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After a person eats any food or drink he should thank Hashem who supplied him with the sustenance. Chazal instituted several types of texts for the bracha achrona, a final bracha, depending on the type of food or drink one ate or drank. Additionally, there are certain requisite conditions that are necessary in order to be obligated to recite a bracha achrona, including a requisite volume of food consumed and a certain time frame one consumed the food within.
- 1 Minimum measures to be obligated in Bracha Achrona
- 2 Boreh Nefashot
- 3 Bracha Achat Mein Shalosh (Al HaMichya)
- 4 Bracha Achrona on coffee or tea
- 5 How long does one have to make Bracha Achrona?
- 6 Eating Food after a Bracha Achrona
- 7 Interruptions
- 8 If One Said the Wrong Bracha Achrona
- 9 Limiting One's Bracha Achrona
- 10 If One Vomited His Food
- 11 Related Pages
- 12 Sources
Minimum measures to be obligated in Bracha Achrona
- One is only obligated to make a Bracha Achrona on a food if one eats a Kezayit of food in Kedi Achilat Pras.
- How long is Kedi Achilat Pras?
- Shiurei Torah (Rav Chaim Noeh 3:15 pg 203) writes that Kedi Achilat Pras is 4 minutes. Vezot HaBracha (pg 6) writes that many poskim (and quotes Rav Elyashiv as one of them) agree. See Aruch HaShulchan 202:8 and Kaf HaChaim 210:8.
- Rav Ovadyah Yosef (Sh"t Yachave Daat 1:17) rules that Kedi Achilat Pras preferably is 4 minutes and after the fact (Bedieved) it is 7.5 minutes.
- Or Letzion (vol 2, 14:17) holds that Kedi Achilat Pras preferably is 4 minutes and after the fact (Bedieved) it is 6 minutes.
- There is an opinion that upon a complete fruit or nut one recites a bracha achrona even if one ate less than a kezayit. The halacha doesn't follow that opinion but to avoid that issue one shouldn't eat a complete fruit or nut unless one is planning on eating a kezayit. A grape or olive is considered a complete unit but not a raisin.
- Food that was stuck in one's teeth doesn't count towards the shiur for bracha achrona.
- One is only obligated to make a Bracha Achrona on a drink if one drinks a Revi'it of liquid in Kedi Shtiyat Reviyit. There are opinions which obligate already from Kezayit, therefore, it is proper not to drink any amount between a Kezayit and a Revi'it, in order not to put oneself in a situation of doubtful Bracha.
- How long is Kedi Shtiyat Reviyit?
- The simple reading of the Mishna Brurah (Shaar HaTziyun 210:11) is that Kedi Shtiyat Reviyit is two gulps (swallowing with your throat twice).
- Vezot HaBracha (Birur Halacha 11, pg 240-1) questions this because of the difficulty of swallowing a Revi'it in two gulps (see study that estimates an average gulp between 8 and 12 ml). He quotes and supports the explanation of the Haggadat Kol Dodi (Siman 2) who writes that Kedi Shtiyat Reviyit is drinking a number of gulps without any break and without removing the cup from one's lips. Hence it is more accurate to translate the time frame as two sips (intakes into your mouth) than two gulps.
- Rav Ovadyah Yosef (Sh"t Yabia Omer 5:18(2), Chazon Ovadyah (Brachot pg 259-260)) rules that Kedi Shtiyat Reviyit is one gulp. Or Letzion (vol 2, 14:17) agrees. Halacha Brurah 210:9 writes that if a person drank a reviyit straight even in two or three gulps that it is still called kedi shiur reviyit but still this is a very short time.
- See Birkat Eliyahu who estimates it is about 12 seconds.
- Aruch Hashulchan 202:8 writes that kedi shetiyat reviyit isn't a minute. He implies that it is slightly less than a minute. In 202:6 he explain endorses the idea that you can drink the reviyit in two sips and take a break for some time in between.
