Yom Kippur

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Yom Kippur is the Tenth of Tishrei on which it is incumbent upon every Jewish adult to fast[1] and engage in repentance in order to receive atonement.[2]

Erev Yom Kippur

Eating on Erev Yom Kippur

  1. It is a mitzvah to eat and drink on Erev Yom Kippur and one should even lessen one's learning and work in order to eat more on Erev Yom Kippur.[3] It is forbidden to fast on Erev Yom Kippur. [4]
  2. This mitzvah primarily applies during the day of Erev Yom Kippur and not the night of Erev Yom Kippur. [5]
  3. Preferably one should eat at least one bread meal on Erev Yom Kippur. [6]
  4. This mitzvah to eat on Erev Yom Kippur applies to women also. [7]
  5. One should only eat light foods so that one shouldn't be stuffed and prideful during prayers of Yom Kippur. [8]
  6. If Erev Yom Kippur is the Yahrzeit (annual remembrance of the day of the death) of one's parents, one should not fast but rely on the fast of Yom Kippur. [9]
  7. Someone who can't fast on Yom Kippur (because of serious health issues) should still eat on Erev Yom Kippur. [10]
  8. Some say that one should endeavor to continue to eat all day on Erev Yom Kippur, while others say that the mitzvah is to have a nice meal. [11]

Seudat Hamafseket

  1. If one finished eating while it is still daytime, he may continue eating as long as he didn't have in mind that he is going to start the fast. [12]

Pills to ease the Fast

  1. It is permissible to take a pill before Yom Kippur which will ease the difficulty of fasting. [13] However, others write that one should refrain from such pills except for a person who will be in great pain, have a headache, or the like from fasting on Yom Kippur.[14]

Prayers

  1. There's is no Tachanun on Erev Yom Kippur. [15]
  2. Some communities have the custom not to recite mizmor litoda on Erev Yom Kippur. [16] However, the sephardic custom is to recite it as we do on a regular weekday. [17]
  3. The custom for sephardim is to recite Avinu Malkeinu in shacharit and mincha of Erev Yom Kippur. [18] The custom is also to recite hatarat nedarim immediately following selichot or shacharit on erev yom kippur. [19]

Kaparot

  1. There is an old minhag (tradition) among Sephardim and Ashkenazim to do kapparot during aseret yimei teshuva (ten days of repentance) [20] and preferably it should be done on Erev Yom Kippur in the morning. [21] If one didn't do it before Yom Kippur one may do it on Hoshana Rabba. [22]
  2. One may do kaparot over a woman who is a niddah. [23]

What should be used for Kaparot

  1. One should take a male chicken for a male, female chicken for a female, and both a female and male chicken for a pregnant woman. Some take two female chickens and one male chicken for a pregnant woman. [24] If one cannot afford additional chickens for the fetus, one is certainly enough. [25]
    1. A pregnant woman within 40 days of the pregnancy doesn't need to take a second chicken for Kapparot. [26]
    2. A pregnant woman does not need to pick up all the chickens at once but it's sufficient to pick them up one at a time. [27]
  2. If one is poor one may use a single chicken for the whole family. [28]
  3. If one can't get a chicken one should take a goose or other animal which isn't fit for a korban. Some say one may even take a live fish. [29]
  4. If one can't even do that then one should take money and circle it around one's head say זה חליפתי תמורתי כפרתי and give it to Tzedaka. [30]
  5. Some say that one should preferably use white chickens. However, many say that one shouldn't make a special effort to get a white chicken. Some say not to use a black chicken. [31]
  6. If a man took a female chicken or a woman took a male chicken one fulfilled one's obligation yet it's preferable to repeat it with the correct gender chicken. [32]

Procedure

  1. When one takes the chicken and circles it around one's head one should say זה חליפתי זה תמורתי זה כפרתי. [33] For the full hebrew text click here and for the full english text click here.
  2. When performing Kaparot a person should think about Teshuva (repentance) imagining that the 4 types of death sentences that are carried out on the chicken should be happening to me. [34]
  3. The custom is not to do semichah on the chicken. [35]
  4. The minhag is to give the slaughtered chicken to a poor person or to redeem it with money and then give it to a poor person. [36]

