Medicine on Shabbat

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A rabbinic decree that our Sages enacted in order to guard the sanctity of Shabbat is the restriction of use of medications on Shabbat. In the opinion and experience of the Rabbis, easy access to medicine could lead to the transgression of certain melachot (Shabbat labors). While issuing the decree, however, the Rabbis were lenient in certain cases of those suffering pain or distress.[1] (See the footnote for some background.)[2] These laws are true for the first day of Yom Tov and the two days of Rosh Hashana as well.[3]

Taking Medicine

If one has a minor condition (Meychush BeAlma)

  1. If someone has a minor condition which hurts such as a tooth ache, throat ache, head ache, cold, or cough it is forbidden to take any medicine. However, someone who is in a lot of pain to the point that he is laying in bed or he can't function normally due to his weakness, as is the case with a migraine, it permitted to take medicine.[4]
  2. Some poskim allow a person who is accustomed to take pain killers for a head ache or tooth ache to take pain killers on Shabbat if otherwise he will be in pain.[5]

If one has a sickness (Choleh Shein Bo Sakana)

  1. If one has fever, feels weak all over, or feels bad enough to require bed rest, he can be classified as a “patient not dangerously ill” (Choleh Shein Bo Sakana) and he is permitted to take oral medications.[6]
  2. Since “requiring bed rest” and “weak all over” are subjective terms, it is up to each individual to determine his personal pain threshold. There is no requirement to be overly stringent when judging the degree of illness.[7]
  3. Some poskim hold that it is forbidden to perform a biblically prohibited action on Shabbat (melacha deoritta) for someone who is in the category of "patient not dangerously ill" even if one does it in an abnormal manner (Shinui).[8] Some, however, hold that it is permitted to do actions in an abnormal way (Shinui) for a "patient not dangerously ill."[9]

If One is Critically Ill (Choleh Sheyesh Bo Sakana)

  1. It is permitted and a mitzvah to violate Shabbat in order to save a Jewish life.[10] Even if there is only a doubt if the patient is critically ill[11] or if there is a doubt if the procedure will save the patient's life,[12] nonetheless, it is a mitzvah to violate Shabbat in order to try to save a Jewish life.
  2. Someone who delays in saving a life out of a concern of violating Shabbat is sinning in a way that is tantamount to murder.[13] This is only true of a situation that needs to be dealt with immediately. In that case, it is forbidden to delay. But in a case of potential danger that is certainly not an immediate emergency it is correct and necessary to ask questions to minimize the violation of Shabbat.[14]
  3. A rabbi should be careful to teach his community that it is permitted and a mitzvah to violate Shabbat for life endangering concerns.[15]
  4. A person should violate Shabbat in order to save a non-Jew or non-religious Jew.[16]
  5. A person should violate Shabbat in order to save someone who tried to commit suicide.[17]
  6. After calling for help, one may hang up the phone if there will be further needs (various instruction, medical history, etc). However, if the patient has already been transported to the hospital and is absolutely certain that no further information will be needed, then one may not end the call.[18]

Pikuach Nefesh

  1. If there's a danger that is life threatening after Shabbat and he cannot or he doesn't know if he can save the person from the danger at that time, it is permitted on Shabbat to violate Shabbat to prevent the danger. However, if he can prevent the danger after Shabbat he must do so and not violate Shabbat.[19]
  2. If there's a pikuach nefesh (life-threatening situation) it isn't an obligation for others to experience pain to minimize the violation of Shabbat that the one who is in pikauch nefesh would have to do.
    1. For example, if a doctor needs light to treat a choleh sheyesh bo sakana and there's a candle in another room, it is preferable to carry the candle from one room to the other instead of lighting a new candle. However, if taking the candle from the other room is going to cause a lot of pain to someone else, such as if there's someone else in the room with the candle who is sleeping and taking the candle will wake him up. There's no obligation for that person to experience pain in order to minimize the melacha that the doctor or choleh sheyesh bo sakana need to do for pikuach nefesh.[20]
    2. If someone has an emergency and needs to go to the hospital and he can either call an ambulance or ask his neighbor to drive him to the hospital. Is his neighbor obligated to drive him to the hospital to minimize the amount of driving on Shabbat that will be done? Rav Shlomo Zalman seems to hold that it is not necessary. However, Rav Nissim Karelitz argues that it is an obligation of that neighbor even though it will very inconvenient to be stuck at the hospital for the rest of the day.[21]
    3. If a live wire fell in the street there's no obligation to stand there all day to warn people from becoming injured by it. Instead, he may call the electric company to fix it.[22]
  3. If a person is informed of a relative who is very sick and it is pikuach nefesh for him to travel there on Shabbat to help save that relative, he may go. In that situation he may not call to someone there to check that the relative is still alive since doing so doesn't help the patient. Calling just to minimize desecration of Shabbat is not permitted.[23]


  1. If a child needs a vaporizer to alleviate discomfort (from bronchitis etc.), one may ask a non-Jew to plug it in on Shabbos to ease his pain. While some prohibit adding cold water to a cold water vaporizer,[24] others permit it if you pour it through the spout.[25] If it is a hot water vaporizer one may take previously boiled water from an urn and refill it.[26]
  2. Healthy infants and babies until the age of three (and according to some poskim even older children till the age of six or nine) are also halachically classified as “patients not dangerously ill.”[27] (In the final analysis, it all depends on the strength and maturity of the child.) [28] Therefore, they are permitted to take all forms of medicine, provided, of course, that no Biblical prohibitions are transgressed. [29]
  3. In a case where the child is under three months and appears to be ill, if his temperature is not that high, but merely a notch over 100 degrees, one can still desecrate the Shabbos (call a doctor, drive if a non-Jew cannot be found etc.) as temperature for a newborn can be indicative of something more serious.[30] If time is not of essence one should obviously initially look to engage a non-Jew in any prohibited activity. [31]

Preparing medicine from before Shabbat

  1. One may crush a capsule or tablet of medicine so that it is mixed into a food or drink before Shabbat. Once it becomes disguised by the food one can eat the food or drink on Shabbat.[32] If one didn't do it before Shabbat, some allow mixing in a liquid medicine into a drink on Shabbat.[33]

Continuing to take a daily dosage

  1. Although one who is not classified as “ill” may not begin taking medicine on Shabbat, still, some poskim hold that one who requires daily medication for an ongoing condition may continue doing so on Shabbat as well,[34] while others disagree.[35]
  2. Some say that one may only take an ongoing medication on Shabbat if skipping a day of medication would be detrimental to the patient's health or if the medication must be taken for a number of consecutive days such that it is impossible not to take it on Shabbat.[36] Other poskim hold that it is forbidden to take an ongoing antibiotic even if one started before Shabbat and needs to take it every day.[37]

Non-medical treatment

Using a Band Aid

  1. It is permitted to put on a band aid on a wound.[38]
  2. According to Ashkenazim, one should not remove a band aid on Shabbat if there is hair in the area of the band aid. However, if it is painful one may remove it.[39] However, Sephardim are more lenient as long as there is a need to remove it, it's permissible.[40]
  3. Most authorities permit removing the Band-Aid from the protective tabs, while some are stringent and so to satisfy all opinions one should prepare Band-Aids for Shabbat by peeling off their protective tabs and re-sealing them before Shabbat.[41]

Cleaning a wound

  1. It is permitted to clean and bandage a wound or to pour hydrogen peroxide over it.[42] Note that doctors today do not recommend this.[43] The recommended solution is to wash the wound with soap and water.


