Tikkun Chatzot

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There are certain prayers known as Tikkun Chatzot which are said slightly before Chatzot (midnight).

The obligation

  1. In order to feel pain over the destruction of the Bet HaMikdash, every night slightly before Chatzot, one should say Tikkun Chatzot. [1] However, the Minhag is not to say Tikkun Chatzot and some achronim justify the minhag, nonetheless, it’s praiseworthy to say it from time to time. [2]
  2. Women may say Tikkun Chatzot. [3]

    When it should be said

  3. Ashkenazim hold that it should be said right before Chatzot (midnight) and then one should learn from Chatzot until morning when one can pray. [4] However, Sephardim hold that it should be said at Chatzot of night or afterwards until Olot HaShachar. [5]
  4. Tikkun Chatzot should be said before Olot HaShachar. However, many poskim say that one may say Tikkun Leah after Olot HaShachar. [6]
  5. During the three weeks (Ben HaMetzarim), Tikkun Chatzot should be said after Chatzot of the day. [7]

    How it should be said

  6. It is the practice to say Tikkun Chatzot while sitting on the floor near a doorpost that has a mezuzah. One shouldn't sit directly on the ground rather one should sit on a cloth, pillow or small bench. If the floor is tiled one can be lenient to sit directly on the floor. [8]
  7. The Minhag is to place ashes on one's head in the area where the Tefillin Shel RoshRabbi Asher ben Yechiel (1250-1327), often referred to by the acronym of his name, Rosh, one of the more prominent Ashkenazic Rishonim, born in Germany, died in Spain, author of commentary published in the back of the gemaras, father of the Tur. is placed. [9]
  8. Another practice is to not to wear shoes during Tikkun Chatzot. [10]
  9. Some had the practice to say Tikkun Chatzot communally in shul. Even though some oppose the practice, it has what to rely on and has it's benefits. [11]

    The feeling with which it should be said

  10. One should be pained over the destruction of the Temple. [12] However, in general, when one is learning or praying one should do so with happiness.[13]

    Relative precedence

  11. If one only has time for Tikkun Chatzot and Selichot, one should say Tikkun Chatzot. [14]
  12. If one only has time for Tikkun Chatzot and learning torah, one should say Tikkun Chatzot. [15]
  13. If saying Tikkun Chatzot will prevent one from being able to wake up for praying at HaNetz (Vatikin), nonetheless, one should say Tikkun Chatzot and pray after HaNetz. However, even if one is waking up to pray after HaNetz, one must ensure to say Shema before the latest time for Shema and pray Shemona Esreh before the latest time for Shemona Esreh.[16]

    Days it is not said

  14. On the following nights no Tikkun Chatzot is said: Shabbat, [17]Rosh HaShana, Yom Kippur, Pesach (Yom Tov and Chol HaMoed), Shavuot, Sukkot (just Yom Tov), and Shemini Aseret. [18]
  15. On the following nights no Tikkun Rachel is said, but Tikkun Leah is still said: days when there's no Tachanun, Chol HaMoad Sukkot, Asert Yemei Teshuva, year of Shemittah in Israel, day after the Molad before Rosh Chodesh, [19] and days of Sefirat HaOmer. [20]
  16. In the following cases no Tikkun Rachel is said: at a mourner's house, the house of a groom, and the father, Tzandak (holder of the baby), Mohel of a Brit Milah. [21]

    What texts should be said?

A free copy of the text can be found from the Siddur Torat Emet (pdf).

