Month of Adar
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Month of Adar
- Chazal tell us “Mishnichnas Adar Marbim BeSimcha” (Adar brings with it happiness).  Thus, if one has a court case with a non-Jew one should try to have it during this month. 
- MeSheNichNas Adar Marbim BeSimcha really refers to removing sadness and worry but not necessarily including activities of simcha. 
- Many hold that MeSheNichNas Adar Marbim BeSimcha applies to purim katan in the first Adar during a leap year. 
- Beginning Rosh Chodesh Adar, some have the custom to hang a sign which says "Mishnichnas Adar Marbim Brsimcha." Some have the custom to place this sign covering the "Zecher Lechurban" unfinished part of a wall that is usually left in the home. 
Fast of 7th of Adar
- Some have a custom to fast on the seventh of Adar for the yahrzeit of Moshe Rabbenu.  If one plans on fasting one needs to accept it upon oneself in Mincha the day before. 
- If it’s a leap year one should fast in the second Adar, yet Ashkenazim have what to rely on to fast in the first Adar. 
- Even if there are ten fasting in the minyan it’s considered a Tanit Yachid, meaning the Shaliach Tzibbur can only say Anenu in Shema Kolenu and not as it’s own bracha, and the minyan shouldn’t take out a Torah to read Vayichal.  Even if the Cohanim are fasting they shouldn’t do Nesiat Kapayim at Mincha. 
- Some have a custom to learn extra Torah on the seventh of Adar. On a leap year it’s proper to learn extra also on the seventh of the first Adar. 
Ninth of Adar
- Some have the minhag to fast on the ninth of Adar because that was the day that Beit Shammai and Beit Hillel became divided. 
Reading the Megillah early
- If one is going out to the army or on a boat voyage where there will not be a kosher megilla, one should nevertheless endeavor to read the megillah in the appropriate time. One is allowed to read the megilla even at the beginning of the month but one shouldn’t say the blessing at that point. However, the seudah of purim and mishloach manot and matanot le’evyonim are only performed in their appropriate time.
see page for Purim Katan
- Tanit 29a, Yalkut Yosef (Kitzur Shulchan Aruch Hilchot Chodesh Adar #1), Yerushalmi Megillah 4:1, Magen Avraham 686:5
- Tanit 29b Rav Papa says one should try to have his court cases with non-Jews during this month. Sh”T Chatom Sofer 160 writes that Rambam doesn’t quote this halacha (to have court cases during this month) because Ein Mazal LeYisrael (there are no superstitions in Israel). However this halacha is brought down by many Achronim including Torat HaMoadim (Purim 1:1), Siddur Bet Ovad (pg 167b), Moed Kol Chai 31:52, Mishnah Brurah 686:3 and Yalkut Yosef (Kitzur Shulchan Aruch Hilchot Chodesh Adar #1.
- Halichot Shlomo Chapter 18, pg 238 note 36
- Piskei Shemuot pg 51 quoting Rav Elyashiv. See also Shevet HaLevi 10:105 as well as Nitei Gavriel 11:1.
- Piskei Teshuvos 686:5, Nitei Gavriel 11:4
- Even though it’s a dispute in the midrashim (Yalkut shimoni yehoshua 5), Midrash Rabba (Ester 7:11), the Gemara (kedushin 38a) records the date as the 7th of Adar in the Adar juxtaposed with Nisan. There is an ancient Minhag to fast on this date as brought in Tur and S”A 580, Sh”t Trumat Hadeshen 294, Sh”t Maharil 31 in name of Bahag, and Sh”t Mahari Mintz 9. [Nonetheless this is a minority Minhag, as even the Bet Yosef 580 writes that he never saw anyone keeping these fasts.] Yalkut Yosef (Moadim pg 274, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch Hilchot Chodesh Adar #3), Chazon Ovadyah Purim (pg 32), Sh"t Yabia Omer YD 4:24 write that this is the minhag of the pious ones. see also Tzitz Eliezer 5:1
- Tanit 12a says that for every fast one needs to accept it the day before otherwise it doesn’t count as a fast, except for Tanit Tzibbur. This is also the opinion of Rambam (Tanit 1:10), Tur and S”A 562:5.