Covering the Blood

  1. After the slaughtering the Shochet there is a unique opportunity to perform the mitzvah of Kisui HaDam (covering the blood) by covering the blood of the chicken with dirt that was set aside beforehand. [37]
  2. Kisui HaDam (covering the blood) should be performed only after the shochet checks his knife to see that it was a proper slaughtering.[38] Before covering the blood, one should make the bracha על כסוי הדם בעפר. [39]
  3. Either the Shochet should perform the covering of the blood or if the owner of the chicken is God fearing and wants to perform the mitzvah the shochet is allowed to give him the opportunity and in such a case it's preferable that originally the owner should appoint the shochet as his agent in performing the sechita (ritual slaughtering). [40]
  4. The dirt should be designated by verbally stating that this dirt is for covering of the blood of the chicken. [41]
  5. Dirt should be placed beneath and above the blood of the chicken. [42]

Asking Forgiveness

  1. Yom Kippur doesn't grant one forgiveness for one's sins between a man and his fellow until one appeases and receives forgiveness from one's friend. Therefore, it's especially important to appease one's friend on Erev Yom Kippur. [43]
  2. If a person did a sin against his will because he was forced to do so, there is no obligation to repent. [44]
  3. If one has money which is disputed and can be claimed by someone else even if that other claimant doesn't know one should tell them and then settle the dispute with the local Rabbi. In monetary matters one must not rely on one's own judgement because the Yetzer Hara (evil inclination) fabricates many justifications. [45]
  4. Children have a holy obligation to ask forgiveness from their parents because of Kibbud Av VeEm (respecting one's parents). Similarly, spouses should forgive one another. A student should ask forgiveness from his Rebbe if he lives in the city. [46]
  5. It's forbidden to be cruel and not forgive but rather in one's heart one should completely forgive him for the offense. Even if it pained it intently one should not take revenge or harbor a grudge. [47] If one forgiving Hashem will forgive his sins, however, if a man is stubborn and doesn't forgive Hashem will act accordingly (Chas VeShalom). [48]
  6. If a person who offended his fellow and asks forgiveness the friend shouldn't reject the appeasement unless it is intended for the benefit of the one who did the offense so that he is humbled and doesn't continue by doing that offense. [49]Nonetheless, if one is not granted forgiveness for the benefit of the offender one must be sure to remove any hate of the offender from one's heart. [50]
  7. If one suspects that the person asking forgiveness from him will just repeat the wrong that he did to him, he isn't obligated to forgive him. [51]
  8. If a person spread a bad name about someone else it is permitted not to forgive that person, however, it's preferable to be humble and forgive even in such a case [52] except for a Talmid Chacham who should not forgive easily (in such a case) especially when it's done for the benefit of the offender to change from his ways. [53]
  9. If one is owed money but the borrower refuses to pay, then the lender doesn't need to forgive him. [54]
  10. If a person said Lashon Hara about his fellow and it didn't cause any harm there is no need to ask forgiveness from that person, but still must get forgiveness from Hashem. [55]
  11. If a person said Lashon Hara (evil speech) about his fellow that caused harm and his fellow doesn't know about it some say that one should just ask forgiveness from his fellow in a general way and not spell out that he said Lashon Hara against him, however, others say that one specify that one did speak Lashon Hara about him. [56]
  12. Preferably the asking of forgiveness should be done in person unless there is a better chance of having the person accept your grant if done through a messenger. [57]
  13. If you are sure that the person that you offended has forgiven you some poskim nevertheless require that you go and humble yourself before them and ask for forgiveness while and other poskim say that you have achieved the desired result and there is no need to go ask specifically. [58]
  14. If one received forgiveness only outwardly but in his heart the person he offended is still upset some poskim say he hasn't fulfilled his obligation of asking for forgiveness. [59]

