Bracha Achat Mein Shalosh
Bracha Achat Mein Shalosh is the Bracha Achrona for anything in the pasuk that Israel was praised with (Devarim 8:8). The most common example of foods that this includes is foods which have the Bracha Rishona of mezonot. For general rules about Bracha Achrona such as the minimum amount to obligate a Bracha Achrona or the time within which Bracha Achrona may be recited, see the Bracha Achrona page.
- If one ate a Kezayit of mezonot food (cake, cookies, etc) after one finishes eating one should make Al HaMichya. Being that Al Hamichya is only recited for shivat haminim there is a discussion if it is biblical or rabbinic; the conclusion is that it is rabbinic.
- If someone isn't sure whether he recited Al Hamichya or another Mein Shalosh he should have another kezayit of that food so that he can then recite a certain Bracha Achat Mein Shalosh. However, if he can't exempt it he should not repeat Mein Shalosh.
- If someone has a food that’s there's a dispute whether it is Al Hagefen one should not eat that food together with a Kezayit of Shehakol and Kezayit of Shevat HaMinim as it’s forbidden to add any addition to Al HaMichya even if it doesn’t cause an addition of Hashem’s name.
- If someone had a food that’s a Kezayit of Mezonot and less than a Kezayit of Shevat HaMinim one shouldn’t add the addition of Al HaEtz but one who does add it in has what to rely on.
- Someone who ate a Mezonot and Shevat HaMinim can fulfill the obligation of his friend who only had a Safek Kezayit of Mezonot and the addition of Al HaEtz isn’t a Hefsek.
- If someone ate a Kezayit of Mezonot and a Revi'it of wine and forgot to make add Al Hagefen one should make a new bracha in order to say Al HaMichya.
- If a person eats a Kezayit of shivat haminim and a Kezayit of another fruit one can make an al haetz (bracha achrona) and that covers both fruits.
Shiur to obligate Al HaMichya
- If a person ate cake or any mezonot the minhag is to recite al hamichya as long as he ate a kezayit of the cake if there is a proportion of 1 portion of 1 flour to 6 parts of the total ingredients.
Order of the Al Hamichya, Al Haetz, and Al Hagefen Versions
- For eating mezonot one recites Al Hamichya, for shivat haminim one recites al haetz, for wine or grape juice, one recites al hagefen.
Switching Order of Rice and Mezonot
- Whenever a bracha achrona is effective on a food after the fact it wouldn’t be effective if a person is reciting that bracha achrona for a food which really deserves that bracha achrona and he also ate the food which after the fact would be covered but didn’t have it in mind.
- The Bracha Achrona for grapes, figs, pomegranate, olives, and dates is Bracha Achat Mein Shalosh with the insert of Al HaEtz VeAl Pri HaEtz.
Fruit, Wine, or Mezonot from Israel
- If a person eats Shivat Haminim fruit from Israel he changes the text of the conclusion from Al Hapeirot to Al Peiroteha in order to praise Hashem for giving us Israel which produces these Shivat Haminim. If one isn't sure whether the fruit is from Israel or not one should just conclude with Al Hapeirot.
- If a person drinks wine from Israel he changes the text of the conclusion from Al Hagefen to Al Gafna.
- If a person eats mezonot foods from Israel he changes the text of the conclusion from Al Hamichya to Al Michyata.
Insertions for Shabbat, Yom Tov, Rosh Chodesh
- On Shabbat we insert the phrase "ורצה והחליצנו ביום השבת הזה" before כי אתה טוב ומטיב.
- On Yom Tov we insert the phrase "וזכרנו לטובה ביום חג פלוני הזה" (where Ploni is replaced with the specific holiday) before כי אתה טוב ומטיב.
- On Rosh Chodesh we insert the phrase "וזכרנו ביום ראש חדש הזה" before כי אתה טוב ומטיב.
- There is no insertion for Chanuka and Purim since there is no hodah (praise for Israel) section in Mein Shalosh.
- If someone forgot to mention the insertion of the day one fulfilled one's obligation of the bracha.
- Shulchan Aruch O.C. 208:1 and 210:1.
- Halachot Gedolot (as understood by Smag Asin 27), Rashba (Brachot 35a s.v. hachi), Ramban (Brachot 49b s.v. Rabbi Meir), Rosh (Brachot 6:16), Tur 209:1, Riaz (cited by Shiltei Giborim Brachot 32a n. 1), Sefer Hachinuch (no. 430), and Ritva (Brachot 6:7) all hold that Bracha Achat Mein Shalosh is deoritta. Smag (Asin 27), Rabbenu Yonah Brachot 32a s.v. vnirah, and Rambam Brachot 8:12 (as understood by Bet Yosef 209:3) hold that it is derabbanan. Shulchan Aruch 209:3 holds like the Rambam that it is only rabbinic.
- Mishna Brurah 209:10. He adds that if he can't have another kezayit of the same food he can have a kezayit of another category of Mein Shalosh and include in the Mein Shalosh the one he originally had. For example, if he had a cookie and doesn't know if he recited Al Hamichya he can have a kezayit of dates and recite a combination Mein Shalosh with both Al Hamichya and Al Haetz. This is in line with his opinion in Mishna Brurah 208:82 but in disagreement with Sephardic practice (Shulchan Aruch 208:18).