  1. Braces may be worn on Shabbat because there is no medicine for aligning teeth properly.[44]


  1. One may not exercise on Shabbat. If one needs to do physical therapy they should consult their rabbi.[45]
  2. Someone health may not do physical therapy on Shabbat. However, someone who is a Choleh Shein Bo Sakana or someone who whom not doing physical therapy might lead to a worse problem may do physical therapy on Shabbat. Breathing and speech therapy are permitted on Shabbat.[46]

Specific conditions


  1. An abscess may be squeezed to relieve pressure from pus, even if some blood is secreted in the process. [47]


  1. All medication for acne may not be taken on Shabbat. [48]


  1. All medication for angina are permitted to be taken on Shabbat. [49]


  1. Anti-inflammatory medication for mild arthritis are forbidden. [50]


  1. All oral and breathing medications for mild asthma are permitted to be taken on Shabbat. [51]

Athlete’s foot

  1. One may not use any medication for athlete’s foot on Shabbat. [52]

Baby Cream

  1. If a baby has a rash it is permitted to dab on some baby rash cream and not rub it in. If the cream would become completely absorbed into the skin and no trace would be left on the surface of the skin it would be permitted even to rub it in.[53]

Back or Neck Brace

  1. One may put on or remove a back or neck brace on Shabbat. [54]


  1. It is permissible to put on an ace bandage on Shabbat as long as you don't tie anything permanent. [55]

Bee sting

  1. If one has a bee or wasp sting the stinger may be removed and the area may be washed with ice water, lemon juice or vinegar, etc. The area may not be soaked, however, in those liquids. [56]
  2. One may use liquid or spray insect repellent on Shabbat. [57]

Birth control

  1. It's permissible to take birth control pills on Shabbat (assuming she received halachic permission to take these pills). [58]

Bone Fracture

  1. For a simple bone fracture a non-Jew may be asked to do anything necessary, e.g., make a phone call, drive a car, take x-rays or put on a cast. [If a non-Jew is not available, some poskim permit a Jew to do these acts if they are done with a shinui, in an abnormal manner. [59]] If there is even a small chance of internal bleeding, e.g., the thigh or pelvis bone was fractured, or if the elbow was shattered, all Shabbat restrictions are lifted. [60]

Bow Legged Baby

  1. It is forbidden to straighten the legs of a bow-legged baby on Shabbat since doing so is considered an act of healing.[61]


  1. Since cellulitis may be life-threatening immediate medical attention is required. [62]

Chapped Hands

  1. For dried (or chapped) hands it is prohibited to rub them with either oil, ointment (Vaseline) or lotion. [63]One who regularly uses a pourable, liquid lotion or oil on his hands (whether they are chapped or not) may do so on Shabbat, too, even if his hands are chapped.[64]

Chapped Lips

  1. For dried or cracked lips one may not apply chap stick or any other medication, liquid or otherwise. [65]


  1. For a cold one may not take medications or vitamins. [66] unless one is experiencing discomfort in his whole body or is bedridden. However, one may eat chicken soup or tea with honey to obtain relief.[67]

Contact Lenses

  1. Some poskim permit putting soft contact lenses in contact solution.[68] Others permit putting them in saline solution but not the disinfectant solution. Hard contacts are like dishes which can be cleaned.[69]
  2. Sephardim hold that it is permitted to soak contact lenses in their solution on Shabbat. [70]


  1. Cough–medication may not be taken.[71] If the cough may be an indication of pneumonia or asthma, medication is permitted.[72]

Conception Pills

  1. Some poskim permit taking pills for conception.[73]


  1. It is permitted to use a spray deodorant on Shabbat. Some say that one shouldn't use an antiperspirant deodorant on Shabbat since it is medicinal.[74]


  1. All necessary medications for diabetes may be taken on Shabbat. [75]


  1. For diarrhea one may not take medication unless one is in severe pain or weak all over. Any food or drink is permitted. A hot water bottle is permitted when one experiences strong pains.[76]

Dislocated Limb

  1. Many poskim hold that it is permitted to push a dislocated limb back into place on Shabbat.[77]

Ear Infection

  1. For an ear infection all medications are permitted. Cotton balls may be inserted. [78] Even if the infection is no longer present, prescribed medicine begun on a weekday must be continued until finished in order to avoid a relapse. [79]

Eye Inflammation

  1. For an eye inflammation eye drops (or ointment) may be instilled in the eye. If the eye is not inflamed but merely irritated, no medication is permitted. [80] Some permit putting in eye drops even if they are irritated.[81]
  2. If the patient feels a stabbing pain in the eye, major pains, or has a sharp drop in vision suddenly he can violate Shabbat to be healed.[82]


  1. For a fever any oral medications may be taken. A mercury thermometer may be used. [83] If a person is suffering from high-grade fever, a non-Jew may be asked to do whatever the patient needs in order to feel better. [84] If the cause of the fever is unknown, a doctor should be consulted.
  2. A regular fever can be treated with oral medication should be treated as a Choleh Shein Bo Sakana who can have medicine. If the fever is abnormal such as if it is 104 degrees Fahrenheit or more, it isn't reduced by medicine and its cause is unknown, a person can violate Shabbat because it is a Safek Choleh Sheyesh Bo Sakana. For a child or elderly person even if the fever isn't so high one can violate Shabbat to heal them.[85]


  1. For a headache medication should not be taken. If the headache is severe enough so that one feels weak all over or is forced to go to bed, medication may be taken. One who is unsure if he has reached that stage of illness may be lenient and take pain- relieving medication.[86]


  1. For heartburn foods which will have a soothing effect may be eaten. Some poskim permit taking anti-acid medication while others are stringent. If the medicine is prescribed by a doctor, one may be lenient.[87]


  1. For a mild case of hemorrhoids medication may not be taken. For a severe case, it is permitted to sit in a “sitz bath” (with water that heated before Shabbat), or use medicated pads or suppositories.[88]

Herniated Disc

  1. For a herniated disc (back and leg pain) ice packs or hot packs are permitted. Physical therapy exercises, e.g. stretching, are permitted. If the pain is severe to the degree that the entire body is in pain, painkillers or other medications are permitted as well.[89]


  1. One may take a leisurely walk in order to help digestion. [90]
  2. One may drink prune juice in order to act as a laxative. [91]


  1. For an infection all medications are permitted. [92]


  1. For lactose intolerance, some poskim rule that one may not take enzyme supplement tablets. But it is permitted to add enzyme drops to liquid dairy foods before Shabbat and drink the dairy on Shabbat. [93] Others are lenient.[94]


  1. For a migraine headache any oral medications may be taken. [95]


  1. It is permitted to use mouthwash on Shabbat.[96] See the Brushing Teeth on Shabbat page for more on this topic.


  1. For a nosebleed bleeding may be stopped with a tissue or a napkin. If none is available, a cloth napkin may be used. [97]

Raynaud’s Syndrome

  1. One who is ill or in need of using chemical hand warmers on Shabbat, such as in the case of Raynaud's syndrome, or a soldier on guard duty who must remain alert may do so on Shabbat.[98] See Getting_Dressed_on_Shabbat#Hand_Warmers_on_Shabbat for the fuller discussion.

Psychotic Break

  1. A psychotic break is a Choleh Sheyesh Bo Sakana. [99]

Retinal Tear

  1. If the retina of the eye becomes torn or detached one should go to the hospital or one's doctor immediately.[100]


  1. One may insert and remove a retainer on Shabbat. [101]


  1. It is permitted to remove a scab as long as blood is not drawn from the wound. [102]

Sleep disorder

  1. There are conflicting views among contemporary poskim about taking sleeping pills or No-Doze pills.[103] One who is weak all over or bedridden may take them.
  2. Cotton balls may be used as ear plugs. It is permitted to use pliable ear plugs, which are made from a wax-like material that spreads to fill the cavity of the ear. [104]

Sore throat

  1. For a sore throat medication may not be taken. Gargling is prohibited.[105] Drinking tea or any other hot drink, or sucking a candy, is permitted even if the intention is for medicinal purposes. [106]


  1. A splinter under the skin may be extracted with the fingers, or with tweezers or a needle. If, unavoidably, a little blood is secreted in the process, it is of no consequence. [107]


  1. For a sprain, if the patient is not experiencing severe pain, nothing should be done. If the patient is experiencing severe pain, medication may be taken and a massage may be given. A makeshift splint may be applied, provided that no Shabbat Labors are transgressed.[108]


