Tisha BeAv

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The fast of Tisha B’av is to commemorate five tragedies which occurred to the Jewish nation:

  1. The Jews of the desert were told that they would not enter Eretz Yisrael following the sin of the spies.
  2. The first Bet HaMikdash was destroyed.
  3. The second Bet HaMikdash was destroyed.
  4. Beitar, a city filled with over 10,000 Jews was captured and destroyed by the Romans during the Bar Kochva rebellion.
  5. Turnus Rufus plowed the area of the heichal. [1]

This article is specifically about the fast of the ninth of Av. To learn about any of the other fast days click here. After Tisha B'av a days of consolation and celebration include Shabbat Nachamu and Tu Be'Av.

Erev Tisha B'av

Learning Torah

  1. Some Ashkenazim have the minhag not to learn after mid-day on Erev Tisha BeAv (except for the things which one can learn on Tisha BeAv itself), while others allow learning all day. [2] For Sephardim, it is permissible to learn the entire day of Erev Tisha BeAv. [3]

Seuda Hamafseket

Small Meal in Advance

  1. It is the custom to eat a large meal before Mincha and then to begin the Seuda Ha'mafseket after Mincha[4]; however, one must ensure not to overeat during the meal he eats before Mincha so that the seuda mafseket is merely stuffing oneself and only a very minimal meal, which is improper.[5]
  2. Even someone is following the minhag should make sure to separate the first meal from the seuda mafseket significantly. It is improper to have a large meal recite birkat hamazon and then immediately afterwards have a proper seuda mafseket. The reason is that when one has a large meal before so that he is stuffed by the time he is eating the seuda mafseket, the seuda mafseket is merely ceremonial and the main seuda mafseket was the large meal beforehand. Also, it is a problem of bracha sheino tzaricha. Rather one should eat the large meal before Chatzot or much earlier in the day such as immediately after mincha gedola.[6]
  3. Someone who knows that he will be able to fast easily and is strict not to minimize with the first meal, prior to the seuda mafseket, or not have it will be praised as being holy.[7]

Cooked Dishes

  1. During the meal preceding the fast that one eats before sunset after midday one should ensure not to eat more than one cooked food.[8] When determining what qualifies as a "cooked food," for this purpose we do not differentiate between whether the food is roasted or cooked.[9]
  2. Dairy products which are pasteurized are considered a cooked dish.[10]
  3. A vegetable soup if considered one cooked dish even though it contains multiple vegetables in it.[11] Some say that it is only considered one dish if it is normally made all year that way.[12]
  4. Having eggs that were cooked in multiple ways is considered separate cooked dishes. Therefore, one can't eat scrambled eggs and hard boiled eggs at the seuda mafseket.[13]
  5. Even though raw vegetables aren't considered a cooked dish, nonetheless, one shouldn't eat a salad at the seuda mafseket.[14]
  6. Baked goods don't count as a cooked dish. Therefore, one can have several types of cakes or the like, however, one should only eat them to fill oneself and not for pleasure.[15]
  7. One shouldn't drink soda or other drinks for pleasure at the seuda mafseket.[16]

Meat, Wine, Fish

  1. In addition to the practice many have not to eat meat or drink wine during the 9 days, during this meal one should also avoid eating fish.[17] It is permitted to eat canned tuna or sardines since they are not considered foods fitting a royal table.[18]

Hard Boiled Eggs

  1. It is customary to use hard boiled eggs as the "cooked food" as eggs are a food eaten by mourners.[19]

Bread and Water

  1. For those who are capable, it is proper to only eat dry bread dipped in salt and to drink only water.[20] Nonetheless, one need not lessen his eating; rather, one should ensure to eat and drink enough in order that he can endure the fast.[21] Some are stringent to dip the final bit of bread in ashes[22] and to eat it and to declare “This is the Tisha B'Av meal." [23]
  2. One should specifically have bread at the seuda mafseket.[24]

Sitting on the Floor

  1. It is customary to sit on the floor while eating the meal, although one need not remove his shoes as the fast has not yet begin.[25]

Eating after Seuda Mafseket

  1. If one said explicitly that he will not be eating after the seuda hamefseket, he cannot continue eating even if it is before sunset. However, if he only had that in mind but didn't say it, he may continue eating. [26] Since some poskim disagree, some suggest that one say explicitly that he will continue eating. [27]


  1. Three men should not eat together in order to avoid being obligated in a zimun. [28] If they do sit together they should still not recite the zimmun. [29]

Tisha B'av Falls Out on Shabbat or Sunday

  1. In a year in which the 9th of Av falls out on either Shabbat (in which case the fast is observed beginning at sunset on Shabbat) or on Sunday this meal is not eaten. In such a case, one may enjoy a large sumptuous meal so as to properly celebrate Shabbat, only one must ensure to stop eating before sunset (see "When Tisha Beav Falls Out on Shabbat or Sunday" below).[30]

Someone who Isn't Fasting

  1. Even someone who isn't fasting should observe the laws of seuda mafseket.[31]


  1. Tachanun is omitted at Mincha on Erev Tisha Be'av and on Shabbat Tzidkadecha Tzedek is omitted.[32]


Who Should Fast?

  1. A choleh shein bo sakana does not have to fast on Tisha B'av.[33]

Healthy Individuals

  1. It is forbidden for all men of bar mitzvah age and women of bat mitzvah age to partake in eating or drinking on the Tisha BeAv. The fast begins at shkiat hachamah of the 8th of Av and ends at Tzet Hakochavim of the 9th of Av. [34]

Pregnant or Nursing Woman

  1. A pregnant or nursing woman must fast on Tisha BeAv.[35]If the woman has a sickness which is Choleh Shein Bo Sakana, she doesn't have to fast. Yet, in these situations one should always ask an Orthodox Rabbi to assess the situation.[36]

Eating in Increments

  1. Some poskim hold that if one is exempt from fasting on Tisha B'av, he need not eat in increments.[37] However, one should not overindulge.[38]


  1. Children are exempt from fasting, nonetheless they should eat and observe the laws of seuda mafseket.[39] Some say that if they're
  2. A child who has reached the age of chinuch, some say that should wear non-leather shoes on Tisha B'av,[40] while others hold that they can wear leather shoes.[41]
  3. Even if they are younger than chinuch it is a good practice to have them wear non-leather shoes.[42]

Brushing Teeth

  1. One should refrain from brushing his teeth on Tisha B'av, unless not doing so causes tremendous distress. [43]
  2. It is forbidden for one to rinse out his/her mouth on Tisha BeAv; although, if one must they may rinse out their mouth with less than a Reviit of water. [44]


  1. A person can take a capsule or bitter tasting pill or liquid medicine without water on Tisha B'av.[45] If one can't swallow a pill without liquids one can swallow it with a little bitter water, such as water with tea essence concentrate or a bit of baking soda.[46]

When Does the Fast of Tisha Be'Av End

  1. It is not necessary to wait until the tzet hakochavim according to Rabbeinu Tam to begin eating.[47] Some say that it is sufficient to wait 27 minutes.[48]

Washing and Bathing


  1. It is forbidden to wash or bathe oneself in cold or hot water. Even sticking one's finger in water is forbidden.[49]
  2. One should not bathe a child on tisha b'av. If they are dirty it is permitted to clean the area that is dirty. If they are so dirty that it is difficult to just clean that area it is permitted to bath their whole body.[50]

Washing Dirty Hands

Regarding washing one's hands for health during the coronavirus pandemic, see Halachot Related to Coronavirus#The Three Weeks.