Sources

  1. S”A 1:3 writes that it is proper for a God fearing person to be pained and agonize over the destruction of the Bet Hamikdash. Mishna BrurahRabbi Yisrael Meir Kagan (1838 – 1933), known popularly as The Chofetz Chaim from his book on the laws of [[Lashon Hara]], was an influential Lithuanian Rabbi, author of the Mishna Brurah as well as the Beur Halacha which is in more detail and the Shaar Hatziyun which quotes sources 1:9 writes that the Mekubalim emphasized the great importance of waking up at chatzot to say a certain Seder of Tefillot organized by the Arizal, printed in the siddurim.
  2. Piskei Teshuvot 1:10. Yavetz in Mor UKesiah (Siman 1) writes that the obligation only applies to Torah scholars and in Israel. The ChidaRabbi Chaim Yosef David Azulai ben Isaac Zerachia (1724 – 1806) was a Jerusalem born Sephardic rabbinical scholar. He is the author of Machzik Bracha, Birkei Yosef, [[Shem HaGedolim]] and many other books. in Machzik Bracha 1:3 argues that it applies to all people in all places. Kitzur S”A 1:5 writes that it’s good to say Tikkun Chatzot if a person is able to wake up at Chatzot and say Tikkun Chatzot.
  3. Sh"t Rav Poalim 1:9 (Sod Yesharim), Ben Ish ChaiRabbi Yosef Chaim (1832 – 1909) was a leading Sephardic Rabbi, author of the Ben Ish Chai as well as Sh"t Rav Pealim, and Rabbi of Baghdad. Vayishlach 6 write that women shouldn't say Tikkun Chatzot. However, Kaf HaChaim 1:15, Halichot Olam 1 pg 48, and Halacha BrurahRabbi David Yosef (1957- ), sephardic posek in Yerushalayim. The author of Halacha Brurah, a commentary on Shulchan Aruch, Torat Hamoadim, on the laws of the [[holidays]] and Torat Hatahara, on the laws of Taharat Hamishpacha. Son of Chacham Ovadia Yosef and brother of Rabbi Yitzchak Yosef 7 write that women are allowed to say Tikkun Chatzot. Yalkut YosefRabbi Yitzchak Yosef (b. 1952), sephardic Chief Rabbi of Israel, son of Rav Ovadia Yosef and brother of Rabbi David Yosef, is the author of Yalkut Yosef, which is a encyclopedic work of Sephardic halacha. (vol 1, pg 173) rules like the Kaf HaChaim but writes that the minhag is that women don't say Tikkun Chatzot.
  4. Mikdash Melech on Zohar (Vayahakel 195c) writes the Tikkun Chatzot can be said from the second section of the night which is 2 hours (Shaot Zmaniot) before Chatzot. Shulchan Aruch HaRavRabbi Shneur Zalman of Liady (1745 – 1812), was the first Rebbe of Chabad and author of Shulchan Aruch HaRav and the Tanya. rules like that. Similarly, Yeshuot Yacov 1 writes that Chatzot should be said a little before Chatzot. So rule the Malbim in Arsot HaChaim 1:31 and Mishna BrurahRabbi Yisrael Meir Kagan (1838 – 1933), known popularly as The Chofetz Chaim from his book on the laws of [[Lashon Hara]], was an influential Lithuanian Rabbi, author of the Mishna Brurah as well as the Beur Halacha which is in more detail and the Shaar Hatziyun which quotes sources 1:9. See also Shulchan Aruch 1:2 who writes one should wake up to pray to Hashem specifically at the end of the first third, the second third, or at the end of the night because prayer is especially accepted at those times.
  5. Sh"t Yachave Daat 1:46 pg 135 based on the Zohar (Chaye Sara pg 132b) and Arizal (Shaar Kavanot pg 52d) that one should not say Tikkun Chatzot before Chatzot. This is also the opinion of Aruch HaShulchan 1:21, Birkei Yosef 1:6, Ben Ish ChaiRabbi Yosef Chaim (1832 – 1909) was a leading Sephardic Rabbi, author of the Ben Ish Chai as well as Sh"t Rav Pealim, and Rabbi of Baghdad. (Vishlach 4), Yalkut YosefRabbi Yitzchak Yosef (b. 1952), sephardic Chief Rabbi of Israel, son of Rav Ovadia Yosef and brother of Rabbi David Yosef, is the author of Yalkut Yosef, which is a encyclopedic work of Sephardic halacha. (5764 edition, vol 1, pg 165), and Halacha BrurahRabbi David Yosef (1957- ), sephardic posek in Yerushalayim. The author of Halacha Brurah, a commentary on Shulchan Aruch, Torat Hamoadim, on the laws of the [[holidays]] and Torat Hatahara, on the laws of Taharat Hamishpacha. Son of Chacham Ovadia Yosef and brother of Rabbi Yitzchak Yosef 1:5