  1. A non-Jew is allowed to stitch any wound, even if the stitching is done only for cosmetic reasons.[109] Some say even a Jew can add extra stitches for cosmetic reasons.[110] A Jew may place a butterfly bandage or steri-strips to close a simple laceration or cut. Surgical skin closure glue may also be used.[111]

Stopping bleeding

  1. Pressure may be applied to a cut to stop bleeding. Sucking or squeezing out blood is prohibited. [112]
  2. It is permitted to remove a thorn slowly so that it won’t cause blood to come out. If it is impossible to remove without blood coming out it is nonetheless permitted to relieve pain.[113]

Strep throat

  1. For a strep throat all oral medications may be taken. Even if the infection is no longer present, the prescribed medicine begun on a weekday must be continued until finished. A culture may be taken by a non-Jew.[114]


  1. For a ordinary sunburn medications are not permitted.[115]


  1. It is permitted to sprinkle baby powder on those parts of the body which are perspiring. [116]


  1. It is permitted to press a knife, etc. against the skin to prevent or minimize swelling.[117]
  2. It is permitted to wash or soak the swollen area in water.[118] It is permitted to place a compress,[119] ice (placed in plastic bag) or any frozen item over a swollen area.[120] Some forbid applying an ice pack if it is clearly being done for medicinal reasons.[121]


  1. A minor (cavity) toothache may not be treated with painkillers, but one is permitted to drink whiskey, etc., provided that it is swallowed immediately.[122] A severe toothache (to the point where one feels weak all over) or gum infection may be treated with oral medication. If the tooth needs to be extracted, a non-Jew may be asked to do so.[123]


  1. Cuts and abrasions may be washed or soaked in water. It is not permitted, however, to soak absorbent cotton or paper in such a solution and then wash the wound with it. The wound may be covered with a non-medicated Band-Aid.[124]

Medicine after Candle Lighting before Kiddush

  1. One is permitted to drink water while taking a pill on Shabbos after candle lighting before Kiddush.[125]

Carrying a Pill

  1. One who needs to carry a pill on Shabbos in a place which does not have an eiruv should ask his Rav before doing so.[126]

Cutting Pills on Shabbos

  1. One is permitted to cut a tablet in half on Shabbos, and there is no concern of "mechatech" (cutting) on Shabbos.[127]

Purchasing the Medicine

  1. In situations where one is considered “ill” and is permitted to take medicine on Shabbat, it is also permitted to ask a non-Jew to drive to a drugstore, buy medicine and bring it to him.[128]


  1. It is permitted to vaccinate a healthy person on shabbat in a case where there is a risk that they will get sick and be endangered. If the doctor's opinion is that the vaccine is urgent then it is even permissible to violate Torah-level prohibitions, such as writing for registration purposes or driving in a car to buy the dose.[129]

Medical Plaster

  1. It is forbidden to cut or tear medical plaster on shabbat.[130]

Ripping the Packaging of a Medicine

  1. According to the opinion of some poskim, on Shabbos one should rip the wrapping around a medication by destroying it and making it useless.[131]

Specific medicines

Foods and drinks

  1. Even someone with a minor ailment may eat food which healthy people eat even if one’s intention is for improving one’s health. For example, someone who has a head ache may eat honey, a lemon, or suck on candy. Someone who has a hoarse throat may swallow a raw egg.[132]
  2. Foods and drinks are permitted even when they are consumed for medicinal purposes. For example, one may have tea for a sore throat on Shabbat.[133]

Tylenol or Aspirin

  1. Many poskim are of the opinion that Tylenol® and aspirin should not be taken even though healthy people may take them as well.[134] However, if one is in great pain then taking them is permitted.[135]
  2. Some are lenient to take ibuprofen if a person regularly takes them and if they don't take it they'll be in pain.[136]


  1. If the purpose of the vitamin is to serve as a food supplement it is permitted to take such a vitamin on Shabbat. [137]
  2. If the purpose of the vitamin is to strengthen a weak body or to relieve certain symptoms, in the opinion of many poskim, one may not take those vitamins on Shabbat. [138]
  3. Some say that a multi-vitamin that one takes everyday is permitted since it is a food and not a refuah.[139]

Elective Surgery

  1. One should make sure to schedule a non emergency surgery in the first three days of the week but not on or after Wednesday. However, after the fact and if one did the surgery at such a time and there is a situation of Pikuach Nefesh it is totally permissible to violate Shabbat like any other sick person in danger. [140] Sephardim could be lenient to schedule such a surgery on Wednesday but not past Thursday.[141]

Inducing labor

  1. It is permissible for a pregnant woman who is past her term to receive a hormone infusion to induce labor if the doctor feels that there danger to the life of the mother or fetus.[142]

Caesarian Section

  1. If according to the doctor a women has to have a caesarian section and she can choose to schedule the surgery, she should schedule for the first three days of the week and not Wednesday through Friday.[143]

A Doctor on Call

  1. A doctor who is on call and there is a sick patient under his or her care, some say that the doctor should stay in the hospital or nearby so that the doctor will not have to travel on Shabbat[144], while others are lenient if it will ruin the doctor and his family’s oneg Shabbat. [145]
  2. According to many poskim, a hatzolah member or doctor who was called into the hospital for an emergency can't drive home afterwards.[146] However, most poskim including those who do not allow the hatzolah member or doctor to drive home, allow him to ask a non-Jew to drive him home. Nonetheless, this leniency does not allow him to travel home even if he's driven by a non-Jew if he went beyond his techum.[147] Only those who are lenient for him to drive home allow him to return from beyond techum.[148]
    1. According to the lenient view who allows a hatzolah member to drive home, the same could be applied to a doctor who is on call and goes into the hospital for an emergency that he can drive home. However, this does not apply to a doctor who needs to go in for rounds or scheduled hours. Since he must go in for his job, according to absolutely everyone he may not drive home.[149] Others argue that even the lenient view wouldn't allow a doctor on call to return home.[150]
    2. Some write that according to the lenient view who allows a hatzolah member to drive home, that is only if he left on Shabbat for the emergency, but if it began before Shabbat it is forbidden.[151] Others disagree.[152]
    3. Some write that even according to the lenient view this only applies to going to save a Jew but not for a non-Jew. Even though it is permitted to violate Shabbat to save a non-Jew he may not violate Shabbat to return home.[153]
  3. If someone leaves to leave the techum for an emergency such as for a woman giving birth or a hatzolah member, he doesn’t need to remove any extra clothing he’s wearing even though he’s bringing those clothing beyond the techum. Some say that he should make those clothing ownerless before Shabbos if he knew that it would happen.[154]
  4. If the hatzolah member evaluates that probably the ambulance will be necessary for another call later that Shabbat he can drive it back according to everyone.[155]

Public Safety

  1. It is permitted to violate any rabbinic prohibition to prevent something dangerous to the public.[156]

Shomer Shabbos Residency

Is it permissible to join a non-shomer Shabbos residency?


One factor to consider is that halacha forbids getting into a situation where it will be necessary to violate Shabbat for pikuach nefesh. This stricture applies even before Shabbos.[157] The counter-principle to consider that it is possible that only this doctor will merit to cure a certain patient.[158] A practical consideration is that taking a Shomer Shabbos residency might mean sacrificing a better education to be an expert in that field of medicine.

Rav Hershel Schachter

Rav Hershel Schachter[159] holds that if it can’t be arranged to get a shomer Shabbos residency a person should find another profession.[160] Rabbi Chaim Jachter[161] quotes that Rav Schachter gave two reasons. First, a person can’t set himself up to violate Shabbat even in advance of Shabbat since the treatment of many or most patients is not a mitzvah.[162] Additionally, he holds that there is a concern that if one becomes used to doing a forbidden activity when it is permitted, he will continue these activities even when it is forbidden.