  1. If one's hands got dirty one may clean the dirty area.[51]


  1. One should not go to the Mikveh on Tisha BeAv. [52]

Washing Dishes

  1. It is permissible to wash dishes that are necessary for that day such as for children. Otherwise one shouldn't wash dishes until after Chatzot. It is preferable to wash the dishes while wearing gloves.[53]


  1. If a wet wipe isn't so wet that if one touched it and then that moisture on one's hand wouldn't wet something else on contact then one can use that wipe to wipe one's face or hands on Tisha B'av. However, if it is wetter than that one may not use such a wipe. [54]
  2. If one changed a baby and afterwards one's hands are dirty it is permitted to wash them with soap.[55]


  1. It is prohibited to anoint oneself for pleasure on Tisha B'av.[56]
  2. Although it is forbidden to anoint oneself on Tisha B'av, one may use deodorant.[57]
  3. Women should not wear make-up on Tisha B'av.[58]
  4. one can use skin creams to treat scraped or infected skin since it is to cure the skin and not for pleasure.[59]

Wearing Leather

  1. It is prohibited to wear leather shoes on Tisha B'av.[60] Some prohibit any comfortable shoe even if it isn't leather. Sephardim don't have this practice.[61]
  2. Even those who are more lenient on Yom Kippur and wear comfortable non-leather shoes, should be more stringent on Tisha B’Av as we try to minimize comforts on Tisha B’Av as much as possible.[62]
  3. Some poskim permit wearing crocs, while others prohibit them.[63]

Marital Relations

  1. It is prohibited to have marital relations on Tisha B'av.[64]
  2. Some poskim say that a husband and wife should be careful not to touch each other.[65] Some say that a husband and wife should even be careful not to pass things Tisha B'av night.[66]

Working on Tisha B'Av

  1. The minhag is not to engage in any work which takes time to do during the night of Tisha B'av or the morning until midday so as not to divert one's attention from the mourning. This includes housework like sweeping.[67]
  2. It is permitted to have a non-Jew work for you on Tisha B'av as long as it isn't something public like building or painting a house.[68]
  3. If the nature of the work is that not doing it on Tisha B'av will cause one a financial loss he may do it on Tisha B'av. When possible he should have a non-Jew do it or at least postponed until midday.[69]

Learning Torah

What one may learn on Tisha BeAv

  1. One should not learn Torah on Tisha BeAv whether it’s Tanach, Midrash, Mishna, Gemara, Halacha, or Aggadata because Torah brings happiness to a person. [70] This applies to women as well. [71]
  2. Nevertheless, the obligation to set some time in the day for learning torah still exists. [72] It is permissible to read Iyov, an explanation of Iyov, the sad parts of Yirmiyahu (prophesy about destruction and rebuke but not consolation or about destruction of the other nations), Midrash Eicha, an explanation of Eicha, the Gemara in the third perek of Moed Katan (which deals with the laws of mourning, excluding the happy parts), [73] the Gemara in Gittin and Sanhedrin which deal with the destruction of the Bet HaMikdash. [74]
  3. When learning the laws of mourning one may not go into the depth of halacha (with questions and answers). [75]
  4. One may not even think of how to answer a serious difficulty in learning because one will feel satisfied when the matter is settled. [76]
  5. It is permitted to pray the normal prayers even though it contains torah such as az yashir, eizehu mikoman, the korbanot etc. [77]


  1. Although leather is not worn, some have the custom to say the beracha in birkot hashachar of "sheasa li ko tzorki." [78] Some say to omit it. [79]
  2. Tachanun is not recited on Tisha B'av. [80]
  3. One may recite keriat shema al hamita on Tisha B'av[81]


  1. The custom is to read the megilla of Eicha, Lamentations, on Tisha B'av. [82] Most recite it without a beracha.[83]
  2. Even one who cannot attend shul, should read Eicha and the kinot alone. [84]
  3. Women are required to read the megilla of eicha as well. [85]


  1. According to Sephardim, one recites aneinu at night on tisha b’av. [86]


Here's the text for the Nachem (Ashkenazic, Sephard, and Sephardic): Tefillat Nachem on wikisource.

  1. On Tisha B’Av, we add in the Shemoneh Esreh a prayer for the rebuilding of Jerusalem, which begins with the word nachem. Some have the custom to insert the beracha of nachem into the beracha of tishkon bitoch yerushalayim (v'lyerushalayim ircha for ashkenazim) only during mincha. [87] The Sephardic minhag of Israel is to recite Nachem in all the prayers of Tisha B'av.[88] The Moroccan and Syrian minhag is to say it only at mincha.[89]
  2. If one forgot to recite nachem during the amida and only remembered after finishing, he should not go back and recite the amida again. [90]
  3. Despite the continued construction of the city of Yerushalayim, the text of Nachem may not be changed because the Makom Hamikdash is still in ruins and the spirituality of the city is still lacking [91]
  4. Everyone says Nachem even someone who isn't fasting.[92]

Tallit and Tefillin


  1. Some have the Minhag not to put on Tallit or Tefillin for Shacharit of Tisha BeAv and only put it on for Mincha.[93]
  2. Those who hold of this minhag also do not have the Chazan or those participating in the Torah service wear a tallit.[94] The Moroccan minhag is such, and so is the Persian minhag.[95] Some Sephardim have the practice to wear Tefillin for Shacharit on Tisha B'av until the recital of Kinnot or if they don't wear it in the shul to wear it at home before coming to shul.[96]
  3. One who normally wears Rabbeinu Tam Tefillin in addition to Rashi, must do so on Tisha B'av as well.[97]
  4. If someone usually doesn't recite a bracha on his tzitzit because he exempts it with his tallit, on Tisha B'av when he doesn't wear his tallit in the morning he should put on his tzitzit in the morning without a bracha. Others contend that he should recite a bracha unless he slept in his tzitzit.[98]