  6. Kitzur S”A 1:5 writes that if a person can’t wake up at Chatzot a person should wake up before Olot Hashachar. Igret Rramaz 11 writes that one should say it before Olot HaShachar and in a Shat HaDachak one can say it after Olot. This is brought down by the Shaarei Teshuva 1:6. However, Sh"t Lev Chaim writes that one can say it until the time to put on Tallit and Tefillin. Ben Ish ChaiRabbi Yosef Chaim (1832 – 1909) was a leading Sephardic Rabbi, author of the Ben Ish Chai as well as Sh"t Rav Pealim, and Rabbi of Baghdad. Vayishlach 8 argues on this based on the language of the Arizal that one shouldn't say it after Olot. Nonetheless, Zichronot Eliyahu 400:17 and Nemukei Orach Chaim (quoted in Maasef LeKol HaMachanot 1:29) say that one can lenient regarding Tikkun Leah. This is also the opinion of Rav Ovadyah in Halichot Olam 1 pg 49, and Halacha BrurahRabbi David Yosef (1957- ), sephardic posek in Yerushalayim. The author of Halacha Brurah, a commentary on Shulchan Aruch, Torat Hamoadim, on the laws of the [[holidays]] and Torat Hatahara, on the laws of Taharat Hamishpacha. Son of Chacham Ovadia Yosef and brother of Rabbi Yitzchak Yosef 1:6.
  7. Kaf HaChaim 551:222. Hinted to in Mishna BrurahRabbi Yisrael Meir Kagan (1838 – 1933), known popularly as The Chofetz Chaim from his book on the laws of [[Lashon Hara]], was an influential Lithuanian Rabbi, author of the Mishna Brurah as well as the Beur Halacha which is in more detail and the Shaar Hatziyun which quotes sources 551:103, see Piskei Teshuvot there.
  8. Yalkut YosefRabbi Yitzchak Yosef (b. 1952), sephardic Chief Rabbi of Israel, son of Rav Ovadia Yosef and brother of Rabbi David Yosef, is the author of Yalkut Yosef, which is a encyclopedic work of Sephardic halacha. (5764 edition, vol 1, pg 161)
  9. Yalkut YosefRabbi Yitzchak Yosef (b. 1952), sephardic Chief Rabbi of Israel, son of Rav Ovadia Yosef and brother of Rabbi David Yosef, is the author of Yalkut Yosef, which is a encyclopedic work of Sephardic halacha. (5764 edition, vol 1, pg 161)
  10. Yalkut YosefRabbi Yitzchak Yosef (b. 1952), sephardic Chief Rabbi of Israel, son of Rav Ovadia Yosef and brother of Rabbi David Yosef, is the author of Yalkut Yosef, which is a encyclopedic work of Sephardic halacha. (5764 edition, vol 1, pg 161)
  11. Sh"t Shevut Yacov writes that the practice of some groups to get together to say Tikkun Chatzot at night in Shul was inappropriate because it displayed arrogance as Tikkun Chatzot is something only a minority of people keep. However, ChidaRabbi Chaim Yosef David Azulai ben Isaac Zerachia (1724 – 1806) was a Jerusalem born Sephardic rabbinical scholar. He is the author of Machzik Bracha, Birkei Yosef, [[Shem HaGedolim]] and many other books. in Birkei Yosef 1:3 and Mishna BrurahRabbi Yisrael Meir Kagan (1838 – 1933), known popularly as The Chofetz Chaim from his book on the laws of [[Lashon Hara]], was an influential Lithuanian Rabbi, author of the Mishna Brurah as well as the Beur Halacha which is in more detail and the Shaar Hatziyun which quotes sources 1:9 argue on the Shevut Yacov because it's preferable to pray as a community as it says "BeRov Am Hadrat Melech".
  12. Shulchan Aruch 1:3 based on the RoshRabbi Asher ben Yechiel (1250-1327), often referred to by the acronym of his name, Rosh, one of the more prominent Ashkenazic Rishonim, born in Germany, died in Spain, author of commentary published in the back of the gemaras, father of the Tur. (Brachot 3b).
  13. Mishna BrurahRabbi Yisrael Meir Kagan (1838 – 1933), known popularly as The Chofetz Chaim from his book on the laws of [[Lashon Hara]], was an influential Lithuanian Rabbi, author of the Mishna Brurah as well as the Beur Halacha which is in more detail and the Shaar Hatziyun which quotes sources 1:10, Kaf HaChaim 1:25