- Rav Belsky in Shulchan Halevi 3:11 p. 36 quotes Rav Moshe Feinstein as holding that the shiur kedi shitiyat reviyit is a minute.
- See Harerei Kedem (vol 2 pg 46) who quotes Rav Simcha Zissel who says that it's a third of Kedi Achilat Pras, which would lead one to conclude that kedi shetiyat reviyit is a minute or more.
- The simple reading of the Mishna Brurah (Shaar HaTziyun 210:11) is that Kedi Shtiyat Reviyit is two gulps (swallowing with your throat twice).
- If one ate a Kezayit of a fruit or vegetable not from the 7 species with which Israel is praised (i.e. wheat, barley, grapes, figs, pomegranates, olives, dates), and anything which doesn't grow from the ground, one should say a Boreh Nefashot. For example, the Bracha Achrona for water is Boreh Nefashot.
- If one ate a food that requires Boreh Nefashot and also drank a drink that requires Boreh Nefashot, one should make one Boreh Nefashot to cover them both.
- The text of Boreh Nefashot is ברוך אתה ה' אלוקינו מלך העולם בורא נפשות רבות וחסרונן על כל מה שברא(ת) להחיות בהם נפש כל חי ברוך חי העולמים - Baruch Atta Hashem Elokeinu Melech HaOlam Boreh Nefashot Rabot VeChesronan Al Kol Mah SheBara(ta) LeHachayot Bahem Nefesh Kol Chay Baruch Chey HaOlamim. Sephardim pronounce the חי in the beracha with a patach as opposed to a tzere.
Combining Foods to Make a Boreh Nefashot
- If someone ate half a kezayit of mein shalosh and half a kezayit of boreh nefashot one should recite boreh nefashot.According to many Sephardic poskim no bracha should be recited since one didn't eat a kezayit of one category of food that requires a bracha achrona.
- If someone ate half a kezayit of one type of mein shalosh and half a kezayit of another type of mein shalosh, according to those who allow combining food for a bracha achrona in general, many poskim say to recite boreh nefashot.
Bracha Achat Mein Shalosh (Al HaMichya)
See the Bracha Achat Mein Shalosh page for more details
- If one ate a Kezayit of mezonot food (cake, cookies, etc) after one finishes eating one should make Al HaMichya.
- The Bracha Achrona for grapes, figs, pomegranate, olives, and dates is Bracha Achat Mein Shalosh with the insert of Al HaEtz VeAl Pri HaEtz.
Bracha Achrona on coffee or tea
- According to Sephardim, one should not make a Bracha Achrona after drinking coffee or tea. If one waited until it cooled down a little and then drank an amount which would obligate Bracha Achrona (Revi'it in Kedi Shtiyat Reviyit), for coffee, there is what to rely on to make Boreh Nefashot. However, if one were to ask, one should advise him not to make a Bracha Achrona, and for tea, one should make a Boreh Nefashot.
- Certain Ashkenazic Poskim also say that tea or coffee do not warrant a bracha achrona.
How long does one have to make Bracha Achrona?
Birkat Hamazon for bread
- If one ate bread and is full, preferably one should make Birkat Hamazon within 72 minutes and after the fact, one may make it as long as one is full from what one ate. However, after 72 minutes, if one is a little hungry, one can no longer make the Birkat Hamazon. 
- If it’s past 72 minutes and one is in doubt whether one is still full one can make Birkat Hamazon, yet, it’s preferable to eat another Kezayit before making Birkat Hamazon. 
- However, if one just had a Kezayit and was not full, one should try to make the Birkat Hamazon right away and if one didn't one may only make Birkat Hamazon up to 72 minutes after one ate.  Some add that if one waited more than a half hour it's preferable to have another Kezayit of bread before making Birkat Hamazon. 