Tevilah

  1. Some have the practice to dip (Tovel) in the mikvah on Erev Yom Kippur and it's preferable to do so before Mincha but some have the practice to do it after Seuda Mafseket as long as one does it before nighttime. [60] Some say that one should does it after 5 halachic hours into the day but if one is unable one may do it after Olot HaShachar (dawn). [61]
  2. Some say that submerging oneself in the mikvah once is sufficient and some say three times. [62]
  3. The shaliach tzibbur should make an extra effort to fulfill this minhag [63]
  4. No bracha is made for this tevilah. [64]
  5. Even one who went to the mikveh before rosh hashana and remained pure until erev yom kippur should go back on Erev Yom Kippur. [65]
  6. If it's painful for one to dip in the mikvah or one is unable to because of a weakness one may pour 9 Kav of water on one's head. [66] Taking a shower for the length of time it takes for 9 Kav (about 3.3 gallons) to come out is sufficient. [67]

Mincha on Erev Yom Kippur

  1. After Shmoneh Esrei of Mincha on Erev Yom Kippur one should say Vidduy as printed in the machzor (siddur) before Elokai Netsor and according Sephardim after Yehiyu LeRatzon and before Elokai Netsor. [68]
  2. The Sephardic minhag is to say Avinu Malkenu at Mincha before Yom Kippur. [69]
  3. The syrian minhag is to wear tefillin during Mincha on erev yom Kippur. [70]

Hadlakat Nerot of Yom Kippur

  1. The minhag is to light candles on Erev Yom Kippur with a bracha. [71] However, the minhag of the Syrian Jews is not to recite the beracha. [72]
  2. If a woman only says the bracha of Hadlakat Nerot, under extenuating circumstances a woman may have intention not to accept upon herself Yom Kippur with her lighting of the candles and then she would be allowed to go to shul by car after having lit candles. However, if she is not going to accept upon herself Yom Kippur, then she may not say the Shehechiyanu bracha because once she says the bracha of Shehechiyanu she has automatically accepted upon herself Yom Kippur and she may not then ride in a car to shul or the like. [73]
  3. If a woman is going to recite Shehechiyanu when lighting the candles for Yom Kippur she should be careful not to be wearing leather shoes at the time since the recital of Shehechiyanu is an acceptance of Yom Kippur.[74]

The mitzvah of accepting Yom Kippur early

  1. It is a mitzvah to accept Yom Kippur early in order to add from the week onto Yom Kippur. [75]
  2. It's sufficient to add any amount of time before sunset. However, it's praiseworthy to add 20 or 30 minutes before sunset. (See footnote for background) [76]
  3. Once one accepted Yom Kippur it is forbidden to eat or do any of the 5 prohibited activities of Yom Kippur. [77]

Nighttime prayers of Yom Kippur

  1. If a congregation didn’t say Kol Nidrei until after nightfall of Yom Kippur the congregation may say it. [78]

Yom Kippur morning prayers

  1. According to some poskim, the beracha "Sheasa Li Kol Tzorki" should not be recited on Yom Kippur. [79] Others disagree. [80]
  2. It’s preferable to minimize in piyutim and selichot in order to start Mussaf before six and half hours. [81] However, if one did wait until after six and a half hours one should say Mussaf first and then Mincha unless nine and a half hours passed in which case Mincha should go first. [82]
  3. Some have the minhag to add Piyutim even during the Brachot Kriyat Shema, however, it’s preferable not to add Piyutim there. [83]
  4. The Minhag is to add Piyutim which are relevant to the purpose of the day. However, one shouldn’t add so many not to delay saying Shema in its proper time. [84]
  5. There’s different minhag as whether to say the first פסוק of Mizmor Shel Yom HaShabbat on Yom Tov and Yom Kippur. [85]
  6. A Talmid Chacham should not separate himself to learn Torah while the congregation is praying or saying selichot. [86]
  7. It’s preferable to say less Piyutim slowly instead of saying many Piyutim quickly. [87]
  8. One should sure to say at least ten Vidduy’s (confessions) on Yom Kippur. [88]The Minhag is to count one from Mincha of Erev Yom Kippur, one from Arvit of the night, four from the four prayers during the day and four from the four Chazarat HaShatz’s. [89]
  9. Some Ashkenazim have the practice to kneel four times including the last paragraph of Hakohanim VeHa'am of LaHashem Chatat.[90]