  14. Ben Ish ChaiRabbi Yosef Chaim (1832 – 1909) was a leading Sephardic Rabbi, author of the Ben Ish Chai as well as Sh"t Rav Pealim, and Rabbi of Baghdad. (Vayishlach 9), Yalkut YosefRabbi Yitzchak Yosef (b. 1952), sephardic Chief Rabbi of Israel, son of Rav Ovadia Yosef and brother of Rabbi David Yosef, is the author of Yalkut Yosef, which is a encyclopedic work of Sephardic halacha. (5764 edition, vol 1, pg 191) Rav Mordechai Eliyahu (Maamer Mordechai 34:6).
  15. Ben Ish ChaiRabbi Yosef Chaim (1832 – 1909) was a leading Sephardic Rabbi, author of the Ben Ish Chai as well as Sh"t Rav Pealim, and Rabbi of Baghdad. (Vayishlach 9), Yalkut YosefRabbi Yitzchak Yosef (b. 1952), sephardic Chief Rabbi of Israel, son of Rav Ovadia Yosef and brother of Rabbi David Yosef, is the author of Yalkut Yosef, which is a encyclopedic work of Sephardic halacha. (5764 edition, vol 1, pg 174) and Rav Mordechai Eliyahu (Maamer Mordechai 34:6).
  16. Halacha BrurahRabbi David Yosef (1957- ), sephardic posek in Yerushalayim. The author of Halacha Brurah, a commentary on Shulchan Aruch, Torat Hamoadim, on the laws of the [[holidays]] and Torat Hatahara, on the laws of Taharat Hamishpacha. Son of Chacham Ovadia Yosef and brother of Rabbi Yitzchak Yosef 1:4
  17. Shaarei Tzion (beginning of sefer) writes that one does say Tikkun Leah on Shabbat, nonetheless, most achronim rule otherwise including the Ben Ish ChaiRabbi Yosef Chaim (1832 – 1909) was a leading Sephardic Rabbi, author of the Ben Ish Chai as well as Sh"t Rav Pealim, and Rabbi of Baghdad. (Vayishlach 7), Kaf HaChaim 1:13, and Halacha BrurahRabbi David Yosef (1957- ), sephardic posek in Yerushalayim. The author of Halacha Brurah, a commentary on Shulchan Aruch, Torat Hamoadim, on the laws of the [[holidays]] and Torat Hatahara, on the laws of Taharat Hamishpacha. Son of Chacham Ovadia Yosef and brother of Rabbi Yitzchak Yosef 1:8.
  18. Ben Ish ChaiRabbi Yosef Chaim (1832 – 1909) was a leading Sephardic Rabbi, author of the Ben Ish Chai as well as Sh"t Rav Pealim, and Rabbi of Baghdad. (Vayishlach 7), Kaf HaChaim 1:13, and Halacha BrurahRabbi David Yosef (1957- ), sephardic posek in Yerushalayim. The author of Halacha Brurah, a commentary on Shulchan Aruch, Torat Hamoadim, on the laws of the [[holidays]] and Torat Hatahara, on the laws of Taharat Hamishpacha. Son of Chacham Ovadia Yosef and brother of Rabbi Yitzchak Yosef 1:8 quote this list of days that there's no Tikkun Chatzot. Of course one doesn't say Tikkun Chatzot on Yom Tov Sheni Shel Galiyot just like the first day Yom Tov. However, Chesed LaAlafim 1:2, and Kaf HaChaim Palagi 3:34 write that one does say Tikkun Leah on Yom Tov.
  19. Ben Ish ChaiRabbi Yosef Chaim (1832 – 1909) was a leading Sephardic Rabbi, author of the Ben Ish Chai as well as Sh"t Rav Pealim, and Rabbi of Baghdad. Vayishlach 5, Kaf HaChaim 1:11, Halacha BrurahRabbi David Yosef (1957- ), sephardic posek in Yerushalayim. The author of Halacha Brurah, a commentary on Shulchan Aruch, Torat Hamoadim, on the laws of the [[holidays]] and Torat Hatahara, on the laws of Taharat Hamishpacha. Son of Chacham Ovadia Yosef and brother of Rabbi Yitzchak Yosef 1:9 write that the night of the day of the molad has only Tikkun Leah even if it's not the day of Rosh Chodesh itself. For example, Rosh Chodesh Sivan 5770 falls out on Friday May 14th 2010 and the molad falls out on Thursday May 13th 2010. If the Molad and Rosh Chodesh coincide then there's no Tikkun Rachel because there's no Tachanun on Rosh Chodesh.
  20. Ben Ish ChaiRabbi Yosef Chaim (1832 – 1909) was a leading Sephardic Rabbi, author of the Ben Ish Chai as well as Sh"t Rav Pealim, and Rabbi of Baghdad. Vayishlach 5, Kaf HaChaim 1:11, and Halacha BrurahRabbi David Yosef (1957- ), sephardic posek in Yerushalayim. The author of Halacha Brurah, a commentary on Shulchan Aruch, Torat Hamoadim, on the laws of the [[holidays]] and Torat Hatahara, on the laws of Taharat Hamishpacha. Son of Chacham Ovadia Yosef and brother of Rabbi Yitzchak Yosef 1:9
  21. Kaf HaChaim Palagi 3:35, Ben Ish ChaiRabbi Yosef Chaim (1832 – 1909) was a leading Sephardic Rabbi, author of the Ben Ish Chai as well as Sh"t Rav Pealim, and Rabbi of Baghdad. Vayishlach 5, Kaf HaChaim 1:11