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Tu BiShevat, the fifteenth of the month of Shevat, is the new year for the trees. 
Practices Relevant to the Day
- There is no Tachanun on Tu BiShevat.  It is also not recited during the mincha prior to Tu Bishvat.  The same is true of saying tzidkatcha on Shabbat afternoon.  However, ashkenazim still recite Lamnatzeach. 
- Public fast days should not be proclaimed on Tu Bishvat.  Even those who have the custom to fast on their wedding day shouldn't do so if it falls out on Tu B'shvat. 
- Some have the custom to wear their Shabbat clothing in honor of Tu Bishvat. 
- One should try to learn the halachot related to Tu B'Shevat such as the halachot of maaser of fruits. 
- The minhag is to increase the amount of tree fruits one usually eats on Tu BiShevat.  One reason for this minhag is to remind us to pray for the welfare of the trees in the coming year.
- Some have the custom to have a seder of eating fruits on Tu Bishvat. 
- Some have the minhag to eat carob on Tu Bishvat. 
- The custom of eating fruits applies to women as well. 
- Some people have the custom of eating a special seuda on Tu Bishevat. 
- There is a minhag to eat etrog jam on Tu B'Shvat.  Some say that one should recite shehechiyanu when doing so.  Other disagree. 
- Some say that one should pray that he will have a nice etrog the next Sukkot.  This may even be done on Shabbat 
Checking Fruit for Bugs
- As always, one must be sure that the fruit he is eating is clean from bugs.  see Checking for Bugs
Laws of Terumot and Maaserot
- Mishna Rosh Hashana 1:1, Gemara Rosh Hashana 2a according to Beit Hillel, Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 572:3, Shulchan Aruch YD 331:57 and 125, Mishna Brurah 131:31, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 139:26-27, Yalkut Yosef Moadim pg. 247, Chazon Ovadia Tu Bishvat pg. 1, Rav Avraham Chaim Noeh (Sefer Shenot Chayim in Mikor Chaim 31:1), Moadim Biahalacha pg. 185
- Shulchan Aruch 131:6, Beit Yosef 131 from the Rokeach 312, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 22:8 and 139:26, Yalkut Yosef Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 131:36 and Moadim pg. 248. The Gra 131:13 writes that this is because the 4 new years listed in the Mishna in Rosh Hashana 2a are considered Yamim Tovim.
- Mishna Brurah 131:32, Levush 131:6 (and OC Minhagim 14), Yalkut Yosef Moadim pg. 248 and Kaf HaChaim 131:101. Aruch Hashulchan 131:12 writes that according to the Shulchan Aruch tachanun would be recited during the mincha before Tu Bishvat, although he adds that the minhag is obviously not like that.
- Pri Megadim Eshel Avraham 131:16, Yalkut Yosef Moadim pg. 248
- Eliya Rabba 131:14
- Shulchan Aruch 572:3, Maharam Rutenberg 51 in the name of Rabbeinu Gershom (Sh"t Rabbeinu Gershom 14) that since it is compared to the other rosh hashana, and it is forbidden to fast on those, it should be forbidden on Tu Bishvat as well. So rule Maharam Bar Baruch 412 and Tashbetz 110.
- Mishna Brura 573:7, Yalkut Yosef Moadim pg. 247 (though he adds that the sephardic custom is not to fast on one's wedding day in the first place)
- Minhag Yisrael Torah 131:5
- The Aderet (Nefesh David 15) writes that he would learn the halachot of maaser in the Rambam and in the gemara Rosh Hashana. see also Halacha Yomit of Chacham Ovadia Yosef
- Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 139:26, Magen Avraham OC 131:16, Tikkun Yissachar pg. 25, Kaf Hachaim 131:97, Mishna Brurah 131:31 and 225:19, Yalkut Yosef Moadim pg. 248:5, Moadim LiSimcha vol. 3 pg. 20-27
- Ilan Ilan Bamah Yivarechacha p. 7 quoting Adnei Paz 131
- Moed Likol Chai 30:7-8 quotes several customs with what exactly to do to celebrate with a seder. see dailyhalacha by Rabbi Eli Mansour for how it should be done
- Chabad.org see there for reasons
- Nitei Gavriel Purim 4:pg. 69.
- Moadim Lisimcha 3: pg. 34-35
- Kaf Hachaim 664:60, Yalkut Yosef Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 665:4 and Moadim pg 248, Elef Hamagen 660:6. Kaf Hachaim adds that if a pregnant woman eats this jam she will have an easy labor
- Halachically Speaking Vol. 8 Issue 1.
- Ben Ish Chai Year 1 Parashat Reeh halacha 12 writes that shehechiyanu should not be recited, as it has already been said on sukkot when it was taken with the daled minim and that covers the eating as well. Yalkut Yosef Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 225:10 and Moadim pg. 248 agrees but writes that a woman may recite shehecheyanu since she didn't do so on Sukkot. Therefore, Yalkut Yosef Moadim pg. 250 says that one should have in mind on sukkot when reciting shehechiyanu to cover the eating as well
- Ben Ish Chai in his Lashon Chachamim 1:35 composed a special tefilla (see link or english translation to be said, Taamei Haminhagim 866, Bnei Yissaschar Shevat 2:2. see also Halacha Yomit of Chacham Ovadia Yosef
- Halichot Shlomo 1:17 note 14
- Halacha Yomit of Chacham Ovadia Yosef