Making one hundred Brachot

  1. It’s a mitzvah to smell Besamim (nice smelling spices) and make the Bracha on them in order to get 100 Brachot on Yom Kippur. One may make this Bracha several times in the day as long as one had an interruption of thought. [91]
  2. On Yom Kippur even though one can't make a hundred brachot by himself, it's preferable to have in mind to listen to the brachot made during the chazara of the shaliach tzibbur. Some suggest that there's no obligation to get to a hundred brachot on Yom Kippur. [92]
  3. For other details about making one hundred Brachot on Yom Kippur, see the Making one hundred Brachot daily page.

Prohibitions of Yom Kippur

  1. It's forbidden to do any Melacha (lit. work) on Yom Kippur which would be forbidden to do on Shabbat. [93]
  2. Muktzeh (moving certain objects) is prohibited on Yom Kippur to the same extent that it is on Shabbat. Even though Muktzeh is slightly more strictly on Yom tov, Yom Kippur it treated like Shabbat for purposes of Muktzeh. [94]
  3. Carrying is forbidden on Yom Kippur just like Shabbat.[95]
  4. One should not prepare food on Yom Kippur for after Yom Kippur. [96]

Eating on Yom Kippur

  1. It is absolutely forbidden to eat or drink any amount of food on Yom Kippur. [97]
  2. Everyone is obligated to fast on Yom Kippur including women who are pregnant or nursing (there is a serious medical concern one should consult one’s Rabbi). [98]
  3. It is permissible to swallow one’s saliva on Yom Kippur. [99]
  4. Someone for whom fasting Yom Kippur involves a serious health concern absolutely must ask a doctor and Rabbi whether he/she should eat on Yom Kippur. If the doctor (and Rabbi) ascertain that a person shouldn’t fast then that person should not fast even if he thinks he doesn’t need to eat. In such a case, one may not be strict upon oneself to fast as we are commanded to live by the Torah and not die by it (Chas VeShalom) and all the ways of the Torah are kind and pleasant. [100]

Those Who Must Eat

  1. In cases when one needs to eat on Yom Kippur (see above) one should eat less than a 2/3 of a KeBaytzah and then wait Kedi Achilat Pras (according to some this is 9 minutes) before eating again, and for drinks less than a Meloh Lugmav and wait Kedi Achilat Pras or at least Kedi Shtiyat Revi'it before drinking again. If the doctors assess that this is insufficient (after consultation with the doctor and Rabbi) one may eat as much as needed. [101]
  2. A person who is a Choleh SheEin Bo skana is permissible to take medicine on Yom Kippur if it doesn’t have a good taste. If one needs to have it with liquid one should have mouthwash. [102]
  3. Someone who needs to eat on Yom Kippur (see above) doesn’t need to make Kiddish. [103] If he says Birkat Hamazon he should say Yom Kippur in Yaaleh V'yavo.[104]
  4. Someone who is suffering from a bad headache may swallow an Aspirin capsule alone. [105]
  5. One who has a throat infection, a fever, or a headache may drink a quantity of water that is "less than the permitted amount" (2 ounces). [106]
  6. A person with diarrhea's condition may be such that he must drink on Yom Kippur. [107]
  7. If there is no doctor available to determine the medical situation, one with hepatitis may drink "less than the permitted amount" on Yom Kippur. [108]
  8. Some cancer patients are prohibited to fast on Yom Kippur, while others, who are authorized by a doctor, are permitted to fast. [109]
  9. Some weak, elderly people are prohibited to fast on Yom Kippur. [110]
  10. A pregnant woman who is suffering from bleeding must drink on Yom Kippur. [111]