- If one has a very long meal and continues to have appetizers or drinks, one may make the Birkat Hamazon as long as the meal continues even 4 or 5 hours.  One should have something to eat or drink every 72 minutes, however, if one didn't then one may still say Birkat Hamazon. 
- If someone was at a wedding and ate the main course and danced for a while the time lapse before it is too late to say birkat hamazon can be extended by eating or drinking something. 
Bracha Achrona on other foods
- If one ate any food and is full, preferably one should make Bracha Achrona within 72 minutes and after the fact, one may make it as long as one is full from what one ate. However, after 72 minutes, if one is a little hungry, one can no longer make the Bracha Achrona.
- If it’s past 72 minutes and one is in doubt whether one is still full one may not make the Bracha Achrona, yet, it’s preferable to eat a Kezayit of another food make a Bracha Achrona on that to cover the earlier one.
- If one ate any food and was not full, preferably one should make Bracha Achrona immediately or within 30 minutes, after the fact one has up to 72 minutes.
- If one drank a Revi'it in Kedi Shtiyat Reviyit, one should make a Bracha Achrona immediately and after the fact one may make the Bracha Achrona as long as one’s thirst is quenched.
- If one is unsure whether one is thirsty and one’s thirst is no longer quenched from the original drink, should make the Bracha Achrona within 30 minutes, and afterwards one should make the Bracha Achrona but rather preferably one should eat or drink something else and cover the earlier food with it’s Bracha Achrona.
- If one sat down with a drink and sip it from time to time, if one drank a Revi'it in Kedi Shtiyat Reviyit, as long as one drinks time to time each time being less than 30 minutes from the last drink, one can make a Bracha Achrona at the end.
- If one did drank a Revi'it in Kedi Shtiyat Reviyit and it will be 30 minutes before the next time one drinks or one is unsure whether it will be 30 minutes before one drinks again, according to Ashkenazim, one should make a Bracha Achrona and a Bracha Rishona for the next time one drinks. However, according to Sephardim, one should not make a Bracha Achrona but rather have in mind when making the first Bracha Rishona that it should cover all of the drinks that one has. However, if one leaves the building one would require another Bracha Rishona.
Eating Food after a Bracha Achrona
- If you made a bracha achrona and there was still food stuck in your teeth you can swallow it without a bracha.
- If someone made a mistake and recited a bracha achrona even though they thought that were going to eat more afterwards they don't require a bracha rishona for that food he had in mind.
- If one is saying Bracha Mein Shalosh (Al HaMichya) one should pause in order to answer Kaddish and Kedusha.
If One Said the Wrong Bracha Achrona
If One Recited Birkat HaMazon
- After the fact if one recited Birkat Hamazon on wine or dates one fulfills one's obligation.
- After the fact if one recited Birkat Hamazon on mezonot, because there is a dispute whether one fulfilled one's obligation one should not recite a new bracha.
- After the fact if one recited Birkat Hamazon on shivat haminim one doesn't fulfill one's obligation.
- If one ate a different food which has the Bracha Achrona of Boreh Nefashot or Al HaEtz and then made Birkat HaMazon by accident according to most authorities one hasn’t fulfilled one’s obligation but in order to concerned for the minority opinion one should hear the correct Bracha Achrona from someone else or have another amount of food and make the correct Bracha Achrona.
- In any case the fact that Birkat HaMazon fulfills one’s obligation after the fact, is true even if one only said the first paragraph of Birkat Hamazon.
- If one ate foods that require a Bracha Mein Shalosh (Al HaMichya, Al HaEtz, Al HaGefen) and began saying Birkat HaMazon, if one remembered in middle of saying the first Bracha one should continue with Bracha Mein Shalosh from the words “Al Shehinchalta LeAvotenu”.
If One Recited Mein Shalosh
- Al Haetz after the fact exempts fruits that are haetz but not vegetables that are haadama. Al Hagefen doesn't exempt fruits.