- Shulchan Aruch 208:18 based on the Trumat HaDeshen 30
- Sh”t Mishneh Halachot 4:29 says that this law should be similar to that of the Shulchan Aruch 208:18 where one shouldn’t add in an addition even if one isn’t adding Hashem’s name. However, he concludes that one has what to rely on if one does add the part of Al HaEtz because the Taz and some achronim say that this S”A is only true Lechatchila, but bedieved one should add in that line of Al HaEtz. Yalkut Yosef (v. 3 p. 496 no. 22) implies that one shouldn’t add the addition unless one had the proper Shiur.
- Birkei Yosef 213, Shaarei Teshuva 213:3, Petach Dvir, Yerach Avraham (O”C 7 pg 13c), Tiferet Adam 7, Kaf HaChaim 213:8, and Yalkut Yosef (vol 3. pg 496 #23)
- Yalkut Yosef (vol 3 #23) writes that since one didn’t fulfill the obligation when he left it out of the Al HaMichya he should make a new bracha. He defends his position in Sherit Yosef (vol 3 pg 346)
- Shulchan Aruch 208:13, Mishna Brurah 208:63
- Mishna Brurah 208:48 writes that even though some poskim hold that it is necessary to eat a kezayit of flour excluding the other ingredients the minhag is to include the other ingredients if there is a ratio of 1 part flour to 6 parts of the total ingredients. Chazon Ovadyah (Brachot pg 190) accepts this opinion of only requiring 1/6 flour. Birkat Hashem (vol 2, pg 166), Or Letzion (vol 2, pg 169), and Daily Halacha (by Rabbi Mansour) concur.
- Mishna Brurah 208:50
- The Minchat Shlomo 1:91:6 writes that when a person recites a bracha achrona it doesn’t exempt a food that it would only exempt after the fact unless that is the only food one is reciting it upon. For example, he says that if a person ate cake and drank wine and recited al hamichya and didn’t mention al hagefen he doesn’t fulfill the obligation of the wine, even though if he just recited an al hamichya over wine only it would be exempt. His proof is that Shulchan Aruch 208:17 writes that after the fact the birkat hamazon exempts wine, but in Shulchan Aruch 299:8 he cites an opinion that havdalah before the meal isn’t exempted by birkat hamazon after the meal and even after the fact one would recite an al hagefen after the birkat hamazon to exempt the wine.
- Tur 208:1 writes that the fruit of the seven species with which Israel was praise have Bracha Achrona of Bracha Mein Shalosh. Shulchan Aruch 208:1 agrees.
- Gemara Brachot 44a concludes that in Israel we recite the bracha Al Peiroteha and in the diaspora we recite Al Hapeirot. Rabbenu Yonah 32a s.v. velo explains that if one knew with certainty that fruit was grown in Israel and was exported even in the diaspora one should conclude Al Peiroteha. The Shulchan Aruch OC 208:10 rules like Rabbenu Yonah.
- Mishna Brurah 208:53
- Rabbenu Yonah Brachot 32a s.v. velo, Mishna Brurah 208:54
- Birkei Yosef 208:10, Kaf Hachaim 208:58
- Birkei Yosef 208:10, Kaf Hachaim 208:58. However, Netsiv (Meromei Sadeh Brachot 44a s.v. veha) argues that one shouldn't change the conclusion for Al Hamichya since the bracha includes a bracha for all five grains even though only wheat and barley are specifically used to praise Israel. In order to not to distinguish between the different types of grain one eats they never instituted a change for mezonot.
- Mishna Brurah 208:58. The Yerushalmi Brachot 6:1 45b establishes that we should mention in Mein Shalosh the Mein Hameorah. The Rambam Brachot 3:13 and Rosh Brachot 6:42 quote this with respect to Shabbat and Yom Tov. Bet Yosef 208:12 cites the Tashbetz Katan who adds Rosh Chodesh as well. However, Tosfot Brachot 44a s.v. al writes that the practice wasn't to add anything for these days. Shulchan Aruch OC 208:12 codifies the Yerushalmi with respect to Shabbat, Yom Tov, and Rosh Chodesh.
- Mishna Brurah 208:58
- Mishna Brurah 208:58
- The Maharam Rotenberg (responsa Prague edition n. 70) writes that there's no mentioning of Chanuka and Purim in Mein Shalosh since it is only mentioned in Birkat Hamazon in the hodah, praise, section of the second bracha but since there's no corresponding part of Mein Shalosh it isn't mentioned at all. Hagahot Maimoniyot Brachot 30 cites this. Levush 208:12 explains the Maharam. He adds that even though we mention Nodeh Lecha at the end of the Mein Shalosh that's not the main place of hodah, it is just a summary before the conclusion. The Lechem Chamudot (Brachot 6:135) asks on the Levush that one should still be able to mention it there since it is no different than the Harachaman's. However, the Eliya Rabba 208:21 points out that the Lechem Chamudot's question isn't strong and in fact the Levush's reason is explicit in the Maharam. The Gra on 208:12 and Mishna Brurah 208:59 provide another reason; since mentioning the Mein Meorah in Birkat Hamazon is only and there's no minhag for Mein Shalosh there's no need to say it. Shulchan Aruch OC 208:12 agrees.
- Mishna Brurah 208:58. The Shaar Hatziyun 208:60 provides three reasons: 1) You didn't have to eat this snack in the first place as we find regarding Yaaleh Veyavo on Rosh Chodesh (Chidushei Haraah). 2) Many rishonim didn't say it at all (Tosfot Brachot 44a s.v. al). 3) Also, the Yerushalmi's language implies it is only something to be concerned about initially.