  1. Tallit and Tefillin are worn during mincha on Tisha B'av.[99]
  2. There is a discussion if one should recite keriat shema during mincha with tefillin. [100]

Sitting on the Floor

  1. During the evening of Tisha B'Av and the morning until chatzot (midday) sitting on a bench or chair is prohibited if it is three tefachim or higher.[101] One may sit on a cushion or a low bench or chair for someone for whom sitting on the floor is hard.[102]
  2. After midday, one should not sit on the floor unless he is reciting kinnot in which case he would still be permitted to sit on the floor.[103]

Elderly or Pregnant

  1. The elderly and pregnant women who have a difficult time sitting on the ground may sit on a regular chair. Since sitting on the chair for these people is not due to pleasure but rather avoiding pain. [104]

Standing for a Talmid Chacham

  1. Although we sit on the floor like mourners, one must nevertheless stand for his parents or for a talmid chacham. [105]

When Tisha B'av Falls on Motzei Shabbat

  1. When Tisha B'Av begins on Motzaei Shabbat, the prohibition of sitting on chairs begins after nightfall, not sunset. If one is praying with a minyan and they are starting a few minutes after nightfall, one may still sit on the chairs until Arvit. [106]

Cars and Trains

  1. It is permitted to sit on a chair when travelling in a car or train. If possible he should try to stand on the train.[107]

Sleeping on a Bed

  1. If someone is able to they should place a mattress one the floor to sleep. If a person can't, they should use one less pillow than they usually do unless they can't fall asleep that way.[108]

Saying Hello

  1. As part of the mourning of Tisha B'av, one should refrain from greeting others on Tisha B'av. [109] If someone else says hello to you, you may respond, but should do so with a lower voice and your head bent downward.[110]
  2. Mazal Tov for a recent Simcha may be said on Tisha B’Av since it is considered a blessing and not a greeting [111]. However, if at all possible, one should wait for a different day to express this Mazal Tov[112]
  3. It is permitted on Tisha B’Av to wish a “Refuah Shleima” to a person who is ill.[113]


  1. One should not smoke on Tisha b'av. However, if someone really needs to and it will cause them great pain if they don't then they may smoke at home in private, but shouldn't do so in public. [114] Regarding the permissibility of smoking in general, see Smoking

Mourning Practices on the Tenth of Av

  1. Some of the mourning for the beit hamikdash extends beyond tisha b'av until the tenth of av because although the fires started burning on tisha b'av, most of the burning actually took place on the tenth [115]
  2. According to Ashkenazim one may not eat meat, launder clothing, bathe, take haircuts, or listen to music[116] until mid-day of the tenth of Av. [117] According to Sephardim one may not eat meat or drink wine until sunset of the tenth of Av.[118] It is permitted for Sephardim to shower, do laundry, or take haircuts immediately after Tisha B'av.[119]
  3. It is permitted to recite Shehechiyanu immediately after Tisha B'av is over.[120]

Tisha B'av that Falls Out on Thursday

  1. When Tisha B'av falls out on Thursday, it is permitted to launder clothing, shave, take hair cuts, bathe, and shower immediately after Tisha B'av in honor of Shabbat.[121]
  2. When Tisha B'av falls out on Thursday, one should not have meat or wine on Friday until Chatzot, like other years.[122]
  3. Some poskim hold that one may only shower or bathe immediately after Tisha B'av when it falls out on Thursday if he's doing so to honor Shabbat. However, if he's going to shower or bathe again anyway before Shabbat then he may not shower or bathe immediately after Tisha B'av since that shower or bath isn't to honor Shabbat.[123]
  4. One shouldn't do laundry on Friday except for clothing that is needed for Shabbat.[124] Once he's running a load he can add more clothing even ones that aren't necessary for Shabbat.[125]

Tisha B'av that Falls Out on Shabbat

  1. If Tisha B'av falls out on shabbat and is pushed to Sunday everything including shaving, doing laundry, and bathing is permitted right after the fast except for eating meat and drinking wine.[126] It is also permitted to listen to music right after the fast on Motzei Tisha B’av when it is delayed.[127]

When Tisha BeAv falls out on Shabbat or Sunday

Prohibitions on Shabbat

  1. If Tisha B'av falls out on Shabbat, it is pushed off until Sunday and everything that would be forbidden on Tisha B'av is permitted on Shabbat. [128] According to Ashkenazim, some hold that relations are forbidden on Shabbat which is Tisha B'av unless it is her tevilah night.[129] On the other hand, according to Sephardim, relations are permitted on Shabbat.[130]
  2. If Tisha B'av falls out on Shabbat and is pushed off to Sunday, one may eat meat or drink wine on Monday day and not Sunday night. [131] According to some poskim, one may even eat meat on Sunday night. [132]
  3. If Tisha B'av falls out on Shabbat and is pushed off to Sunday bathing and haircuts are permitted Sunday night.[133] Some say that one shouldn't listen to music until the next day. [134] Others hold that music is permitted even at night.[135]
  4. If Tisha B'av falls out on Shabbat some say that one shouldn't have meals with meals with other friends, while others are lenient if you regularly have such meals.[136]
  5. One may, get a haircut or do laundry immediately on Sunday night. [137]
  6. If Tisha BeAv falls out on Shabbat and is pushed off until Sunday, according to Sephardim, a pregnant woman or woman who is nursing may eat on the fast day. Nonetheless, they should not eat for pleasure.[138] Most Ashkenazic poskim are strict unless she is in a lot of pain.[139]
  7. If Tisha Beav falls out on Shabbat and is pushed off to Sunday then there is a dispute among the poskim as to whether or not a boy who becomes Bar Mitzvah on the 10th of Av is required to fast.[140]