- After the fact if one recited Al Hamichya for Boreh Nefashot one doesn't fulfill one's obligation.
- Al Hamichya doesn't exempt shehakol foods.
- After the fact Al Hagefen covers grapes.
- After the fact if one recited Al Hamichya in place of Birkat Hamazon for bread, according to many poskim one fulfills one's obligation. Some poskim hold that one doesn't fulfill his obligation.
Limiting One's Bracha Achrona
- If someone ate two foods and recited a bracha achrona for one of them and didn’t have in mind the other one, some say that if the other one is less significant than the first one the bracha achrona exempted both foods and if it is more significant then it isn’t exempt. Other say that automatically the bracha achrona includes everything even if you didn’t have it in mind.
- If a person ate two foods with two brachot achronot and recited the bracha achrona on one of them and in theory the brach achrona would exempt the other food after the fact does it exempt the other one without intention? Some say yes and some say no.
If One Vomited His Food
- A person who ate and then threw up what he ate shouldn’t say Bracha Achrona and ideally he should try to eat more or listen to someone else recite that bracha for themselves.
- Magen Avraham 210:1, Sh"t Chazon Ovadyah (Siman 12, pg 184)
- Tosfot Brachot 39a, Shulchan Aruch 210:1
- Halachos of Brachos p. 245 and in the Handbook quotes Rav Shlomo Zalman that a raisin isn’t a biryah.
- Yalkut Yosef 184:15 based on Panim Meirot 2:67 and Chatom Sofer 127 unlike the Maharam Shik OC 250
- Vezot HaBracha (chap 5, pg 40) rules that one only makes a Bracha Achrona if one drank a Revi'it in Kedi Shtiyat Reviyit. He supports this with the ruling of the Mishna Brurah 210:1 regarding tea. Sh"t Yabia Omer 5:18(2) agrees.
- Shulchan Aruch 210:1, Mishna Berurah 210:10.
- Rabbi Dovid Feinstein (Haggadah Kol Dodi, 5745 p. 5) writes that the shiur of kdei shtiyat revi’it is drinking from the cup two times, each time drinking several gulps without removing the cup from one’s lips, and removing the cup once between the two times.
- Shulchan Aruch 207:1, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 51:1
- Mishna Brurah 207:5
- Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 51:1
- Magen Avraham 207 (Introduction) writes that the above text is his text of Boreh Nefashot. Mishna Brurah 202:3 quotes this but changes Chesronan to Chesronam and SheBarata to SheBara but adds that some say SheBarata. Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 51:11 agrees. The Hebrew Ashkenaz Artscroll Siddur (Siddur Yitzchak Yair HaShalem, 5753 edition, p. 88) has the version of Chesronan and both SheBarata and SheBara. Interestingly, the Yerushalmi (cited by Tosfot Brachot 37a s.v. boreh) has the conclusion of Baruch Atta Hashem Chay Haolamim.
- Ben Ish Chai Matot 16
- The Mishna Brurah 210:1 writes that a half kezayit of mein shalosh and half kezayit of boreh nefashot combine to obligate in a boreh nefashot. The Dirshu quotes Or Letzion 1:19 and Igrot Moshe 1:74 who explain that even though a boreh nefashot doesn't exempt a mein shalosh (see S”A 202:11) still since a half kezayit of mein shalosh isn't yet obligated in mein shalosh it can be used towards the shiur of boreh nefashot.
- *The Knesset Hagedola (Hagahot Tur 210:1) writes that the half kezayit of mein shalosh and half kezayit of boreh nefashot combine for boreh nefashot because some hold that the half kezayit of mein shalosh requires a bracha achrona, also some hold that the half kezayit of boreh nefashot requires a bracha achrona, and lastly, perhaps boreh nefashot covers the need for a bracha achrona of mein shalosh. The Magen Avraham 210:1, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 51:4, and Mishna Brurah 210:1 agree with the Knesset Hagedola. Yabia Omer OC 1:12 and Halacha Brurah 210:11 disagrees with the Knesset Hagedola since in the end of the day all of his factors are only a safek safeka and that's not sufficient to recite a bracha. Also, his opinion in general is that boreh nefashot covers al hamichya, which is a disputed point (see Biur Halacha 202:11 s.v. bracha).