Rav Dovid Cohen and Rav Moshe Feinstein

Rav Dovid Cohen[163] holds that initially a person should find a shomer Shabbos residency but if it can’t then he can manage with a non-shomer Shabbos residency. Similarly, Rav Moshe Tendler quotes Rav Moshe Feinstein[164] as holding that it is permissible to go to a non-Shomer Shabbos residency with better training as long as one keeps Shabbos even in a less favorable environment. If the superior training comes at the expense of breaking Shabbat in a forbidden way, even if it is only a rabbinic ordinance, he must forgo the better training.


Bottom line, there is a dispute among the contemporary poskim whether a medical student must find a shomer-Shabbos residency or find another profession, or it is permitted to take a non-shomer Shabbos residency. Even according to the lenient view, no transgression of Shabbat is permitted in the name of training to be a doctor. It is just permitted to take the training in a less Shabbos friendly environment and cope with the questions as they arise and only do what is permitted on Shabbat.[165]

Related Pages

  1. Tochen (grinding)
  2. Brushing Teeth on Shabbat


Halachipedia is very thankful to Rabbi Doniel Neustadt who gave Halachipedia permission to use his valuable article on this topic to improve the Halachipedia page.


  1. The Weekly Halachah Discussion (Rabbi Doniel Neustadt). In regard to the muktzah status of pills and other medications see Minchas Shabbos 88:footnote 77, Har Tzvi tal harim tochain 2, Shalmei Yehuda 10:15:footnote 46, Zera Yaakov 13:page 153, Nachlas Yisroel pages 633-650 in depth, Shulchan Shlomo 318:7:2:page 298, Ohr Yisroel 6:pages 17-20, Aruch Ha’shulchan 308:59, Bais Avi 3:52, Avnei Yushfei 5:62.
  2. *Rashi (Shabbat 53b s.v. Gezerah) explains that there is a rabbinic decree not to do an medical practice on Shabbat because one might come to violate the prohibition of Tochen (grinding) the ingredients for the medicine. Maggid Mishna (Shabbat 2:10) draws a distinction between one is sick but isn't in danger of his life and a person who is pain. Tur and Shulchan Aruch 338:1 rule that a healthy person who is in pain may not do any activity of healing because of the rabbinic decree.
  3. The same halacha applies to the first day of Yom Tov (Refer to Magen Avraham 532:2, Chai Adom 23:1, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 98:33, Mishna Brurah 532:5, Yom Tov Shenei K’hilchoso 1:22, Nishmas Avraham 1:pages 275-276) and both days of Rosh Hashanah (Nishmas Avraham 1:600:1, see Shemiras Shabbos K’hilchoso 31:28, Yom Tov Shenei K’hilchoso 1:22:footnote 76, Shevet Ha’kehusi 1:156 )
  4. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 34:1,3 and Rav Mordechai Eliyahu's comment on Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 91:1. The Weekly Halachah Discussion (Rabbi Doniel Neustadt) writes that although contemporary poskim debate whether nowadays we can be more lenient with taking medication on Shabbat because of the change in technique of production of medicines, the general consensus is to reject this argument. See Minchas Shabbat 91:9; Ketzos ha-Shulchan 134:7; Chelkas Yaakov 4:41; and Tzitz Eliezer 8:15:15. See also Rabbi Aryeh Lebowitz on The Yalkut Yosef 328:52 writes that a choleh shein bo skana (sick in bed) can take pills. He adds that in general someone who is in a lot of pain but isn't choleh shein bo sakana may not take the pills and only makes two exceptions, for someone who has a big headache and someone who has a big stomach ache.
  5. Yalkut Yosef (Shabbat v. 4, pp. 408-9) writes that some say that one may take pain killers on Shabbat because they don't cure but only remove pain, and some disagree. He concludes that one should only be lenient if a person is accustomed to taking such pain killers and if one doesn't take them one will be in pain. On page 143 in discussing the same leniency he specifically mentions pills that contain paracetamol which is the active ingredient in Tylenol, a pain killer.
  6. Mishna Brurah 328:121 permits taking an oral medication without any shinui (alteration from the normal procedure). Yalkut Yosef (Shabbat, vol 4, pg 129) and 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 492) agree with the Mishna Brurah. Mishkenot Yacov O.C. 117 seems to disagree.
    • Halachos of Refuah on Shabbat (Rabbi Bodner, pg 55) and The Weekly Halachah Discussion (Rabbi Doniel Neustadt) write that most poskim agree with the Mishna Brurah. See, however, Sh"t Igrot Moshe 3:53, Tzitz Eliezer 8:15:15, and Minchat Yitzchak 1:108, 6:28.
  7. Rabbi Doniel Neustadt on See also Sh"t Tzitz Eliezer 14:50-7 and 17:13.
  8. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 32:2
  9. Eglei Tal (Tochen #18), Rabbi Hershel Schachter in a shiur on (towards end of shiur)
  10. Gemara Yoma 84a, Rambam (Shabbat 2:1), Tur and Shulchan Aruch 328:2. Rav Shlomo Zalman (Shulchan Shlomo 328:4:3) writes that if there's pikuach nefesh on Shabbat we're not pained about having to do melacha for pikuach nefesh. It is similar to milah on Shabbat which is permitted.
  11. Shulchan Aruch 328:6, Mishna Brurah 328:17, 328:26
  12. Mishna Brurah 328:37
  13. Yerushalmi Yoma 8:5, Shulchan Aruch O.C. 328:2
  14. Aruch Hashulchan 328:2 quoting Risba
  15. Mishna Brurah 328:6
  16. Tiferet 329:4 citing Yabia Omer OC 8:38. He adds that if it could be minimized with shnayim she'asauha they should try to do so. See Mishna Brurah 330:8.
  17. Yabia Omer OC 8:37:5, Chazon Ovadia Shabbat v. 1 p. 125 cited by Tiferet 328:5. Yabia Omer cites as support the Birkei Yosef 301:6, Maharam Yafa 13, Divrei Yisachar 169, Kli Chemda Ki Tzetsei, Maharam Rotenbuerg 39, Mishna Halachot 8:56, Maharil Diskin Kuntres Acharon 34, Tzitz Eliezer 8:15:4, Yeshuot Yisrael CM 21 to allow pikuach nefesh for someone who tried to commit suicide. On the other hand, Minchat Chinuch Kometz Mincha 230 and Vzot Lyehuda Kuntres Hashalom 11c seem to hold that pikuach nefesh doesn't apply to someone who tried to commit suicide.
  18. Mishna Halachot 3:46, Shmirat Shabbat KiHilchata 32:42
  19. Igrot Moshe O.C. 3:69. Rav Moshe writes that also if it is known on Friday that there will be a danger on Shabbat and Friday is Yom Tov it is forbidden to violate Yom Tov. When the situation arises on Shabbat he should violate Shabbat and not violate Yom Tov. However, he quotes Netsiv who permits violating Yom Tov to avoid violating Shabbat in this case. Rav Elyashiv (Haarot Yoma 84b s.v. ubikar) agrees with Rav Moshe. However, Rav Shlomo Zalman (Shulchan Shlomo 328:4:7, Shemirat Shabbat Kehilchata ch. 32 fnt. 105) agrees with Netsiv. This is relevant to someone who is on dialysis and needs treatment either on Yom Tov or Shabbat. Rav Shlomo Zalman says that it is preferable to violate Yom Tov on Friday even though he could wait until Shabbat.
  20. Rav Shlomo Zalman (Shemirat Shabbat Kehilchata 32:65), Rav Elyashiv (Ashrei Haish 2:44:11). Rav Nissim Karelitz (Chut Shani v. 4 p. 159-163) argues that it is an obligation upon every Jew to save his friend. If one person can save him even though it is difficult or painful he still must do so. If this will prevent the other person having to violate Shabbat, certainly he is obligated to save him in such a case. However, if the neighbor doesn't know about pikuach nefesh situation he is not obligated to do anything.