Havdala for Tisha BeAv that Is Observed on Sunday

  1. If Tisha BeAv falls out on Shabbat and is pushed off to Sunday or if Tisha BeAv falls out on Sunday, the bracha of Boreh Meorei HaEsh upon a fire is made on Motzei Shabbat before the reading of Eicha (while Boreh Mineh/Isbeh/Atzeh Besamim is omitted), however, the bracha of Havdalah on a cup of wine is delayed until after Tisha BeAv, Sunday night.[141]
  2. An adult who is exempt from fasting should recite Havdalah on Motzei Shabbat before eating.[142] While typically wine or grape juice is used for Havdala, one should strive to use chamar medina, particularly when making Havdala on Tisha BeAv.[143] Some hold that it is preferable to use grape juice.[144] One may fulfill his/her obligation to hear Havdalah even through someone who is making Havdala on Tisha Be'av who is permitted to eat.[145]
  3. One who needs to eat on Tisha B'av that falls out on Sunday must recite Havdalah beforehand. Some say that if they're sick they should wait until they need to eat to recite Havdalah and not say it immediately Saturday night unless they need to eat then.[146] Others hold that they should initially recite havdalah immediately on Motzei Shabbat.[147]
  4. It should be emphasized that if one ever must urgently break their fast because of health reasons, one should not recite Havdala first and run the risk of entering a dangerous situation.[148]

When Tisha BeAv falls out on Sunday

  1. If Tisha BeAv falls out on Sunday, one doesn't say Tzidkatcha at mincha of Shabbat.[149]
  2. If Tisha BeAv falls out on Sunday, one may learn Torah on Shabbat after Chatzot but it's preferable to learn the halachot of Tisha BeAv.[150]
  3. Even if one forgot to recite havdala in the Shemoneh Esrei, he doesn't repeat it but rather recites the words "Baruch hamavdil bein kodesh lichol." [151]
  4. Although seudat shlishit is the seudat hamafseket before the fast, one should eat a regular meal. [152] The meal must be finished before sunset. [153] One may sit on chairs[154] and a zimmun can be made.[155]
  5. One may leave on one's leather shoes until right after Barchu at the beginning of Arvit of Motzei Shabbat. If one is taking off one's shoes after Barchu one should take them off with one's feet or by only touching the shoelaces so that one doesn't have to wash Netilat Yadayim. It's proper to have Arvit of Motzei Shabbat 30 minutes after sunset giving people time to change from their Shabbat clothing which they should do 20 minutes after sunset.[156]

When Tisha BeAv falls out on Thursday

  1. One may take a haircut, wash oneself, and do laundry and need not wait until midday on Friday in order to perform these preparations in honor of Shabbat.[157]