- Igrot Moshe OC 1:74 takes the position of the knesset hagedola for another reason. Perhaps boreh nefashot is a universal bracha that in essence all foods would be exempt with, however, in general you can't recite boreh nefashot since you have another bracha to recite. Rav Moshe says that as a ramification of this if someone doesn't have a siddur and doesn't know al hamichya and can't get it, he could recite boreh nefashot even on a kezayit of something that requires a mein shalosh. Or Letzion 1:19 explains the Knesset Hagedola differently. He writes that as long as one didn't yet have a kezayit one can cover the food which regularly would have been mein shalosh with a boreh nefashot. Once you had a kezayit of mein shalosh then boreh nefashot doesn't work for the mein shalosh food. He is strict that if one had 18 grams or more it is already a safek kezayit of mein shalosh and so one can't use boreh nefashot (disagreeing with Rav Moshe).
- Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 51:4 writes that one should recite a boreh nefashot on half kezayit cookies and half kezayit al haetz. Dirshu quoted Rav Shlomo Zalman who said that according to Igrot Moshe 2:109 one could make a mein shalosh with both conclusions. Halichot Shlomo (Pesach 12 n. 39) quotes Rav Shlomo Zalman and Rav Elyashiv who agreed with the Kitzur Shulchan Aruch.
- Shulchan Aruch 208:1 and 210:1
- Tur 208:1 writes that the fruit of the seven species with which Israel was praise have Bracha Achrona of Bracha Mein Shalosh. S”A 208:1 agrees.
- Yalkut Yosef 207:6, Chazon Ovadyah (Brachot p. 260-1), Sh"t Yechave Daat 5:21, Birkei Yosef 204:5, Moreh Bietzbah 3:96, Ben Ish Chai Masei 9
- Mishna Brurah 210:1 based on Magen Avraham 210:1, Chaye Adam 3:15, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 51:6. see however the Baal Hatanya in Seder Birkot Hanehenin 8:6 who says that you should say a beracha acharona on tea and coffee as long as you haven't waited kdei achilat pras. Maharam Shick OC 85 says this was the practice of the Chatam Sofer. Sh"t Melamed Lehoil OC 25 says this was the practice of Rabbi Shaul Yosef Nathanson and the Minchat Chinuch
- Shulchan Aruch OC 184:5 writes that one may Birkat Hamazon until one is hungry again. Vezot HaBracha (pg 49, chapter 5) and Yalkut Yosef (Brachot pg 300) rule that if one didn’t make Birkat Hamazon until after 72 minutes, one may surely recite Birkat Hamazon as long as one is still full and one isn't hungry. Vezot HaBracha quotes Rav Elyashiv who says that it’s preferable to eat a little more before making Birkat Hamazon. Aruch HaShulchan 184:7 and 8 writes that since we don't know the precise determination of when we're still full must make Birkat Hamazon within 72 minutes and if one didn't then one should eat another Kezayit and then say Birkat Hamazon. Kaf HaChaim 184:28 writes that in order to fulfill all opinions if it has been 72 minutes one should eat another Kezayit and if one doesn't have bread one may make Birkat Hamazon as long as one is full.
- Mishna Brurah 184:15, Vezot HaBracha (pg 49, chapter 5)
- Yalkut Yosef (Brachot pg 300), Mishna Brurah 184:20
- Vezot HaBracha (chap 5, pg 50)
- Mishna Brurah 184:18, Vezot HaBracha (chap 5, pg 50), Yalkut Yosef (Brachot pg 301)
- Vezot HaBracha (chap 5, pg 51) quoting the Magen Avraham 184:9
- Vezot Habracha p. 249 quotes Teshuvot Vehanhagot 1:175 as saying that flavored water can extend this time period. See Har Tzvi 96 and Shevet Halevi 6:27.