Surgery before Yom Kippur

  1. One must postpone a non-emergency surgery until after Yom Kippur in order to be able to fast on Yom Kippur. [112]

Washing on Yom Kippur

  1. It’s forbidden to wash oneself in hot or cold water and even to stick one’s finger in water on Yom Kippur is forbidden. [113]
  2. If one got dirty it’s permitted to wash that area in order to remove dirt from one’s body. [114]
  3. Upon waking up for Netilat Yadayim one should wash one’s hands three times only up to the knuckles. [115]
  4. If one goes to the bathroom one is allowed to wash one’s hands three times up to the end of the fingers (by the knuckles) [116]
  5. If one walked into a bathroom but didn’t go and didn’t touch a private place one should not wash one’s hand but rather rub them on the wall or something similar unless it bothers his intent in prayers. However, someone wants to wash one’s hands has what to rely on. [117]
  6. Cohanim who are going to do Birkat Cohanim should wash their hands until the end of the hand. [118]However, some say that that the practice is that a cohen just washes until the knuckles. [119]
  7. One may not wash one’s face upon waking up, however, if one’s face became dirty or if there’s guk around one’s eyes one may wet one’s finger and clean in the area which became dirty. [120]
  8. There’s no obligation to wash one’s hand prior to praying unlike the rest of the year. [121]
  9. A bride for the first thirty days after her wedding may wash her face. [122]

Anointing on Yom Kippur

  1. It is forbidden to anoint even a part of one’s body with oil or ointment even if one is only doing so just to remove a bad smell. [123]
  2. It is forbidden to spray oneself with deodorant on Yom Kippur. [124]

Wearing leather shoes

  1. It’s forbidden to wear leather shoes on Yom Kippur. [125]
  2. According to some poskim, the beracha "Sheasa Li Kol Tzorki" should not be recited on Yom Kippur and Tisha BeAv. [126] Others disagree. [127]
  3. Some say that one shouldn't wear shoes which have a raised heel so that one feels the roughness of the ground.[128]
  4. Even though it is permissible for a child to wear leather shoes on Yom Kippur it is better to get them non-leather shoes.[129]

Interaction between Husband and Wife

  1. It is forbidden for a husband to sleep with his wife on Yom Kippur and furthermore, it is forbidden for them to sleep in the same bed. [130]
  2. The minhag is that a man and wife may not even touch on Yom Kippur. [131]
  3. It is forbidden for a man and wife to hug or kiss on Yom Kippur. [132]

Neilah

  1. The Chazzan should make sure to finish Birchat Cohanim before sunset, however, after the fact it can be made with a bracha even after sunset as long as it's Bein HaShemashot and not certain night. [133]
  2. The doors of the hechal should be opened prior to the recitation of neilah. [134]
  3. Before neilah, the congregation should recitethe piyut "Kel Norah Alilah" with joy and excitement. Afterwards, the prayer of "Ashre" followed by a chatzi Kaddish should be recited. [135]
  4. Neilah should be recited approximately 30 minutes before sunset. [136]
  5. If one mistakenly said "Kotvenu" instead of the proper nusach of "Chotmenu" during neilah one need not go back and repeat. [137]
  6. The Keter Kedusha is recited in Neilah, just like in Mussaf. [138]
  7. The congregation should continue to recite selichot until 20 minutes after sunset and then blow the shofar so that there is no concern that people will eat immediately afterwards because they think that Yom Kippur has already ended. [139]

Havdalah

  1. For sephardim, there is no Besamim bracha in the Havdalah even if Yom Kippur falls out on Motzei Shabbat. [140] Nevertheless, it is proper that after drinking from the wine of havdala that the beracha on besamim should be said and then smell the besamim. [141]
  2. For havdala after Yom Kippur only a candle that was lit from before Yom kippur should be used, and not one that is lit after Yom kippur specifically for havdala. If there is no candle that was lit from before, the beracha should not be recited. [142] However, if Motzaei Yom Kippur falls out on Motzaei Shabbat, you can still recite the beracha on a candle that was lit that night if you don't have one lit from before Yom Kippur. [143] But the minhag is to be strict and use a candle lit from before Yom Kippur.[144]
  3. One should not eat before Havdala. However, if someone is very thirsty, they may drink some water. [145]