  21. Chut Shani (v. 4 p. 161). His main point is that there's a mitzvah of lo taamod al dam reyecha upon each Jew.
  22. Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach (Shemirat Shabbat Kehilchata 41:21). Rav Nissim Karelitz (Chut Shani v. 4 p. 161) agrees here since standing there all of Shabbat doesn't fix the problem. Since it is possible that someone will be endangered even with him standing there it is permitted to call the electric company to fix it.
  23. Rav Elyashiv (Ashrei Haish 2:44:12)
  24. Minchas Yitzchok 7:28, Be'er Moshe 6:51
  25. Sefer Hilchos Shabbos 8: footnote 64, B'shem R' Moshe Feinstien ZT”L
  26. Shalmai Yehudah pg. 44
  27. Chazon Ish, O.C. 59:3, Rav S.Z. Auerbach in Nishmas Avraham 328:54, and Rav Y.S. Elyashiv in Eis Laledes, pg. 57, quote the age of 2-3. Tzitz Eliezer 8:15-12 quotes ages of 6. Minchas Yitzchak 1:78 quotes age of 9.
  28. The Weekly Halachah Discussion (Rabbi Doniel Neustadt)
  29. Rama, O.C. 328:17. Note, however, that not all of a baby’s needs are exempt from the prohibition against medication; see, for instance, Mishna Brurah 328:131. See Tehillah l’David 328:24 and Minchas Yitzchak 4:124 who deal with this difficulty
  30. Igros Moshe O.C. 1:129
  31. Rabbi Heshy Kahn (What's Doing, Greater Connecticut, 3/3/11)
  32. 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 481), Rabbi Aryeh Lebowitz on, Menuchat Ahava 1:21:75 cited by Tiferet 328:3
  33. Tiferet 328:3 citing Shevet Halevi 3:37, 8:82:2. See also Menuchat Ahava 1:21:75
  34. Chazon Ish (oral ruling, quoted in Imrei Yosher on Moed 97, Daat Chazon Ish 7:19, Dinim Vihanhagot Chazon Ish 15:1), Shulchan Shlomo 328:59, Beer Moshe 1:33:8, 4:31, Avnei Yushfei 1:90:3, Rivevos Ephraim 3:227, 4:97:54, 5:202, Oz Nedberu 1:31:5, 4:24. Refer to Shemiras Shabbos K’hilchoso 34:footnote 76, chelek 3:34:footnote 76.
    Rav S. Kluger (Sefer ha-Chayim 328:10 and Shenos Chayim 1:152) go even further and permit continuing taking medicine on Shabbat, even of the patient is not medically required to take the medicine on a daily basis. Minchas Shabbat 91:9; Tzitz Eliezer 8:15-15:15; Rav Y.S. Elyashiv (Koveitz Teshuvos, O.C. 1:40, and oral ruling, quoted in Refuas Yisrael, pg. 14) agree with Rav Kluger.
  35. Igros Moshe, O.C. 3:53. Refer also to Da’as Torah 328:37 who is stringent.
  36. Rav S.Z. Auerbach (Shemiras Shabbat K’hilchasah 34, note 77, in the new edition). Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach held that it was only permitted to take an ongoing medication on Shabbat if skipping a day in middle of continuous medication would cause the patient damage or if the medication must be done for a certain number of days which would automatically include Shabbat. Rav Hershel Schachter (in a shiur on (min 44-48)) explained that the gemara Avoda Zara 28a seems to clearly support the opinion of those who say that one may not take medication on Shabbat even if one began to take the medication before Shabbat. However, he also cited the opinion of the Brit Olam who held that if the only way to take a certain medication was to take it for a number of consecutive days which includes Shabbat, it would be permitted to take the medication on Shabbat.
  37. Igrot Moshe O.C. 3:53
  38. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 34:3,Tzitz Eliezer 8:15:14:6, Chazon Ovadiah Shabbat vol. 3, page 403, Piskei Teshuvot 328:46
  39. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 35:30 (in the new edition) writes that a band aid shouldn’t be removed on Shabbat in an area where there’s hair because removing the band aid will certainly pull out hairs. However, the Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata writes that it’s permissible to use a Benzine to remove the band aid so it won’t rip out any hairs that’s assuming the cream was set aside before Shabbat and isn’t Muktzeh. Nonetheless in the footnote he quotes Rav Shlomo Zalman saying that if it’s painful it may be removed because it’s a pesik reisha delo nicha leih (פסיק רישא דלא ניחא ליה), keleacher yad (כלאחר יד), and mekalkel (מקלקל).
  40. The Yalkut Yosef (Shabbat 4 pg 179, kitzur S”A 328:101, 340:6) writes that if there’s a need, it’s permissible to remove a band aid from an area of hair on Shabbat because it’s a pesik reisha delo nicha leih (פסיק רישא דלא ניחא ליה) for a Derabbanan. In the footnote he writes that even though the Or Letzion (vol 2, pg 259) is strict, his father (Rav Ovadyah, in Haskama to Lev Avraham), Rav Yitzchak Elchanan (Bear Yitzchak Siman 15), and Rav Shlomo Zalman (from Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata) are lenient.
  41. Most poskim (oral ruling by Rav M. Feinstein, quoted in Kitzur Hilchos Shabbat 44, note 117); Rav S.Z. Auerbach in Shulchan Shelomo 328:45; Ohr l’Tziyon 2:36-15; Az Nidberu 7:34, 35; Rav C.P. Scheinberg, quoted in Children in Halachah, pg. 88; Rav N. Karelitz, quoted in Orchos Shabbat 11:35) permit removing the protective tabs from a Band-Aid, while others (Minchas Yitzchak 5:39-2; 9:41; Rav Y.S. Elyashiv, quoted in Machazeh Eliyahu 70) are stringent. To satisfy all opinions, one may prepare Band-Aids for Shabbat use by peeling off their protective tabs and re-sealing them before Shabbat; once they have been prepared in this fashion, they may be used on Shabbat (Tzitz Eliezer 16:6-5). Sh”t Bear Moshe 1:36 writes that it is obvious that it is permitted to remove the plastic tabs from the sides of a bandaid on Shabbat and it isn't Koreah.
  42. The Weekly Halachah Discussion (Rabbi Doniel Neustadt) based on Shulchan Aruch 328:23
  43. WebMD,
  44. The Weekly Halachah Discussion (Rabbi Doniel Neustadt)writes that it is permissible to wear braces on Shabbat because the goal of the treatment or procedure can only be achieved without the use of medicine.
  45. Shulchan Aruch OC 328:42 writes that one may not do exercise to break a sweat on Shabbat as it is considered refuah. Shemirat Shabbat Kehilchata 34:22 agrees.
  46. Shemirat Shabbat Kehilchata 34:23
  47. The Weekly Halachah Discussion (Rabbi Doniel Neustadt)quoting Shulchan Aruch O.C. 328:28 and Mishna Brurah 328:89
  48. The Weekly Halachah Discussion (Rabbi Doniel Neustadt)
  49. The Weekly Halachah Discussion (Rabbi Doniel Neustadt)
  50. The Weekly Halachah Discussion (Rabbi Doniel Neustadt)
  51. The Weekly Halachah Discussion (Rabbi Doniel Neustadt)
  52. The Weekly Halachah Discussion (Rabbi Doniel Neustadt)
  53. Rabbi Mansour explained that according to Rav Ovadia it was permitted to use a medicine for a baby who is in pain because they are considered a choleh shein bo sakana (Rama 328). Dabbing on the cream without rubbing or smoothing it is permitted based on the Chazon Ish. Furthermore, it is permitted to rub in the cream completely and it isn't considered memare'ach (Yabia Omer 4:27 based on Magen Avraham).
  54. The Weekly Halachah Discussion (Rabbi Doniel Neustadt) based on ruling of Rav S.Z. Auerbach in Shemiras Shabbat K’hilchasah 34, note 113.
  55. Contemporary Questions in Halacha and Hashkafa pg. 144 writes that this is because it wasn't included in the initial gezeira of refuah since its benefits cannot be duplicated with pills or other standard medicines.
