From Halachipedia
Revision as of 17:35, 13 July 2023 by YitzchakSultan1 (talk | contribs)

(diff) ← Older revision | Approved revision (diff) | Latest revision (diff) | Newer revision → (diff)

The prohibition of Molid (making creative changes to a substance or creating a new entity on Shabbat) is general in nature and has many applications. [1]

Crushing and Melting Ice

  1. One may not crush ice on Shabbat, but one may place ice cubes into a cup of water and have them melt on their own.[2]
  2. It is best not to place the ice cubes in the empty cup and then pour water on top of the ice to chill or cool the water since doing so is inevitably going to melt the ice.[3]
  3. One may walk on ice or snow on Shabbat and it is not a concern of melting ice.[4]
  4. One may melt ice on shabbat if the water which comes out goes to waste. Therefore, ice can be disposed of in the sink, or one may cool a bottle with ice. [5]
  5. One can put out salt on ice or snow so that people can walk since one's intent isn't for the ice and one isn't actively melting the ice.[6]
  6. One may place ice into a cup of liquid but one shouldn’t accelerate the melting by pressing the ice. [7] According to Sephardim one may shake the cup even if that accelerates the melting. [8]
  7. One shouldn’t put ice in a cup in order for the ice to melt and drink the water. If one did so, it’s advisable not to use the water but it’s not forbidden. [9]
  8. One should not place ice in a cup and intend to drink it when it melts. [10]
  9. One should not have a frozen milk or juice container melt or thaw unless there's an important need for the liquid. [11]
  10. One may break ice cubes that are frozen together in an ice tray because one does not intend to produce water from the breaking.[12]
  11. One may pour some water over the ice cubes so that he would be able to remove the ice cubes from the ice tray. [13]

Making Ice on Shabbat

  1. One shouldn’t make ice on Shabbat unless one feels that one really needs them on Shabbat.[14] Some permit making ice for Shabbat under all circumstances.[15] Sephardim are lenient and allow one to make ice on Shabbat.[16]
  2. One may put food into the freezer or refrigerator.[17]


Snow on Shabbat

Defrosting food

  1. One may remove food from the freezer in order to thaw in order to eat it on Shabbat but not if it won’t be ready until after Shabbat. [18]

Ice Cream

  1. It’s permissible to melt ice cream in order to eat it as long as one doesn’t put in a place of 113 degrees. [19]
  2. One shouldn’t make ice cream from powder on Shabbat unless it’s a thin mixture, one puts the ingredients in the reverse order than usual, and one stirs it differently. [20]

Cooling a hot pot

  1. A may not place hot (over 113 degree) solid food or a Kli Rishon in cold water. However, one may place a Kli Sheni into cold water. [21]

Using whipped cream

  1. Some poskim hold that it is forbidden to use whipped topping or whipped cream from a can on Shabbat. [22] Others however, disagree.[23]