Links

Sources

  1. Rambam (Sefer HaMitzvot (Aseh no. 164)
  2. Rambam (Teshuva 1:3) writes that the day of Yom Kippur only atones for someone who repents.
  3. Tur and Shulchan Aruch 604:1 from gemara Berachot 8b and Rosh Hashana 9a, Yalkut Yosef (Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 604:1), Maamar Mordechai (Rav Mordechai Eliyahu, English version pg 448, #21) , Chazon Ovadia Yamim Noraim pg. 230, Ketav Sofer 112, Sh"t Rivivot Ephraim 3:410:2
    • Rosh Yoma 8:22 writes that this is in order to prepare for the fasting on Yom Kippur itself. Ritva Rosh Hashana 9a and Tur 604 agree.
    • Shibbolei Haleket 307 writes that by eating a lot on the 9th, it makes it harder to fast on the 10th.
  4. Rama 604:1, Yalkut Yosef Moadim pg. 74, Beit Yosef 604
  5. Yalkut Yosef (Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 604:2), Maamar Mordechai (Rav Mordechai Eliyahu, English version pg 447, #13), Chazon Ovadia Yamim Noraim pg. 230, Aruch Hashulchan 604:5, Moed Likol Chai 16:14
  6. Yalkut Yosef (Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 604:3), Maamer Mordechai (Rav Mordechai Eliyahu, English version pg 446, #11)
  7. Minchat Chinuch 313:9, Yalkut Yosef (Moadim pg. 74), Sh"t Yabia Omer 1:37, Chazon Ovadia Yamim Noraim pg. 231, Maamer Mordechai (Rav Mordechai Eliyahu, English version pg 447, #15). Rabbi Akiva Eiger 16 raises a doubt whether women should be obligated because it could be that is a mitzvat aseh shehazman grama. The other possibility that he raises is that maybe it's connected to the mitzvah to fast which women are also obligated in. The Rashash (Sukkah 28a) writes according to the Rosh's reason that there is a mitzvah to eat on Erev Yom Kippur in order to make fasting the next day easier, clearly it should also apply to women. Additionally, Rav Ovadia Yosef (Yechave Daat 1:58) agrees and also cites the Sfat Emet's explanation that after a person eats he is in a better mood and it is easier to grant forgiveness and mend relationships; accordingly, it would seem that women also have the mitzvah to eat on Erev Yom Kippur.
  8. Maamer Mordechai (Rav Mordechai Eliyahu, English version pg 446, #11), Yalkut Yosef Moadim pg. 86, Chazon Ovadia Yamim Noraim pg. 239, Orchot Chaim Hilchot Erev Yom Hakippurim:8, based on the gemara Yoma 18a
  9. Maamar Mordechai (Rav Mordechai Eliyahu, English version pg 447, #17)
  10. Maamar Mordechai (Rav Mordechai Eliyahu, English version pg 447, #16)
    • Ketav Sofer Siman 112 raises this issue and concludes that one should still eat.
    • On the other hand, the Netziv in Haamek Sheela Parashat Vizot Haberacha Sheilta 167:12 says that one would not have the obligation of eating on the 9th if he is not fasting on the 10th.
  11. Rav Hershel Schachter in a shiur on Inyonei Yom Kippur (min 34-6) quotes Rav Salanter as having had the minhag of having a sucking candy on Erev Yom Kippur so as to continue eating on Erev Yom Kippur, whereas Rav Yosef Dov Soloveitchik held that the primary mitzvah of the day was to have a nice meal.
  12. Yalkut Yosef Moadim pg. 85, Chazon Ovadia Yamim Noraim pg. 255, Tosafot Taanit 30b
  13. Maamer Mordechai (Rav Mordechai Eliyahu, English version pg 448, #20)
  14. Yabia Omer 9:54. for more see Halacha Yomit. Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach (Shalmei Moed pg. 494) calls one who is healthy and uses suppositories to ease the fast, a naval birshut hatorah, abonimable with permission of the Torah. For longer discussions see Sh"t Igrot Moshe OC 4:121, Sh"t Chelkat Yaakov 2:83 and Minchat Shlomo 1:17
  15. Shulchan Aruch 604:2 writes that there is no Tachanun on Erev Yom Kippur. Chazon Ovadia Yamim Noraim pg. 229 agrees. Kaf HaChaim 604:18 points out that one does say Tachanun at Mincha before Erev Yom Kippur.