- Shulchan Aruch 184:5, Mishna Brurah 184:19, Vezot HaBracha (pg 49-50, chapter 5)
- Vezot HaBracha (pg 50, chapter 5)
- Mishna Brurah 184:20, Vezot HaBracha (pg 50, chapter 5)
- S”A 184:5, Vezot HaBracha (pg 51, chapter 5)
- See Kaf Hachaim 184:29.
- Vezot HaBracha (pg 51, chapter 5)
- Vezot HaBracha (pg 52, chapter 5)
- Vezot HaBracha (pg 52-3, chapter 5)
- Yalkut Yosef 494:9
- Chut Shani Brachot p. 213 writes that once it was in your mouth the food is considered digested and insignificant and wouldn't require a bracha. Or Letzion 2:46:48 agrees for another reason. He says that since you made the bracha achrona with in mind that you'll continue to eat those crumbs the bracha achrona isn't a hefsek for those crumbs. Even though the Magen Avraham 190:3 has that opinion about all food that one intends to eat after the bracha achrona and he is disputed regarding crumbs in your teeth after the bracha achrona maybe everyone would agree with his opinion. Meir Oz 7:812 agrees and quotes the Chazon Ish (Maaeh Ish 5:13) and Shevet Hakehati 1:95 who also held like this.
- Magen Avraham 190:3. Pri Megadim E"A 190:3 answers that if it was intentional then the bracha achrona completely ends the bracha rishona beforehand as could be seen in Tosfot Pesachim 102b s.v. yaknah and Magen Avraham 190:1
- http://www.dailyhalacha.com/displayRead.asp?readID=995 quoting Or Letzion
- Rabbenu Yonah (Brachot 6a s.v. iy nami) proves from Brachot 12a that birkat hamazon exempts dates and from Brachot 35b that it covers wine. He reiterates the point in Brachot 29b s.v. miyhu. Rosh (Brachot 1:14 and Pesachim 10:10) and Rashba (Brachot 42a s.v. yayain) agree. (See Pri Chadash 208:17 who writes that the Rashba only meant that wine is exempt when it is part of the meal.) Rashba (Brachot 41b s.v. heviyu) shows that the Yerushalmi and Bahag hold that birkat hamazon doesn't exempt dates. Shuchan Aruch OC 208:17 rules like the Rabbenu Yonah, Rosh, and Rashba.
- Based on Gemara Brachot 41b, both the Rabbenu Yonah (Brachot 29b s.v. lacher) and Rashba (Brachot 48a s.v. ha, 41b s.v. meha, 42a s.v. yayin) write that birkat hamazon doesn't exempt mein shalosh even after the fact. Tosfot Pesachim 103a s.v. ana and Rosh Pesachim 10:10 agree. Shulchan Aruch OC 208:17 codifies their opinion. Bear Hagolah and Pri Chadash 208:17 argue with Shulchan Aruch for all mezonot foods since they are filling. Rabbi Akiva Eiger 208:17 comments that for pat haba bkisnin certainly birkat hamazon does exempt it. Mishna Brurah 208:75 concludes that since many achronim disagree with the Shulchan Aruch and hold that birkat hamazon exempts any mezonot since they are more filling than dates which the birkat hamazon covers. He adds that certainly we accept Rabbi Akiva Eiger regarding pat haba bkisnin. Halacha Brurah 208:60 and Birkat Hashem 2:3:22 agree.