  1. Mishna Taanit 26b, Rambam Hilchot Taaniyot 5:3, Chayei Adam 133:5, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 121:5, Mishna Brurah 549:2
  2. Rama 553:2 records the custom to stop learning torah at midday of erev tisha b'av. Magen Avraham 553:7 agrees. However, Mishna Brura 553:8 and Aruch Hashulchan 553:4 challenge this custom
  3. Chazon Ovadyah (Arba Taniyot pg 248). English Yalkut Yosef 553 fnt. 146 points out ruling in the Halichot Olam v. 2 was that if it would disturb him to only learn Tisha Bav material after Chatzot he may learn any subject of Torah. Also, if Tisha Bav is on Shabbat, technically someone can learn whatever they want but one who limits himself to Tisha Bav subjects will be blessed. However, Chazon Ovadia is his later ruling and there he is more lenient. Or Letzion 3:28:5 writes that one should refrain from learning regular subjects of Torah after chatzot and only learn the subjects that are permitted on Tisha B'av, however, for someone whom that is difficult for It is permitted to learn those subjects exclusively can learn anything.
  4. Rama 552:9
  5. Rama 552:9, Mishna Brurah 552:22. The Rama writes that the minhag was to have a large meal before mincha and then seuda mafseket after mincha. However, the Mishna Brurah 552:22 quotes many achronim who disapprove of this minhag and advise having only one cooked dish before mincha. The Eliya Rabba concludes that one can follow the minhag as long as one's intent is for heaven to be able to fast properly. Nonetheless he should make sure that the first meal isn't too elaborate so that the seuda mafseket is merely stuffing oneself and a snack and not a meal. Or Letzion 3:28:1 agrees. Kaf Hachaim O.C. 552:49:1 writes that the minhag of most people is to follow the Rama's minhag.
  6. Mishna Brurah 522:22. Or Letzion 3:28:1 writes that one can follow the minhag, nonetheless, he should have it a few hours before the seuda mafseket so that the seuda mafseket isn't stuffing oneself and it isn't a concern of bracha sheino tzaricha to have them too close to one another. The Kaf Hachaim O.C. 552:31:1 cites both of these reasons not to have other foods, say birkat hamazon and then have the seuda mafseket. In Kaf Hachaim O.C. 552:47:1 he says that it is permitted to have an elaborate meal after mincha gedola and then the seuda mafseket right before sunset and that is considered sufficiently separated. halachayomit.co.il writes that it is a completely improper minhag to have the large meal, recite birkat hamazon, and then have the seuda mafseket.
  7. Rama 552:9
  8. Shulchan Aruch O.C. 552:1
  9. Rama 552:3
  10. Or Letzion 3:28:2
  11. Or Letzion 3:28:1
  12. Chazon Ovadia (Arba Taniyot p. 258)
  13. Chazon Ovadia (Arba Taniyot p. 256), Or Letzion 3:28:1
  14. Or Letzion 3:28:1 citing Machzik Bracha 552:2 and Ben Ish Chai Devarim n. 19
  15. Or Letzion 3:28:3
  16. Or Letzion 3:28:3
  17. Shulchan Aruch O.C. 552:2, the Mishna Brurah 552:6 explains that this prohibition is due to the fact that there are some places where fish is referred to as "meat" which is what the Talmud forbids one to eat during this meal. Additionally, the Mishna Brurah explains, fish is a type of food that would be served at a royal meal (see Y.D. 217:8) and it provides joy to the person who eats it.
  18. Rabbi Mansour
  19. Mishna Brurah 552:13 and Rama 552:5
  20. Shulchan Aruch O.C. 552:6
  21. Mishna Brurah 552:15
  22. Rama 552:6
  23. The Mishna Brurah 552:16 suggests doing so based upon the practice of Rav in the Yerushalmi in Taanit 4:6
  24. Or Letzion 3:28:1
  25. Shulchan Aruch O.C. 552:7 and Rama, Or Letzion 3:28:1
  26. Yalkut Yosef Moadim page 577, Shulchan Aruch O.C. 553:1.
  27. Mishna Brura 553:2 writes that the Bach and Gra hold that a mental acceptance is enough and he therefore recommends stating explicitly that one intends to eat or drink until sunset.
  28. Shulchan Aruch O.C. 552:8, Haghot Maimaniyot Hilchot Taaniyot 5:7:30
  29. Mishna Brura 552:19, Or Letzion 3:28:1
  30. Shulchan Aruch and Rama O.C. 552:10
  31. Or Letzion 3:28:1, Rabbi Mansour
  32. Shulchan Aruch O.C. 552:12, there the S.A explains that the 9th of Av is called a "Moed," and thus we treat it as a holiday in this regard by omitting Tachanun as we do on other festivals as well. For the same reason, Tachanun is not recited on the 9th of Av proper either (S.A 559:4).
  33. Rav Hershel Schachter. His example of a choleh shein bo sakana was someone who is knocked out by the fast and needs to lie in bed all day because of a splitting headache.
  34. Mishna Brurah 554:1, Yalkut Yosef (Moadim p. 577), Halachot and History of The Three Weeks, The Akkad Edition, Congregation Shaare Rahamim Halachot Series.
    • Tosfot (Megillah 5b s.v. vebikesh) and Ritva (Megillah 5b) imply that Tisha B'av is only derabbanan or a minhag. See, however, the Taz 554:4 who implies that it is Divrei Kabbalah, from the authority of the navi.
  35. Shulchan Aruch OC 554:5
  36. Yalkut Yosef 554 (HaChayvim VeHitanot #1)
  37. Sh”t Maharam Shick 289 says that just like on Yom Kippur the halacha is that if it will not increase the danger by eating in small increments he must do so (Shulchan Aruch O.C. 618:7), the same applies to Tisha B’av. However, Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach (Nishmat Avraham v. 4 554:1), Chazon Ovadia (Arba Taniyot p. 26), Shevet Halevi 4:46, Tzitz Eliezer 10:25:16, and Rav Elyashiv (Kovetz Teshuvot 1:57) disagree and say this isn’t necessary for Tisha B’av. The Biur Halacha 554:6 quotes the Pitchei Olam who writes that when there is a small concern for Cholera people should only eat in increments so as not to abolish the fast. Shevet Halevi and Rav Elyashiv explain that this is only true for when the question was everyone eating because of a epidemic but in general someone who is sick may eat regularly.
  38. Shulchan Aruch OC 554:5, Hagahot Maimaniot Hilchot Taaniyot 1:8
  39. Or Letzion 3:28:1, Rav Hershel Schachter, Rabbi Mansour
  40. Chazon Ovadia p. 301
  41. Or Letzion 3:29:16
  42. Chazon Ovadia p. 301
  43. Sh"t Minchat Yitzchak 4:109, Mikraei Kodesh by Rabbi Moshe Harari 4:4, Mishna Brura 567:11.
  44. Halachot and History of The Three Weeks, The Akkad Edition, Congregation Shaare Rahamim Halachot Series. see also Rav Shimon Eider’s Halachos of the Three Weeks pg. 19 where he suggests in the name of Rav Moshe Feinstein that on Tisha B'Av it is forbidden to wash out one's mouth with mouthwash because of rechitza.
  45. Rav Eider in Halachos Of The Three Weeks p. 19, Or Letzion 3:29:11
  46. Or Letzion 3:29:11
  47. Yalkut Yosef Moadim page 586
  48. Or Letzion 3:29:25
  49. Shulchan Aruch O.C. 554:7