  56. 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 478), Rabbi Doniel Neustadt on, See Mishna Brurah 328:141,142
  57. Shemiras Shabbat K’hilchasah 14:35; Shalmei Yehudah, pg. 179, Rabbi Doniel Neustadt on
  58. Rabbi Mansour on, Chacham Ovadia Yosef Halacha Yomit, Orot Hatahara 16:52
  59. This is the view of Shulchan Aruch ha-Rav 328:19 and Eglei Tal (Tochen 18). Some poskim (Rav S.Z. Auerbach, quoted in Shemiras Shabbat K’hilchasah 33, note 18; Shevet ha-Levi 8:93) rule that one may rely on this view, especially when there is “danger to a limb.” Note, however, that Mishna Brurah, Aruch ha-Shulchan and most poskim do not agree with this leniency.
  60. The Weekly Halachah Discussion (Rabbi Doniel Neustadt)
  61. Rav Schachter (Brachot Shiur 64 min 107)
  62. The Weekly Halachah Discussion (Rabbi Doniel Neustadt)
  63. 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 481)
  64. The Weekly Halachah Discussion (Rabbi Doniel Neustadt)based on S”A 327:1
  65. 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 481), The Weekly Halachah Discussion (Rabbi Doniel Neustadt)
  66. 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 481), Rabbi Doniel Neustadt on, Rav S.Z. Auerbach (Shemiras Shabbat K’hilchasah 34, note 52) write that there is room for leniency in kavod ha-beriyos situations, e.g., a constantly dripping nose which is disturbing to people who are around him.
  67. 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 481), The Weekly Halachah Discussion (Rabbi Doniel Neustadt)
  68. Rav Mordechai Willig (Asicha Shabbos 2 p. 3)
  69. Orchot Shabbat 13:11, Rabbi Doniel Neustadt
  70. Rabbi Eli Mansour
  71. Shmirat Shabbat KiHilchata 34:1,3).
  72. The Weekly Halachah Discussion (Rabbi Doniel Neustadt)
  73. Chacham Ovadia Yosef, Rav Moshe Stern, and Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach cited on Halacha Yomit, Orot Hatahara 16:52
  74. Rabbi Heinemann quoted by the Star-K
  75. The Weekly Halachah Discussion (Rabbi Doniel Neustadt)
  76. Mishna Brurah 326:19, The Weekly Halachah Discussion (Rabbi Doniel Neustadt)
  77. Shulchan Aruch O.C. 328:47 establishes that it is permitted to push a dislocated limb back into place on Shabbat. Magen Avraham 328:51 disagrees because the Gemara Shabbat 148a only permitted pushing a limb back into place if a bone cracked but just if it is dislocated. Shulchan Aruch Harav 328:52 agrees. Mishna Brurah 328:145 quotes Atzi Shitim who disagrees with Magen Avraham and defends Shulchan Aruch. He adds that even Magen Avraham agrees to allow a non-Jew to push the dislocated limb back into place. Shemirat Shabbat Kehilchata 33:17 follows Shulchan Aruch and Atzi Shitim.
  78. Rabbi Doniel Neustadt on, It is prohibited to tear cotton balling on Shabbat; Minchas Yitzchak 4:45; Shemiras Shabbat K’hilchasah 35:20.
  79. The Weekly Halachah Discussion (Rabbi Doniel Neustadt)
  80. The Weekly Halachah Discussion (Rabbi Doniel Neustadt) based on S”A O.C. 328:20. Shulchan Aruch O.C. 328:9 states that if someone's eyes are inflamed or it has pus or blood coming out, or tears pouring out, one can violate Shabbat. Mishna Brurah 328:22 quotes the Gemara which explains that even though for a regular Sakanat Ever we shouldn't violate Shabbat since the health of a person's eyes are linked to his entire health he can violate Shabbat.
  81. Chazon Ovadia Shabbat v. 3 p. 233 cited by Tiferet 328:31
  82. Chazon Ovadia v. 3 p. 234 and Chut Shani 4:89:16 cited by Tiferet 328:31. Chazon Ovadia explains that even though the doctors say that today there's no concern that a loss of a person's vision will lead to a premature death we can continue to follow the health concern of the gemara.
  83. The Weekly Halachah Discussion (Rabbi Doniel Neustadt)based on S”A O.C. 306:7
  84. Mishna Brurah 328:46, 47
  85. Chazon Ovadia v. 3 p. 244-6 cited by Tiferet 328:26
  86. The Weekly Halachah Discussion (Rabbi Doniel Neustadt)See Ketzos ha-Shulchan 138, pg. 100; Minchas Yitzchak 3:35; Be’er Moshe 1:33; 2:32.
  87. The Weekly Halachah Discussion (Rabbi Doniel Neustadt)See Ketzos ha-Shulchan 138, pg. 98; Tzitz Eliezer 8:15 (15-21); Az Nidberu 1:31; Shemiras Shabbat K’hilchasah 34:4
  88. The Weekly Halachah Discussion (Rabbi Doniel Neustadt)
  89. The Weekly Halachah Discussion (Rabbi Doniel Neustadt)
  90. 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 477)
  91. 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 481)
  92. The Weekly Halachah Discussion (Rabbi Doniel Neustadt)
  93. The Weekly Halachah Discussion (Rabbi Doniel Neustadt). See Refuas Yisrael, pg. 245.
  94. Rav Yisroel Belsky (Shu"t Shulchan HaLevi 10:2) ruled that lactase pills may be taken because they are not viewed as medicines. Chazal only forbade medicines because a person who is ill is physically distressed and might impetuously grind the ingredients on Shabbos. Lactase pills are not used to treat an illness. They simply provide the body with the missing enzymes that are necessary for the digestion of the milk sugars.
  95. The Weekly Halachah Discussion (Rabbi Doniel Neustadt)
  96. See Beer Moshe 1:34:7page 78 is lenient as is Rivevot Ephraim 2:115:23:page 192, 3:536:6, 4:97:5, 6:195, Nishmas Shabbos 5:318, Cheshev Ha’efod 2:59
  97. Mishna Brurah 328:146
  98. based on Rav Dov Lior in his book Dvar Chevron Siman 236 pg. 125
  99. Harefuah C'halacha 7:1;3
  100. Chazon Ovadia v. 3 p. 234 cited by Tiferet 328:31
  101. Shemiras Shabbat K’hilchasah 34:29
  102. The Weekly Halachah Discussion (Rabbi Doniel Neustadt)based on S”A O.C. 328:22 and Mishna Brurah 90.
  103. Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach (Shemirat Shabbat Kehilchata 33:16), and Chacham Ovadia Yosef are lenient See Minchas Yitzchak 3:21, Tzitz Eliezer 9:17, Be’er Moshe 1:33 and Shalmei Yehudah, pg. 176, for the various views.
  104. The Weekly Halachah Discussion (Rabbi Doniel Neustadt) quoting Rav S.Z. Auerbach (Shemiras Shabbat K’hilchasah 14:45); Shraga ha-Meir 5:23. Rav Y.S. Elyashiv, however, recommends not using pliable ear plugs on Shabbat; see Ashrei ha-Ish 17:117; 33:7
  105. S”A 328:32
  106. S”A 328:37
  107. The Weekly Halachah Discussion (Rabbi Doniel Neustadt)quoting Mishna Brurah 328:88 and Sha’ar ha-Tziyun 63. 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 478) writes one may remove a splinter even if it may bleed, but one may not remove if it will certainly bleed unless it is very painful.
  108. The Weekly Halachah Discussion (Rabbi Doniel Neustadt)
  109. Minchat Shelomo 2:34-33 and Nishmas Avraham, vol. 4, O.C. 340. See also Shemiras Shabbat K’hilchasah 33, note 26, and 35, note 65-66.
  110. Shemirat Shabbat Kehilchata ch. 33 fnt. 26
  111. The Weekly Halachah Discussion (Rabbi Doniel Neustadt). See [1].
  112. Rabbi Doniel Neustadt on, Mishna Brurah 328:147