Brushing Teeth

  1. Some poskim raise the issue of molid with regards to brushing teeth on Shabbat [24]


  1. Some poskim raise the issue of molid with regards to electricity on Shabbat [25]


  1. Background
    The gemara Shabbat 51b writes that one may not crush now but may place it into a glass on Shabbat. There are a few different approaches to why it would be prohibited to crush snow:
    1. Rashba there explains that the prohibition is based on the prohibition of sechita (squeezing), that just as it is forbidden to squeeze fruit it is forbidden to squeeze ice. Maggid Mishne Rambam Shabbat 21:13 writes that the Rambam agrees with this Rashba.
    2. Rashi 51b “kdei” writes that you are being “molid” on Shabbat, and it is like a melacha. The Rosh 4:13 understands the sefer hateruma 234-235 as saying a similar idea
    3. The aforementioned Rashba quotes the sefer hateruma 234-235 understands that the problem is based on the muktzeh category of nolad. Since the result will be muktzeh since it is a newly created item, it would be prohibited.
  2. Gemara Shabbat 51b, Shulchan Aruch 320:9, 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 364, 368), Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 1:74, Yalkut Yosef 320:31
  3. Piskei Teshuvot 320:14 writes that it is best not to place ice in a cup and then pour water on top of it to cool the water since pouring the water melts the ice. In fnt. 154 he cites the Migdanot Eliyahu 2:105 who isn't certain if it is permitted. Shabbat Khalacha 17:3 is also strict. See Minchat Shay 320:9. Rav Mordechai Eliyahu in Sh"t Maamar Mordechai 4:83 is lenient.
  4. Rabbi Mansour on, 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 368), Mishna Brurah 320:39, Yalkut Yosef (Shabbat v. 3 Sechita Bshaar Dvarim 320:25)
  5. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 10:1
  6. Yalkut Yosef (Shabbat v. 3 Sechita Bshaar Dvarim 320:24). He references Lev Avraham 1:49 as also being lenient.
  7. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 10:2
  8. Daily Halacha, Kaf Hachayim 320:60, Yalkut Yosef 320:27. Sh"t Lev Chaim 2:192 is stringent however.
  9. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 10:3
  10. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 1:74
  11. 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 358)
  12. 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 367), Yalkut Yosef 320:29
  13. Yalkut Yosef 320:30 in the footnote, Sh"t Az Nidberu 6:5 and 10:11
  14. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 10:4 and 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 370) write that one shouldn't make ice on Shabbat unless a need arises. A Guide to Practical Halacha (Shabbat v. 3 p. 155 n. 58) quoting Rav Moshe Feinstein agrees. Dovev Mesharim 1:55, Shevet Halevi 3:55, and Chelkat Yaakov 2:98 also say not to make ice on Shabbat.
  15. The Shabbos Kitchen 177 footnote 22 quotes Or Hashabbos 4:107 in the name of Rav Moshe Feinstein that you can make ice because it has no permanence. Mesoret Moshe v. 2 p. 66 also quotes Rav Moshe as holding that you can make ice on Shabbat. See also Tzitz Eliezer 6:34 and 8:12 as well as Minchat Yitzchak 8:24.
  16. Or Letzion 2:32:3, Rabbi Eli Mansour on Or Lezion explains that there's no nolad while changing the form of a liquid to solid or vice versa for Sephardim (SA O.C. 318:16).
  17. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 10:5, 10:9
  18. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 10:5, 10
  19. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 10:8
  20. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 8:9, 10:6
  21. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 1:73
  22. 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 371), Halachically Speaking (vol 4, Issue 16, pg 5) quoting Rav Yisrael Belsky (also in Shulchan Halevi 9:9), Shabbos Kitchen page 169 in the name of Rav Menashe Klein and Rav Moshe Stern.
  23. Rivevot Ephraim 8:158:11 quotes that Rav Chaim Pinchas Scheinberg, Rav Dovid Feinstein and Rav Yaakov Yisrael Fisher were lenient and allowed it. Rabbi Aharon Felder (Rishumei Ahron vol. 2 page 30, 321:3) writes that this was the opinion of Rav Moshe Feinstein. See Mesoret Moshe (v. 3 OC n. 190). Rav Daniel Mann quotes that Rav Mordechai Willig is lenient because the change from thick liquid to a foam isn't enough of a change to be considered molid. see Rabbi Aryeh Lebowitz for an elaboration.
  24. see Brushing Teeth on Shabbat
  25. see Electricity on Shabbat
Category Topic
Mitzvot of Shabbat
Kiddush Levana - Enjoying Shabbat - Fourth meal of Shabbat - Havdalah - Having a meal on Friday - In the Spirit of Shabbat - Kiddush - Lighting Shabbat Candles - Making Early Shabbat - Making one hundred Brachot on Shabbat - Preparing foods on Shabbat - Preparing for Shabbat - Shenayim Mikrah - Kavod Shabbat - Shabbos Davening - Seudat Shabbat - Seudat Shelishit - Lechem Mishneh - Motzei Shabbat - When Does Shabbat Start?
Restrictions of Shabbat
Allowing Carrying Using an Eruv Chatzerot - Animals on Shabbat - Asking a Jew to work on Shabbat - Asking a non-Jew to work on Shabbat (Amirah LeNochri) - Benefiting from a Violation of Shabbat (Maaseh Shabbat) - Books, notebooks, and papers - Brushing Teeth on Shabbat - Building a structure on Shabbat (Boneh) - Carrying on Shabbat - Cleaning the dishes - Cleaning and Folding Garments on Shabbat - Clearing the table - Cooking (Ofeh and Bishul) - Cosmetics on Shabbat - Dancing and clapping on Shabbat - Electricity on Shabbat - Eruv Chatzerot - Eruvin - Games on Shabbat - Getting dressed on Shabbat - Giving birth on Shabbat - Grinding (Tochen) - Handling objects on Shabbat (Muktzeh) - Infants on Shabbat - Introduction to the Modern Eruv - Kneading (Lash) - Mail on Shabbat - Medicine on Shabbat (Refuah on Shabbat) - Melacha That Begins Before Shabbat - Opening bottles and containers (Boneh) - Plants on Shabbat (Zoreah) - Preparing for after Shabbat (Hachana) - Reading on Shabbat (Daber Davar) - Recreation on Shabbat - Sechirut Reshut - Separating mixtures (Borer) - Squeezing fruits (Sechita) - Speaking on Shabbat (Daber Davar) - Taking a cruise over Shabbat - Taking measurements on Shabbat - Techum - Transactions on Shabbat - Transportation on Shabbat - Going to and Staying in the Hospital on Shabbat - Wages on Shabbat (Sachar Shabbat) - Washing one’s body on Shabbat
Introduction to Melechet Machshevet - Marbeh Bshiurim - Plowing - Planting - Harvesting - Gathering - Threshing - Winnowing - Separating - Grinding - Sifting - Kneading - Baking and Cooking - Shearing - Laundering - Combing - Dyeing - Spinning - Mounting warp threads - Making two loops - Weaving - Unraveling fabric - Tying - Untying - Gluing, taping, or stapling - Ripping - Trapping - Slaughtering - Skinning - Tanning - Smoothing - Scoring - Cutting precisely - Writing - Erasing - Building - Demolishing - Completing a vessel - Extinguishing a flame - Kindling a fire - Carrying