  50. Halichot Emet 25:4 p. 175 writes that one should not bathe a child even if they did not reach chinuch on tisha b'av unless they are dirty. Hatipul Btinokot p. 266 writes that if a child is very dirty and it is hard to clean each area that's dirty it is permitted to bathe their whole body on tisha b'av. He bases his idea on Mishna Brurah 613:1 by yom kippur.
  51. Shulchan Aruch O.C. 554:9
  52. Shulchan Aruch O.C. 554:8
  53. Or Letzion 3:29:14
  54. Or Letzion 3:29:13
  55. Or Letzion 3:29:13
  56. Shulchan Aruch O.C. 554:15
  57. Rabbi Eider (Halachos Of The Three Weeks p. 22) and Rabbi Gil Student based on Biur Halachah 554:15 sv. sicha are lenient to use deodorant on Tisha Bav. Rabbi Mansour agrees citing Chacham Ovadia. See, however, Piskei Hahalachot (by R' Yair Yanay, 555:16) quotes Rav Elyashiv as forbidding deodorant on Tisha Be'av. Rav Mordechai Willig (Hilchos Tisha B'av min 86) is strict.
  58. Rav Mordachi Eliyahu quoted in Mikraei Kodesh Hilchot Tisha B’av 9:note 13
  59. Or Letzion 3:29:13 explains that one can use skin creams to treat scraped or infected skin since it is to cure the skin and not for pleasure. Rabbi Mansour agrees.
  60. Shulchan Aruch 554:1 and 554:16, Yalkut Yosef Moadim page 577. Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 124:11, Aruch Hashulchan 554:16, Mishna Brurah 554:30 say that although shoes made of other materials cover and protect the feet, they are not called a "minal" and therefore aren't part of the prohibition.
  61. [https://www.yutorah.org/sidebar/lecture.cfm/1071122/rabbi-hershel-schachter/hilchos-tisha-b-av/ Rav Hershel Schachter quoted Rav Soloveitchik as reccomending being strict for Rambam, who holds that any comfortable shoe is forbidden. However, Rav Ovadia is lenient.
  62. Halichot Shlomo (ch. 15 no. 5) quoting the Shaarei Teshuva 554:11
  63. Rav Shlomo Aviner says that since crocs are comfortable shoes even though they aren’t leather some, it is better not to wear them, but whoever does has on who to rely. http://matzav.com/rav-elyashiv-crocs-not-permitted-footwear-on-tisha-bav quotes that this is the ruling of Rav Moshe Shternbuch, Rav Nissim Karelitz as well. However, it also quotes Rav Elyashiv that it is prohibited to wear them.
  64. Shulchan Aruch O.C. 554:1, Yalkut Yosef Moadim page 577.
  65. Mishna Brurah 554:37 raises this possibility but allows for one to be lenient at least during the day. Nitai Gavriel (Ben Hametzarim v. 1 p. 311) is strict. Aruch Hashulchan 554:17 and Taz 615:16 write that one need not be stringent about this at all. Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 124:12 forbids physical contact both in the day and at night. Rav Ovadia (Halichot Olam v. 2 p. 153) permits all harchakot including touching and handing items to your wife on Tisha B'av, as long as she isn't a nidda.
  66. Nitai Gavriel (Ben Hametzarim v. 1 p. 311)
  67. Halachos of the Three Weeks p. 25, Halachically Speaking v. 11 Issue 7
  68. Halachos of the Three Weeks p. 25
  69. Halachos of the Three Weeks p. 25
  70. S”A 554:1-2 based on the pasuk in tehillim 19:9 פִּקּוּדֵי ה יְשָׁרִים, מְשַׂמְּחֵי-לֵב
  71. Sh"t Rivivot Ephraim 2:155:14
  72. Yalkut Yosef Moadim page 580
  73. S”A 554:1-2, Mishna Brurah 554:2
  74. Mishna Brurah 554:3
  75. Mishna Brurah 554:4. On the other hand, Aruch Hashulchan 554:4 permits going into it deeply.
  76. Mishna Brurah 554:4
  77. Sh"t Yabia Omer YD 4:32
  78. Mishna Brurah 554:31, Chazon Ovadyah (Yamim Noraim pg 320), Rabbi Eli Mansour
  79. Halachot and History of The Three Weeks, The Akkad Edition, Congregation Shaare Rahamim Halachot Series page 62; Ben Ish Hai Vayeshev: 9; Kaf Hachaim 46:17
  80. Shulchan Aruch 559:4 since Tisha B'Av is considered like a moed. Mishna Brurah 559:17 points out that this is based on the pasuk in Lamentations 1:15 קָרָא עָלַי מוֹעֵד
  81. Rivivos Ephraim 1:380:4
  82. Shulchan Aruch 559:2, Masechet Sofrim 18:5, and Eicha Rabbah Parsha 3. Mishna Brurah 559:2 notes that although the prevalent tradition is read to Eicha at night, it is preferable to read Eicha privately during the daytime as well.
  83. Rama 490:9, Teshuvot Harama 35. Beit Yosef 559, notes that common practice is to refrain from reciting the beracha of Al Mikra Megillah on all of the megillot with the exception of Megillat Esther. Magen Avraham 490:9, rules that one should recite a beracha on the reading any of the megillot (except Kohelet). Mishna Berurah 490:19 however, sides with the opinion of Rama that one should not recite a beracha on the megillot. However, he notes that one can justify the practice of reciting a beracha if the megillah is read from parchment. Maaseh Rav 175 records that the practice of the Gra was to read all of the megillot from parchment and to recite a beracha. see See Piskei Teshuvot 559:1
  84. Chayei Adam 135:19; Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 124:1; Mishna Berura 559:5.
  85. Masechet Soferim 18:5. Teshuvot Vihanhagot 2:250 says that since women are obligated in all other halachot of mourning on tisha b'av, they are also obligated halachos of aveilus of Tisha B'Av, they are also required to hear Eicha. He says that if they cannot make it to shul, they may read it on the floor in their own homes.
  86. Yalkut Yosef Moadim page 536, Rabbi Eli Mansour
  87. Rabbi Eli Mansour
  88. Sh"t Yechave Daat 1:44, 7:128:1, Yalkut Yosef (Moadim, Hilchot Tisha Bav no. 19), Or Letzion 3:29:21. Yachava Daat 7:128 cites also Yaskil Avdi 7:8:5.
  89. Rabbi Mordechai Lebhar in Magen Avot OC 557 for Moroccans and Rabbi Mansour for Syrians
  90. Rabbi Eli Mansour
  91. Sh"t Yechave Daat 1:43, Rav Joseph B. Soloveitchik (Mesorah Journal vol. 7, pg. 19 and Nefesh Harav pg. 79). see also Rabbi Dovid Gottlieb
  92. Nitai Gavriel Ben Hametzarim v. 2 85:17, http://din.org.il/2013/07/15/%D7%AA%D7%A4%D7%99%D7%9C%D7%AA-%D7%A0%D7%97%D7%9D-%D7%91%D7%AA%D7%A9%D7%A2%D7%94-%D7%91%D7%90%D7%91/
  93. Shulchan Aruch O.C. 555:1.
  94. Rav Moshe Soloveitchik explained that there is no din of kavod ha'tzibur here (oral communication).
    • Interestingly, Maharam quoted by the Tur OC 555 and Rabbenu Yerucham quoted by the Beit Yosef 555 hold that it is forbidden to wear Tefillin on Tisha B'av because mourning the loss of the beit hamikdash is greater than the usual first day of mourning over a deceased.
    • However, the Rosh quoted by the Tur holds that one must wear tefillin because mourning for the beit hamikdash is not as stringent as the first day of mourning.
  95. Magen Avot OC 555:1. He cites that some say to put it on at home before coming to shul but others say that if one isn't a kabbalistic they shouldn't do so.
  96. Or Letzion 3:29:22, Rabbi Mansour explains that this was also the ruling of Chacham Baruch for Syrians.
  97. Sh"t Yechave Daat 2:16 and 6:2, Halichot Olam 2: page 158, Or Letzion 3:29:22