  113. Machasit Hashekel 328:32 is lenient if it is impossible to avoid since it is only derabbanan and for tzaar it is permitted. Kaf Hachaim 308:96 agrees. However, Shulchan Aruch Harav 308:38, Gedulat Elisha 308:53, and Ben Ish Chai Miketz Shana Sheniya n. 12 are strict if it is a pesik reisha. Tehilah LDovid 328:47 asks why would it be forbidden if it is a pesik reisha since it is only a derabbanan of chavala and for tzaar it is permitted. He rejects the implication otherwise from Tosfot Sanhedrin 85a s.v. vrabbi shimon. Biur Halacha 308:11 s.v. hakotz explained the Magen Avraham like the Shulchan Aruch Harav and cites the Chemed Moshe who is lenient like the Machasit Hashekel. Rav Nevinsal in Byitzchak Yikareh 308:11 that he thinks the opinion of the Chemed Moshe is reasonable. See Leviat Chen who agrees.
  114. The Weekly Halachah Discussion (Rabbi Doniel Neustadt)
  115. The Weekly Halachah Discussion (Rabbi Doniel Neustadt)
  116. Shemiras Shabbat K’hilchasah 34:12
  117. Mishna Brurah 328:144
  118. Tzitz Eliezer 8:15 (15-12)
  119. The Weekly Halachah Discussion (Rabbi Doniel Neustadt)writes in order to avoid sechitah and/or libun, only paper towels or napkins should be used and care should be taken not to squeeze them.
  120. Be’er Moshe 1:33-18, Contemporary Questions in Halacha and Hashkafa pg. 144, Rabbi Meyer Yedid. Rabbi Yedid says that this is because the refuah cannot be replicated through medicines and therefore wasn't included in the rabbinic enactment against refuah. See also Shemiras Shabbat K’hilchasah 35:35
  121. Rabbi Heinemann cited by the Star-K. See Shulchan Shlomo 328:37 and Halachos of Refuah on Shabbos p. 29.
  122. The Weekly Halachah Discussion (Rabbi Doniel Neustadt)based on S”A O.C. 328:32. See also Mishna Brurah 328:102
  123. The Weekly Halachah Discussion (Rabbi Doniel Neustadt)based on Rama, O.C. 328:3. See Tzitz Eliezer 9:17 (2-11)
  124. The Weekly Halachah Discussion (Rabbi Doniel Neustadt)
  125. Refer to Minchas Yitzchok 8:18, Shevet Ha’kehusi 1:109, Nishmas Shabbos 2:9.
  126. Refer to Shemiras Shabbos K’hilchoso 40:7, Tzitz Eliezer 13:34.
  127. Shemiras Shabbos K’hilchoso 33:4, Shulchan Shlomo 314:13:3, Avnei Yushfei 4:58 quoting the opinion of Harav Elyashiv Shlita. Refer to there footnote 30 for the reason.
  128. The Weekly Halachah Discussion (Rabbi Doniel Neustadt)
  129. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata, 32:62.
  130. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata, 35:24
  131. Nishmas Avraham 1:340:5:page 245.
  132. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 34:4 based on Shulchan Aruch 328:37, Aruch Hashulchan 328:48. Refer to Mishna Brurah 328:117-118. See Ketzos Ha’shulchan 134:16:pages 31-32 in depth on what constitutes a health persons food.
  133. Rabbi Doniel Neustadt on, 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 477)
  134. Minchas Yitzchok 3:35:2, Be’er Moshe 1:33:5, 2:32, 6:39, Shraga Hameir 2:40, Refuas Yisroel page 16:footnote 42. Refer to Divrei Chachumim pages 137-138:389 who quotes a lenient opinion.
  135. Minchas Yitzchok 3:35:2, Be’er Moshe 1:33:5, Refuas Yisroel page 16:footnote 42, Chazon Ovadia v. 4 p. 141 cited by Tiferet 328:1
  136. Yalkut Yosef v. 4 p. 143 cited by Tiferet 328:2
  137. The Weekly Halachah Discussion (Rabbi Doniel Neustadt)
  138. The Weekly Halachah Discussion (Rabbi Doniel Neustadt) references Igros Moshe, O.C. 3:54, Minchas Shelomo 2:37 and Shemiras Shabbat K’hilchasah 34, note 86, quoting Rav S.Z. Auerbach. See, however, Tzitz Eliezer 14:50, who takes a more lenient approach concerning vitamins on Shabbat.
  139. Opinion of Harav Yaakov Kamenetsky zt”l quoted in Divrei Chachumim page 137:footnote 389, Shemiras Shabbos K’hilchoso 34:footnote 85. In regard to regular vitamins see Divrei Chachumim pages 137-138, Igros Moshe O.C. 3:54, Nishmas Avraham 1:328:pages 212-213, Shulchan Shlomo 328:58, Tzitz Eliezer 14:50, Oz Nedberu 6:72, Be’er Moshe 1:33, Shalmei Yehuda 10:footnote 51.
  140. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 32:33 based on the idea of Baal HaMoer quoted in Shulchan Aruch O.C. 248:4. Rav Shmuel Fuerst said that he heard Rav Moshe Feinstein rule the same way. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata (chap 32 note 99) quotes Rav Shlomo Zalman who says that if an expert doctor who is needed for this surgery is only available on Wednesday through Friday it is permissible to schedule the surgery then. For background of this topic see here.
  141. Yalkut Yosef (Shabbat, vol 1, pg 60)
  142. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata (chap 32, note 98 (note 100, in new one)).For background of this topic see here.
  143. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 36:4 based on the principle of the Baal HaMoer. For background of this topic see here.
  144. Sh”t Igrot Moshe 1:131 and Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 30:26
  145. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata (chap 40 note 71) in name of Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach explaining that since there is a mitzvah of oneg Shabbat one is not obligated to leave one’s home on Friday in order to avoid violation of Shabbat. For background of this topic see here.
  146. Even though Igrot Moshe OC 4:80 was lenient, Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach in Minchat Shlomo 1:8 was strict. Rav Ovadia Yosef in Chazon Ovadia (Shabbat v. 3 p. 253) is strict. Tzitz Eliezer 21:59 writes that someone who relies on Rav Moshe has what to rely upon. Shevet Halevi 6:26 and 8:87 fundamentally holds like Rav Moshe, though in practice he writes that the hatzolah should get a non-Jew to drive back.
    • Igrot Moshe explains that there are two types of cases where a person goes beyond techum for pikuach nefesh to save Jews. Some are cases where he knew in advance that it would likely take a long time and he would have to be there for the rest of Shabbat and others that he knew were short. The case where he went knowing that he would probably be there for the rest of Shabbat he is only granted 2000 amot but may not go beyond 2000 amot to return home. In the case where he went to save for a short emergency he may return home. The reason for this is hiteru sofam mishum techilatam (Heb. התירו סופן משום תחלתן; transl. they allowed in the end because of the beginning), meaning, that if they weren't allowed to return they wouldn't go in the first place. He proves that this allowance includes even biblical violations of Shabbat. His proofs are Tosfot Eruvin 44b, Rashba Beitzah 11b, and Rambam (Hilchot Shabbat 2:23 and 27:17). Therefore, he permitted a hatzolah member who drove for an emergency call to even drive back to his home so that they're not discouraged from going another time for an emergency.
  147. Chatom Sofer (CM 194), Minchat Shlomo 1:8, Shevet Halevi 6:24, Chazon Ovadia (v. 3 p. 253). Chatom Sofer's reason is that he can use a non-Jewish driver is because if he isn't allowed then he might not go another time. Rav Shlomo Zalman questions this but writes that once the Chatom Sofer already ruled that way he isn't going to argue.
  148. Rav Moshe Feinstein (Igrot Moshe 4:80) allows the hatzolah member or doctor to return from beyond the techum because the call was a short call which he thought would finish before the end of Shabbat. Since if he wouldn't be allowed to return home he might not go another time, he is allowed to return from beyond techum. However, Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach (Minchat Shlomo 1:8) argues that he may not return from beyond techum. Chazal only permitted someone went for war and the non-Jews won to return to his original techum, however, a doctor who left his techum to save someone only has 2000 amot where he is but can't return.
