Haezer 4:84) as holding that even during the nine days if one is sweating or dirty and wants to wash off it is permissible to dip in the pool for a short time. Shaarim Mitzuyanim Bihalacha (kuntres acharon 122:12) is lenient with children swimming in private area during the nine days, but not in public, like camps.
- Yalkut Yosef (Shevua SheChal Bo #14) writes that strictly speaking the Sephardic minhag would allow swimming in cold water during Shevua SheChal Bo, however, because of danger it's proper to refrain from it. This is the position of Rav Ovadya Yosef in Sh"t Yechave Daat 1:38. Rabbi Mansour on dailyhalacha.com however, writes that swimming during Shevua SheChal Bo is forbidden because of bathing. See also Or Letzion 3:25:5 and Magen Avot.
- Rama Orach Chaim 551:16
- Yalkut Yosef 551:13. Shulchan Aruch O.C. 551:16 writes that the practice in some places is to refrain from bathing during the week which Tisha BeAv falls out and some places have the practice not to bathe during the entire Nine Days.
- Aruch Hashulchan 551:37 writes that it is permitted for someone who is dirty to bathe normally since he is doing so for cleanliness and not pleasure. Igrot Moshe EH 4:84:4 writes similarly that someone sweaty on a hot day can shower during the nine days.
- See Shevet Halevi 7:77 who rules that someone sweaty can shower in cold water with part of the body at a time but he adds that it is up to a God-fearing person when to be lenient about this. Vayivarech Dovid 1:74 permits showering to remove sweat even with soap.
- Mishnah Brurah 551:20 based on the Taz 551:13, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 122:5. Magen Avraham 551:13 permits cutting nails even during the week of.
- Mishna Brurah 551:20
- Eliya Rabbah 551, Yad Efraim 551, Kaf Hachaim 551:48, Piskei Teshuvot 551:19
- Kaf Hachaim 551:49
- Mishna Brurah 551:20
- Yalkut Yosef (Moadim p. 560)
- Rivevot Efraim 1:374 quotes one gadol who said that it was forbidden to take pleasurable trips during the nine days. Afterwards, he writes that this is hard to understand and isn't included in the prohibition of binyan shel simcha.
- Rivevot Efraim 1:374 quoting Rav Moshe Bick, Rav Chaim Pinchas Scheinberg, and Rav Munk writes that it is permitted to cut one's grass during the nine days, but on Tisha BeAv itself one should be strict not to.
- Rama Orach Chaim 551:7
- The Rama Orach Chaim 551:7 writes that since it is forbidden to mend a garment during the nine days, certainly it is forbidden to buy a new garment then. The Kaf Hachaim 551:21 explains that according to Shulchan Aruch this is permitted. Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 551:2 only forbids buying items during the nine days if it leads to happiness such as buying an item for a wedding, but not in general. This also seems to be the opinion of the Ben Ish Chai (Shana Rishona, Devarim no. 2). See, however, Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 554:22. Mikraei Kodesh (Ben Hametzarim 13:2) quotes Rav Mordechai Eliyahu as being strict about buying garments during the nine days and Rav Ovadia Yosef as being lenient. Yet, Chazon Ovadia (Ben Hametzarim p. 208) seems to accept the custom that one should be strict not to buy new garments during the nine days. Or Letzion 3:26:2 is strict.
- Magen Avraham 551:7 and Mishna Brurah 551:9 write that it is forbidden to wear new garments during the Nine Days including Shabbat. Even though the Biur Halacha 551:6 s.v. kelim says it is permitted to wear a new undershirt on Shabbat Chazon, the Piskei Teshuvot 551:26 quotes Rav Sraya Deblitzky in his sefer Tisha Bav Shechal Byom Eched who is bothered by the seeming contradiction in the Mishna Brurah.
- Mishna Tanit 26b, Rambam Taniyot 5:6, Shulchan Aruch O.C. 551:3
- Rama Orach Chaim 551:4
- Rabbi Ba in Yerushalmi Tanit 4:6 explains that if Tisha B'av falls out on Shabbat and the fast is delayed until Sunday the restrictions of the week of Tisha B'av don't apply. The Rosh (Tanit 4:32) and Ran (Tanit 9b s.v. yerushalmi) accept the Yerushalmi. However, the Smag (Asin Derabbanan 3) writes the minhag is to forbid the entire week of Tisha B'av even when it falls out on Shabbat. Hagahot Maimiyot (Taniyot 5:5), Smak 96, and Kol Bo (Feldheim 5769 Edition, 62 s.v. vkesat, fnt. 148) agree. Shulchan Aruch O.C. 551:4 rules like the Yerushalmi. Rama is strict because either way Ashkenazim don't launder clothing or wear laundered clothing for all Nine Days and don't cut their hair all Three Weeks.
- In the rishonim there are three possible haftorot.
- The Gemara Megillah 31b writes that we should recite the haftorah of Chazon Yishayahu when Rosh Chodesh Av is on Shabbat.
- Tosfot Megillah 31b s.v. rosh explains that today we don't do that because we have the practice like the pesikta to read the three haftorot of destruction between shiva asar btamuz and tisha bav: Divrei Yirmiyahu, Shimu Dvar Hashem, and Chazon Yishyahu. Darkei Moshe 425:1 quotes this practice from the Avudraham, Mordechai (Megillah n. 821), and Minhagim (R' Tirna, Minhag Chodesh Av p. 77). Rama O.C. 425:1 writes that the minhag is to read Shimu Dvar Hashem (Yirmiyahu 2:4) when Rosh Chodesh Av is on Shabbat, as part of the three haftorah's of destruction (Heb. ג' דפרענותא; trans. gimmel d'paranuta). Kaf Hachayim 425:14 and Yalkut Yosef 425:2 agree with the minhag to read Shimu Dvar Hashem. Yalkut Yosef writes that it is proper to add the first and last pasuk of Hashamayim Kisiy. See Yachava Daat 3:42 and 4:35.
- Tosfot Pesachim 40b s.v. aval writes that the minhag is to read the haftorah of hashamayim kisiy, the regular haftorah for Rosh Chodesh. Trumat Hadeshen 19 says that in a place where there is no established minhag they should read hashamayim kisiy because it is tadir. Rama 425:1 codifies this opinion if there's no minhag. Gra 425:8 disagrees and always prefer Shimu. He claims that Tosfot Pesachim 40b s.v. aval is a scribal error, though the same text is found in Tosfot Shantz Pesachim 40b s.v. aval. (See Tosfot Harosh Pesachim 40b s.v. aval which is unclear since it isn't clear what his text in the pesikta was.) Mishna Brurah 425:8 and Kaf Hachayim 425:16 codify the Gra.