- Even though the Rashbam Pesachim 103b writes that if mein shalosh is effective on a food then certainly birkat hamazon is effective. This is also found in the Baal Hameor Pesachim 24b but Ramban rejects it. Additionally, Tosfot Pesachim 103a s.v. ana rejects this types of kal vchomer. Tosfot Rabbenu Yehuda Brachot 41b s.v. maskana, Rashba Brachot 42a s.v. yayin, and Rosh Pesachim 10:10 agree with the Tosfot against the Rashbam. Rabbenu Yonah Brachot 29b s.v. lachar quotes Tosfot. Shulchan Aruch O.C. 208:17 follows the Tosfot unlike the Rashbam. The Mishna Brurah 208:75 accepts this ruling of Shulchan Aruch. Aruch Hashulchan 208:27 explains that the reason it doesn't work is because only the original bracha that chazal instituted for that food works and nothing else. The only exceptions are when the bracha would have been relevant even according to chazal but practically didn't establish it for some reason (such as for wine and dates).
- Halacha Brurah 208:60
- Shulchan Aruch O.C. 208:17
- Shulchan Aruch O.C. 208:17
- Shulchan Aruch 208:13
- Shulchan Aruch O.C. 208:13
- Shulchan Aruch 208:13
- Shulchan Aruch 208:15
- Raah (Brachot 44a) explains that since Al Hamichya is Biblical and the pasuk which indicates the obligation for Birkat Hamazon includes the obligation for Al Hamichya if one says Al Hamichya in place of Birkat Hamazon after the fact one fulfills one's obligation. This is also the opinion of the Bet Yosef 168:6 who rules that for all forms of pat haba bkisnin one should recite Al Hamichya even though potentially it could be bread. Ginat Veradim 1:24, Birkei Yosef 167:10, Birkat Hashem 2:3:18, Aruch Hashulchan 168:23, and Kaf Hachaim 187:1 agree. The Ginat Veradim explains that this idea is based on the Kesef Mishna Brachot 2:1 who quotes the Rambam and Ramban that Birkat Hamazon is deoritta but the number of brachot are derabbanan. Yabia Omer OC 2:12 has a lengthy teshuva proving that Al Hamichya after the fact exempts Birkat Hamazon.
- Piskei Teshuvot 187:2 citing Bach and Drisha 168, Eliya Rabba 168:18, Chaye Adam Nishmat Adam 47:1, Teshurat Shay 1:571, Maharshag 1:34, Dvar Yehoshua YD 3:70, Az Nidbaru 5:31. Yabia Omer 2:12 quotes Ritva Brachot 2:21 to support this approach.
- Rav Poalim OC 2:32 writes that perhaps for bracha achrona since you’re obligated already it is automatically going to exempt the foods even those you didn’t have in mind and you can’t have kavana not to exempt them. He says it isn’t comparable to bracha rishona but he cites the Zecher Yitzchak Harari 97d and Shaar Asher OC 4 who did say that comparison. According to the Zecher Yitzchak and Shaar Asher if one recited the bracha achrona on the less significant food it doesn’t exempt the more significant one. Yabia Omer OC 10:55:13 agrees with the idea in the Rav Poalim and supports it from the Maharam Ben Chaviv. He concludes that one shouldn’t recite another bracha even if you didn’t have it in mind.
- Birkei Yosef 208:1 quotes the Panim Meirot who explained that since one's stomach doesn't benefit from the food one can't recite a bracha achrona. However, the Birkei Yosef argues that one can recite a bracha achrona just for benefit to one's palate. Nonetheless there is no bracha achrona since there is no remaining satisfaction from the original food just like the case where a person ate food and the forgot to make a bracha achrona until after it was already digested in which case it is too late to recite a bracha achrona. Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 51:15 concludes that one is exempt from a bracha achrona after vomiting. Kaf HaChaim 184:34, Ben Ish Chai (Chukat no. 13), and Vezot HaBracha (p. 113) quoting the Shaarei Teshuva agree with the Birkei Yosef that if one vomited that there's no bracha achrona but ideally one should try to eat more or listen to someone else's bracha achrona.