  149. Rabbi Yaakov Neuberger (Pikuach Nefesh #2 min 53-55) explains that if a doctor has rounds that obligates him to come into the hospital on Shabbat for patients that he may not drive home according to Rav Moshe. Since he is going to come in either way at some point on Shabbat he may not drive home. He is coming in for his job and his patients. However, if he is going in because of an emergency call, even if he is on call, he may drive home according to Rav Moshe. Since whether he goes in depends on a judgement call he may drive home. Rav Willig agrees. Rav Mordechai Eliyahu (Sht Harav Haroshei v. 2 ch. 42 n. 11 p. 595) also writes that a doctor on call ideally he should go back with a non-Jew but if he can't he could even drive himself back home. He is based on Igrot Moshe. Divrei Binayahu 23:37 applies Rav Moshe to a doctor on call as well.
  150. Rav Schachter (B'ikvei Hatzon p. 52) writes that just like the Chatom Sofer (CM 194) writes that the principle of hiteru sofam mishum techilatam doesn't apply to someone going for ayvah since ultimately he is going for himself and would go anyway, the same applies to a doctor on call. The reason he's going into the hospital is for himself to keep his job. Therefore, he may not return home even according to Rav Moshe since he would have gone for the emergency either way.
  151. Rav Schachter (B’ikvei Hatzon p. 52) based on Magen Avraham 518:6
  152. Rav Mordechai Willig
  153. Chatom Sofer (CM 194) explains that ayvah only permits violating Shabbat but not returning home. The only reason he is allowed to return home is because otherwise he wouldn’t go next time. But to save a non-Jew he would go anyway next time since otherwise he would endangered because of ayvah. Rav Schachter (B’ikvei Hatzon p. 52) applies this to Rav Moshe’s leniency of a doctor driving home from an emergency.
  154. Torat Yoledet (p. 40 and Umasfim Utikun siman 2) writes that he doesn’t need to take off his extra clothing like his jacket or tie as the earlier poskim didn’t mention this. He quotes Rav Elyashiv who says that the clothing which are necessary are considered nullified to the person’s body. Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach (Shemiras Shabbos Kehilchata ch. 42 fnt. 136 and Minchat Shlomo 1:15) explains that the clothing’s techum follows his techum when he leaves for an emergency. Minchat Yitzchak 9:37 and Techumei Shabbat (Miluyim 29 p700) also permit for other reasons. Torat Hayoledet 2:4 quotes Rav Chaim Kanievsky as holding that he should make his clothing ownerless before Shabbat and then they won’t have a techum. Teshuvot Vahanagot 5:89 agrees. Techumei Shabbat quotes Rav Pinchas Sheinberg who argues with this suggestion because his intent is to reacquire it after Shabbat.
  155. Rav Moshe (Igrot Moshe 4:80) writes that it is permitted to drive back the ambulance if it is common that they're need it later that Shabbat. Shevet Halevi 6:26 also allows it and explains that it is considered pikuach nefesh where the need is common. It is considered like choleh lifanenu.
  156. Gemara Shabbat 42a, Shulchan Aruch O.C. 308:18, Mishna Brurah 408:77
  157. Baal Hamoer’s reading to Shabbat 19a
  158. Ran Nedarim 41b s.v. ela
    • Dr. Akiva Bergman wrote a nice article on the topic clearly showing the numerous issues with the non-shomer Shabbat residency. 1) One has to opt out of a situation in which one will violating Shabbat for pikuach nefesh including treating non-Jewish patients which is only permitted in self-protection (ayvah). 2) Even planning a trip more than three days before Shabbat is a problem since the residency will certainly involve the violation of Shabbat. 3) Even in terms of protecting a Jew that too doesn't serve as a reason to allow pikuach nefesh ab initio according to the Rama. 4) Furthermore, no resident can be sure that he will certainly have a Jew among his patients. His conclusion is that a non-shomer Shabbat residency is seriously problematic.
  161. Rabbi Howard Apfel (Shomer Shabbos Residencies Part 2, min 20-30) clarified Rav Schachter's opinion is that since doing a non-shomer Shabbos residency will result in a definite violation of Shabbat for pikuach nefesh that is not permitted even for a mitzvah according to the Biur Halacha 248:4 s.v. uposek.
  162. Quoted by Rabbi Raymond and Dr. Sammy Sultan in RJJ Periodical no. LVIII
  163. Quoted by Rabbi Raymond and Dr. Sammy Sultan in RJJ Periodical no. LVIII from Practical Medical Halacha, Rabbi M. D. Tendler and Dr. F. Rosner, p.150, 1998. Complete text available here.
  164. Rabbi Howard Afpel
Category Topic
Mitzvot of Shabbat
Kiddush Levana - Enjoying Shabbat - Fourth meal of Shabbat - Havdalah - Having a meal on Friday - In the Spirit of Shabbat - Kiddush - Lighting Shabbat Candles - Making Early Shabbat - Making one hundred Brachot on Shabbat - Preparing foods on Shabbat - Preparing for Shabbat - Shenayim Mikrah - Kavod Shabbat - Shabbos Davening - Seudat Shabbat - Seudat Shelishit - Lechem Mishneh - Motzei Shabbat - When Does Shabbat Start?
Restrictions of Shabbat
Allowing Carrying Using an Eruv Chatzerot - Animals on Shabbat - Asking a Jew to work on Shabbat - Asking a non-Jew to work on Shabbat (Amirah LeNochri) - Benefiting from a Violation of Shabbat (Maaseh Shabbat) - Books, notebooks, and papers - Brushing Teeth on Shabbat - Building a structure on Shabbat (Boneh) - Carrying on Shabbat - Cleaning the dishes - Cleaning and Folding Garments on Shabbat - Clearing the table - Cooking (Ofeh and Bishul) - Cosmetics on Shabbat - Dancing and clapping on Shabbat - Electricity on Shabbat - Eruv Chatzerot - Eruvin - Games on Shabbat - Getting dressed on Shabbat - Giving birth on Shabbat - Grinding (Tochen) - Handling objects on Shabbat (Muktzeh) - Infants on Shabbat - Introduction to the Modern Eruv - Kneading (Lash) - Mail on Shabbat - Medicine on Shabbat (Refuah on Shabbat) - Melacha That Begins Before Shabbat - Opening bottles and containers (Boneh) - Plants on Shabbat (Zoreah) - Preparing for after Shabbat (Hachana) - Reading on Shabbat (Daber Davar) - Recreation on Shabbat - Sechirut Reshut - Separating mixtures (Borer) - Squeezing fruits (Sechita) - Speaking on Shabbat (Daber Davar) - Taking a cruise over Shabbat - Taking measurements on Shabbat - Techum - Transactions on Shabbat - Transportation on Shabbat - Going to and Staying in the Hospital on Shabbat - Wages on Shabbat (Sachar Shabbat) - Washing one’s body on Shabbat
Introduction to Melechet Machshevet - Marbeh Bshiurim - Plowing - Planting - Harvesting - Gathering - Threshing - Winnowing - Separating - Grinding - Sifting - Kneading - Baking and Cooking - Shearing - Laundering - Combing - Dyeing - Spinning - Mounting warp threads - Making two loops - Weaving - Unraveling fabric - Tying - Untying - Gluing, taping, or stapling - Ripping - Trapping - Slaughtering - Skinning - Tanning - Smoothing - Scoring - Cutting precisely - Writing - Erasing - Building - Demolishing - Completing a vessel - Extinguishing a flame - Kindling a fire - Carrying