- Sh”t Maharil 31 in name of Bahag and Sh”t Trumat HaDeshen 294 write that in a leap year one should fast in the first Adar and then says from here we learn that the yehrzeit of someone who died in Adar should be commemorated in the first Adar. Rama 568:7 rules that a yehrzeit of Adar is commemorated in the first Adar. However since S”A 568:7 rules that a yehrzeit of Adar is commemorated in the second Adar based on Sh”t Maharar Yacov Vill (quoted in Bet Yosef), we also should hold to fast in the second Adar. Sh”t She’ilat Yavetz 1:117 supports the Trumat HaDeshen because Sotah 12b says that Moshe was born on the first Adar of a leap year and since Hashem calculates the years of Tzaddikim precisely it’s reasonable he also died in the first Adar; yet, he also quotes his father the Chacham Tzvi that one should fast on the second Adar. On the Yavetz’s proof Torah HaMoadim 1:2, Agurah BeAhalach 6a, Sh”t Halachot Ketanot 2:173 argue that since Kedushin 38a says Moshe died in Adar juxtaposed to Nisan it’s reasonable that Moshe died in the second Adar. Sh”T Chatom Sofer O”C 163, Petach Aynaim (Rosh Hashana 11a), Sh”t Vayan Yitzchak Y”D 39, Rav Brachot (pg 192a), Sh”t Yacheve Daat 1:83, Yalkut Yosef (Moadim pg 274, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch Hilchot Chodesh Adar #4), Chazon Ovadyah Purim (pg 32), and Torat HaMoadim 1:2 hold that the fast should be held in the second month. However, Sh”T Lev Chaim 2 (pg 157a), Mishna Brurah 580:15, and Aruch HaShulchan 580:3 hold that the fast should be held in the first month.
- Those who argue on the Minhag Rishonim: Ravyah quotes Rabbenu Shmuel and Rabbenu Eliezer Bar Shmuel who questioned the Minhag that when the community would fast to prevent a tragedy they would say Anenu as it’s own bracha and read Vayichal as Torah reading because the Tosefta (Tanit 2:4) says that for a Tanit Yachid one doesn’t say Anenu as it’s own bracha or read Vayichal. Their proof that it’s called a Tanit Yachid is Tanit 14b says that even if the entire community in a large city has to pray for rain must pray in Shema Kolenu and not add an extra bracha.
- Defender of the Minhag: Rosh (Tanit 1:20) rejects the proof because by rain one can’t add a bracha changing the order of Chazal but if an entire community accepts a fast it’s certainly considered a Tanit Tzibbur. S”A 566:2 rules for fasts that a community accepts a fast to prevent a tragedy we hold like the Minhag Rishonim, however by fasts that the community just accepts to inspire Teshuva one should consider it like a Tanit Tzibbur. Torat HaMoadim 1:3 says that since the fast of the 7th of Adar is only observed by individuals according to everyone it’s considered a Tanit Yachid. Shaarei Efraim 8:103 writes that for a yehrzeit such as 7th of Adar they shouldn't take out a Torah to read Vayichal. Rav Ovadyah in Kol Torah (Adar Bet 5725), Yalkut Yosef (Moadim pg 276, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch Hilchot Chodesh Adar #5), and Chazon Ovadyah Purim (pg 35) , and Mishna Brurah (Beiur Halacha 566 D”H VeYesh) concur.
- Sh”t Ginat Veradim O”C 1:34 argues that the Cohanim should do Nesiat Kapayim as long as they are fasting, however, Sh”t Perach Shoshan O”C 1:7, Yad Aharon (Hagahot Tur 129) in name of Maharil, Shalmei Tzibbur (pg 142c), Hagahot Rabbi Akiva Eiger 129, and Yalkut Yosef (Moadim pg 552) hold that Kohanim shouldn't do Nesiat Kapayim.
- Siddur Yavetz pg 375, Rav Brachot pg 192a, Torat HaMoadim (Purim 1:2), Yalkut Yosef (Moadim pg 274, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch Hilchot Chodesh Adar #4) and Chazon Ovadyah Purim (pg 32)
- Yalkut Yosef (Moadim pg 276)
- Yalkut Yosef (Kitzur Shulchan Aruch Hilchot Chodesh Adar #2)