  98. Shulchan Aruch O.C. 555:1 writes that one shouldn't recite a bracha on tzitzit the morning of tisha b'av. Mishna Brurah 555:2 quotes some who say that one should recite a bracha. Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach (Dirshu 555:3) avoided the issue by sleeping in his tzitzit on tisha b'av, in which case one doesn't need to recite a new bracha according to everyone.
  99. Shulchan Aruch O.C. 555:1. Magen Avot OC 555:1 writes that some Moroccans have the practice to wear Tallit and Tefillin at mincha of Tisha B'av without a bracha.
  100. Mishna Brura 555:5 says that one should not. However, Rabbi Soloveitchik (Quoted by Rabbi Menachem Genack in Gan Shoshanim Chelek 1, 1:3) thought one should.
  101. Rama 559:3, Rav Shimon Eider (Halachos of The Three Weeks) pg. 24. Shulchan Aruch O.C. 559:3 writes that the minhag is not to sit in a chair applies at night and the morning until the time of mincha (a half hour after chatzot). Yalkut Yosef (Tisha BeAv n. 15) agrees.
  102. Mishna Brurah 559:11. Yalkut Yosef Tisha BeAv n. 15 writes that someone old and weak can sit on a chair lower than 3 tefachim.
  103. Nitei Gavriel pg. 393
  104. Nitei Gavriel pg. 391
  105. Rabbi Eli Mansour, Yabea Omer YD 3:27:3
  106. Nitei Gavriel pg. 534 and Nechamat Yisrael pg. 126
  107. Halachically Speaking v. 11 issue 7. Regarding cars, he cites Moadei Yeshurun 1:141, Ohalecha Bamisecha 36:22, Chut Shani Shabbat 2:327, Rivevot Efraim 1:382, and Orchot Rabbenu 2:138:12. Mikraei Kodesh by Rabbi Moshe Harari 7:48 is also lenient to sit normally when driving. Regarding trains he cites Rivevot Efraim 1:382, Ohelecha Bamisecha 36:23, Chut Shani Shabbat 2:327, and Mikadesh Yisrael Ben Hametzarim 269.
  108. Or Letzion 3:29:19
  109. Shulchan Aruch 554:20, Mikraei Kodesh Hilchot Tisha B’av 7:38. see also Rabbi Ari Enkin
  110. Mikraei Kodesh by Rabbi Moshe Harari 7:40
  111. Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach (cited in Dirshu M.B. Beiurim and Musofim 554:63 citing Halichos Shlomo Bein HaMitzorim Vol. 15 Orchos Halacha 30)
  112. Chut Shani Vol. 2 p. 327
  113. Dirshu M.B. Beiurim and Musofim 554:63
  114. Sh"t Yabia Omer 1:31, Yechave Daat 5:39
  115. Gemara Taanit 29a, Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 558:1
  116. Halachos of the Three Weeks p. 32
  117. Rama 558:1, Mishna Brurah 558:3 based on Shu"t Maharshal 92. Under extenuating circumstances, Shemirat Shabbat Kihilchata 42:16 and Piskei Teshuvot 558:2 allow one to do laundry immediately after the first. Additionally, Sh"t Teshuvot Vihanhagot 2:260 allows one to shower if necessary right after tisha b'av
  118. Shulchan Aruch 558:1, Kaf HaChaim 558:10, Shaare Teshuva 558:2.
  119. Halachot and History of The Three Weeks, The Akkad Edition, Congregation Shaare Rahamim Halachot Series page 66, Sh"t Yechave Daat 5:41, Chazon Ovadia Arba Taniyot p. 415. However, it is important to note that the Kaf HaChaim 558:6 quotes the stringent opinion without arguing. This opinion is cited by HaRav Mordechai Eliyahu in Hilchot Chagim 29:3. See also Peninei Halakha especially footnote 1 who makes the same observation that even among Sephardic poskim there are many different opinions.
  120. Chazon Ovadia Arba Taniyot p. 415 citing Maharashdam 4:148, Yafa Lelev 6:558, Hitorerut Teshuva 362, and Shevet Halevi 6:70:10.
  121. Magen Avraham 558:1, Mishna Brurah 558:3, Aruch Hashulchan 558:2, and Kaf Hachaim 558:6.
  122. Aruch Hashulchan 558:2, Chazon Ovadia (Arba Taniyot p. 419), and Piskei Teshuvot 558:4. Chazon Ovadia permits only for tasting the Shabbat food to check if it is prepared properly. Piskei Teshuvot fnt. 20 quotes Rabbi Levi Yitzchak from Barditchiv and Mechzeh Eliyahu who permitted even eating meat immediately after Tisha B'av when Tisha B'av falls out on Thursday.
  123. Piskei Teshuvot 558:4 quoting Az Nidbaru 8:40. See Chazon Ovadia (Arba Taniyot p. 417-8) who quotes many who are lenient even for Ashkenazim to shower or shave Friday morning or even immediately after Tisha B'av when it falls out on Thursday in honor of Shabbat. He cites Shelat Yavetz 1:96 who permits Thursday night and Eliya Rabba 559:31 and Kitzur Shulchan Aruch who permit Friday morning. See further in Mechezeh Eliyahu 86, Lhorot Natan 2:38, and Moria (5729 Av p. 69).
  124. Piskei Teshuvot 558:4
  125. Piskei Teshuvot 558 fnt. 19 quoting Shevet Hakehati 3:182
  126. Rama OC 558:1. Mishna Brurah 558:4 and Kaf Hachaim OC 558:7 add that some refrain from marital relations on that night unless it is the night of tevila.
  127. Shaar Hatziyun (558:4), Piskei Teshuvot 558:3, OU Halacha Yomi quoting Rav Schachter
  128. Shulchan Aruch O.C. 554:19, Kaf HaChaim 554:86, Yalkut Yosef 556:1
  129. Rama 554:19. Mishna Brurah 554:40 writes that one can rely on the achronim who hold it is permitted if it is her tevilah night.
  130. Yalkut Yosef, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch, Volume 2, 556:1
  131. Rama 558:1, Halachos of the Three Weeks page 32.
  132. Although the Rama writes that one should not eat meat on Sunday night in such a situation, Rabbi Meir Mazuz in the Ish Matzliach footnotes on the Mishna Brurah note 1, writes that some poskim are lenient.
  133. Halachos of the Three Weeks p. 32 citing Mishna Brurah 558:4
  134. Halachos of the Three Weeks p. 32
  135. Piskei Teshuvot 558:3 based on Shaar Hatziyun 558:4 writes that it is permitted to listen to music Sunday night after Tisha B'av since Tisha B'av was delayed. He does quotes Rav Yechiel Michel Tukachinsky and Shevet Hakehati 4:153 who were strict.
  136. Mishna Brurah 552:23 writes that the Magen Avraham holds that one shouldn't have meals with friends on Shabbat when it is Tisha Bav, however, the Bechor Shor argues that if one usually has such meals one shouldn't desist.
  137. Mishna Berura 558:4, Nitei Gavriel pg. 553
  138. Biur Halacha 559:9 s.v. veino quoting the Shvut Yaakov 3:37 (cited by Rabbi Akiva Eiger), Rav Ovadia Yosef in Chazon Ovadia (Arba Tzomot, p. 60), Dirshu fnt. 47 citing Rav Yitzchak Zilberstein in Torat Hayoledet 48:4
  139. Or Yisrael v. 78 p. 178 quotes Avnei Nezer, Maharash Halevi OC 2, Eshel Avraham, and Hitorerut Teshuva OC 3:353 as holding that a woman who is pregnant or nursing should fast the whole tisha b'av even when it is delayed. Similarly, Minchat Baruch 12:3 fnt. 4 quotes the Bet Meir 659:9, Maharsham in Daat Torah 554:5, and Eshel Avraham 550 as strict. Nitai Gavriel 65:3 v. 2 p. 33 writes that a pregnant woman should fast on a delayed tisha b'av unless she is feeling very weak. Halichot Beyta 25:8 writes that only for the first 30 days can a woman who gave birth not fast on a delayed tisha b'av, otherwise she should fast.
  140. Yalkut Yosef, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch, Volume 2, 556:9.
  141. Shulchan Aruch 556:1. Mishna Brurah 556:3 adds that an adult can drink this wine. Yalkut Yosef, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch, Volume 2, 556:8, Yabia Omer, Volume 6, 48:13 agree.
