Lighting Chanukah Candles on Friday Afternoon
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When to light
- On Friday afternoon one must light Chanukah candles during the daytime before Shabbat begins. Nonetheless, one may not light earlier than Plag Mincha.
- One should light Chanukah candles before Shabbat candles. It suffices to light one of the Chanukah candles and while finishing to light the rest of the candles, the woman of the house can start lighting the Shabbat candles.
- One should pray Mincha before lighting candles, but if one can’t find an early minyan, some say it’s better to light candles and then daven Mincha with a minyan.
- One needs to put in enough oil that the candle will burn for a half hour after Tzet HaKochavim. Thus, one shouldn’t light too early on Friday afternoon, rather one should light 15 minutes before Shkiah. If there’s not enough oil to last the half hour after Tzet there’s a possible bracha levatala.
If they blow out
- One should place the candles in a place that it won’t go out because of wind or the door opening so it doesn’t go out before a half hour after Tzet HaKochavim.
- If the candles blow out, many poskim hold that one is not obligated to relight it even though it wasn't lit during the nighttime, however, some argue that one should relit it without a bracha.
Saying Bameh Madlikin on Shabbat Chanuka
Lighting in Shul on Friday afternoon
- The minhag is to light between mincha and maariv even on Friday afternoon, however, if the congregation is delaying and it going to soon become Shabbat one should light with a bracha before mincha as there will still be Pirsume Nisa when the congregation comes later.
- The Rama 679 writes that one makes the bracha upon lighting chanuka candles during the daytime on Friday afternoon, even though one must light during the daytime. For a discussion of lighting before the nighttime during the weekday see the Earliest and Latest time to light Chanuka_Candles page. For a discussion of when Shabbat begins and one may no longer do any melacha, see the When does Shabbat begin? page.
- Mishna Brurah 679:2
- Bahag, Tur and Shulchan Aruch O.C. 679.
- Ben Ish Chai Vayeshev 20, Yalkut Yosef Moadim pg 235, Moed Kol Chai 27:17.
- Yalkut Yosef (Moadim pg 213) explains that Chanukah candles are supposed to be lit after Mincha as in the Bet Hamikdash the Menorah was lit after the afternoon Tamid. Sh”t Yabia Omer 5:44 writes that if one can’t find an earlier minyan one should light before praying Mincha. See also Yacheve Daat 1:74, Halacha Yomit, Kitzur Sheni Luchot Habrit pg 93d, Sh”t Sur Yacov 136, and Eliyah Raba 679:1. However, Pri Megadim A”A 671:10 implies that it is better to pray individually earlier rather than light before Mincha.
- Maamer Mordechai 679:2, Chaye Adam 154:18, Mikrah Kodesh Belekutei Rima 16:7, Machsit HaShekel 679 and Chazon Ovadyah pg 71 say that if one doesn’t put enough oil to last a half hour past Tzet one doesn’t fulfill the mitzvah at all. However the Pri Megadim A”A 672 writes that it’s enough for it to burn a half hour and it doesn’t need to last until after Tzet. [However Pri Megadim A”A 679:2 writes according to Magen Avraham one needs it to burn a half hour past Tzet.] Also Chemed Moshe 679 writes that it’s enough if it burns until Tzet. Chazon Ovadyah concludes that one must be careful to have enough oil for a half hour past Tzet, but if one lit without that amount and then realizes this before Shabbat he should relight with the required amount without a bracha because of the opinions that allow that.
- Yalkut Yosef Moadim pg 235
- Shulchan Aruch 673:2 writes that if the candles blow out even on Friday afternoon before nighttime one doesn't have to relit it, however, the Mishna Brurah 673:36 quotes the Taz who disagrees and says that one should relit it without a bracha.
- Shulchan Aruch 270:2 quotes one opinion who says that one doesn't say Bemeh Madlikin on Shabbat Chanukah. The Rama writes the Ashkenazic minhag isn't to say it on Shabbat Chanukah. The Birkei Yosef 270:2, Sh”t Rav Poalim O”C 4:34e, Neveh Shalom Chazan, Nahar Mitzrayim 270, and Yalkut Yosef Moadim pg 236 concur. Mishna Brurah 270:4 explains that we don't say Bemeh Madlikin because it includes oils that are forbidden for Shabbat but are permitted for Chanukah candles.
- Mishna Brurah 671:47