  142. Rav Nevinsal in Byitzchak Yikreh 556:2,Rabbi Mansour on Dailyhalacha.com quoting Yechave Daat 3:40, Chazon Ovadia (Arba Tzomot, p. 352), Yalkut Yosef, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch, Volume 2, 556:7, Birkei Yosef OC 556:2. Rav Chaim Kanievsky in a letter to Rav Elyashiv (Kovetz Teshuvot 1:57) quoted Zecher Simcha and Tzafnat Pane'ach that there is no obligation for a sick person to recite havdalah on Tisha BeAv and Rav Elyashiv responded that he follows the Birkei Yosef. Shemirat Shabbat Kehilchata 62:45 writes that Birkei Yosef's ruling only applies to adults who are too ill to fast but a child should not recite havdala himself then, but should wait until after tisha b'av. See also Az Nidbaru 6:53:4 and Rivevot Efraim 3:371. Rav Yitzchak Yosef (Motzei Shabbat Matot 5782 min 14) explained that originally Rav Ovadia held that someone who needs to eat on Tisha B'av that is delayed such as a pregnant woman should wait until they need to eat on Sunday to recite havdalah. However, after Rav Massas argued with him based on the Knesset Hagedola that it is better to recite havdala on Motzei Shabbat, the ideal time for Havdala, he changed his opinion.
  143. Rav Nevinsal in Byitzchak Yikreh 556:2 writes that a person should use Chamar Mdina and not wine when a sick person recites havdalah on Tisha BeAv. He quotes that Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach also held this way. Rav Elyashiv (Kovetz Teshuvot 1:57) agrees. The Griz (on Rambam Hilchot Taniyot cited by Rav Elyashiv) in fact allowed making havdalah on wine itself for a sick person on Tisha BeAv. The basis for this dispute is whether there is a unique prohibition to drink wine on Tisha BeAv or it is part of the regular restrictions of the nine days.
    • Taanit 30b states that anyone who eats meat and drinks wine "on Tisha BeAv" is included in the verse: "And whose iniquities are upon their bones" (Yechezkel 32:27). It is difficult to understand why the Gemara would need to explicitly forbid these items "on" Tisha Be'av as one may not eat anything on Tisha Be'av. (See Rabeinu Chananel who has a different girsa). Rashi therefore explains that this phrase refers to drinking wine or eating meat during the Seuda Mafseket.
    • There are two reasons for why these items would be forbidden during the Seuda Mafseket: 1) These were items typically placed on the mizbeach and therefore we commemorate the loss of the Beit Hamikdash by not eating/drinking them. 2) This meal matches the prohibitions usually observed by an Onen after he loses a relative before the burial (Trumat Ha'deshen).
    • Thus, according to the first reason there would be an additional reason to prohibit wine and meat on Tisha BeAv which would even apply to someone who is permitted to break their fast, while according to the second reason there would be no additional reason to prohibit wine or meat on Tisha Beav more than the regular rules that govern the 9 days.
    • Therefore, because of this additional concern, some who would typically allow making Havdala on wine during the 9 days would prohibit this on Tisha Be'Av itself and instead require one to use Chamar Medina (Rav Moshe Soloveitchik, oral communication). The Brisker Rav, however, held that Tisha BeAv is considered like intense mourning after the burial and not an Onen; therefore, he held wine is permitted for havdalah on Tisha BeAv. Rav Elyashiv (Kovetz Teshuvot 1:57) proves from the Or Zaruah that the Brisker Rav is incorrect and Tisha BeAv mimics the practices of Onen. Rav Nevinsal makes the same point based on the Ritva (cited in Bet Yosef 557).
    Rav Ovadia (Chazon Ovadia p. 350) has an entirely different approach. He permits someone sick to recite havdalah on wine since it is for a mitzvah and not for pleasure. The gemara Tanit he explains is only relevant to a healthy person eating or drinking on Tisha BeAv for pleasure.
  144. Rav Osher Weiss (min 16:05-17:20). He explained that nowadays it is questionable to use any drink for chamar mdina (See Rav Elyashiv in Kovetz Teshuvot 1:57) so it is preferable to use grape juice and rely on those who permit it during the nine days and Tisha bav for someone sick.
    • Rav Chaim Kanievsky in his letter to Rav Elyashiv asked how it is possible to make havdalah on Tisha BeAv if according to the Chazon Ish there is no Chamar Mdina today. Rav Elyashiv responded that he could use unfermented wine. Rav Ovadia in Chazon Ovadia p. 350 writes that he could use grape juice.
  145. Yalkut Yosef 556:7. Chazon Ovadia p. 351 also quotes this from Birkei Yosef 556:3, Zachor Lavraham, Moed Lkol Chai 10:49, Yaskil Avdi 7:36, and Mishneh Halachot 11:455.
  146. Yachava Daat 3:40 in the footnote writes that even though the Knesset Hagedola says that someone eating on Tisha B'av that falls out on Sunday should recite Havdalah before they eat on Saturday night doesn't mean that they need to recite Havdalah Saturday night, but rather they should wait until they need to eat and then recite Havdalah.
  147. Rav Yitzchak Yosef (Motzei Shabbat Parshat Matot 5782 min 13-14) explained that originally his father held that a person should wait until they need to eat before reciting havdalah. However, later after Rav Massas challenged his opinion based on the Knesset Hagedola that indeed the sick person should recite havdalah immediately on Motzei Shabbat. Rav Yitzchak added that this is the preferred option even though she just finished seuda shelishit and is not hungry since it is always ideal to recite havdalah on Motzei Shabbat and not delay. This is reiterated in Yalkut Yosef (Arba Taniyot, 5779 edition, pp. 494-6) and clear in Chazon Ovadia (Arba Taniyot pp. 349-50). See further Halachayomit.co.il which quotes Rav Ovadia's earlier ruling that a nursing or pregnant woman should wait until chatzot unless she feels very weak or is sick to recite havdalah and eat.
  148. Even a situation of "safek pikuach nefesh," when one is unsure if the situation is life-threatening qualifies to allow one to violate whatever is necessary (excluding the 3 cardinal sins) in order to bring a person back to health (see Sanhedrin 74a).
  149. Shulchan Aruch 559:1, Yalkut Yosef 556:3
  150. Yalkut Yosef 556:2
  151. Mishna Brurah 556:2
  152. Shulchan Aruch 552:10 based on taanit 29b that says one may make a meal as extravagant as he pleases on the shabbat of the eighth or ninth of av. Mishna Brurah 552:23 adds though that although we cannot publicly display mourning on Shabbat one's mood should at least somewhat reflect the time.
  153. Rama 552:10
  154. Mikraei Kodesh Hilchot Tisha B'av 10:7
  155. Mikraei Kodesh Hilchot Tisha B'av 10:9
  156. Yalkut Yosef 556:4-5
  157. M.B 558:3
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