  16. Rama 51:5 and 604:1, Maharshal 64. Mor Uketzia 604 questions this Rama
  17. Pri Chadash 604, Yalkut Yosef Moadim page 604, Chazon Ovadia Yamim Noraim pg. 229.
  18. Yalkut Yosef Moadim page 75, Chazon Ovadia Yamim Noraim pg. 229.
  19. Yalkut Yosef Moadim page 75, Chazon Ovadia Yamim Noraim pg. 229.
    • The minhag to perform kaparot appears in many of the early and late rishonim: Sh"t Chemda Genuza Siman 93 in a teshuva to rav natronai gaon, the Machzor Vitri pg. 373, the Or Zarua 2:257, Shibolei Haleket 283, Meiri Chibur Hateshuva pg. 398, and Tur 605:1.
    • Shulchan Aruch 605:1 writes that one should stop the minhag to do Kapparot on Erev Yom Kippur. Mishna Brurah 605:1 explains that the reason for this opinion is that it looks like Darkei Emori (superstitious pagan practice). This is the opinion of the Rashba in his Teshuvot 395 and quoted by Beit Yosef 605 "Yesh mekomot." Pri Chadash 605:1 agrees.
    • However, the Rama 605:1 writes that it's an old minhag and one shouldn't refrain from keeping this minhag. Mishna Brurah 605:2 explains that the minhag is justified because it's similar to a korban and it's as though the punishment one deserves is taking place on the chicken. Yalkut Yosef (Moadim pg 75) writes that this practice is the minhag of all of klal yisrael and it should not be stopped. Maamer Mordechai (Rav Mordechai Eliyahu, chapter 42:1) agrees. The Ben Ish Chai Parashat Vayelech:2, Kaf Hachaim 605:8, Chazon Ovadia Yamim Noraim pg. 222, and Yechave Daat 2:71 all record this minhag as well, despite the opposition cited by the Shulchan Aruch. The Arizal quoted in Magen Avraham 605:1 was a strong supporter of the minhag.
    • Sh"t Ridbaz 2:740 writes that even the Rashba would agree that it is an acceptable minhag if the chickens are given to poor people afterwards.
    • see Kol Torah by Rabbi Chaim Jachter for a more detailed article. Rav Soloveitchik did not observe this practice.
  20. Rama 605:1 writes that it is an old minhag to do Kapparot on Erev Yom Kippur. Mishna Brurah 605:2 agrees but mentions, based on Pri Megadim AA 605:1, that if there's a concern that having everyone do Kapparot on Erev Yom Kippur in the morning won't give the Shochet enough time to do a proper slaughtering on all the chickens one should do Kapparot a day or two earlier because the entire period of Aseret Yamei Teshuva is a time of atonement. Moed Likol Chai 15:47 and Chazon Ovadia Yamim Noraim pg. 223 agree. see also Chazon Ovadia Yamim Noraim pg. 223 for a warning regarding the carelessness that sometimes occurs on Erev Yom Kippur when many people gather to do kapparot.
  21. Nitei Gavriel 10:7
  22. Chazon Ovadia Yamim Noraim pg. 228, Taharat Habayit 2: pg. 108
  23. Rama 605:1 writes that one should take a male chicken for a male and a female chicken for a female. Rama 605:1 and Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 131:1 write that one should take a female and male chicken for a pregnant woman. Mishna Brurah 605:3 writes that some have the practice of taking two female chickens and one male chicken for a pregnant woman. Nitei Gavriel 10:2 agrees. The Magen Avraham 605:3 explains the Rama's minhag by saying that even if the mother and the fetus are considered two bodies they can have atonement with one act of kaparot and compares it to korbanot. However, the Biur HaGra 605 s.v. VeLokchin argues that we pasken Ubar Yerech Imo (a dispute in Gemara Yevamot 78a whether a fetus is considered as the same entity as the mother or not and the halacha, according to the Gra is that the fetus is part of the mother) and so it is sufficient to exempt the mother together with the fetus with one female chicken if the fetus is female.
  24. Chazon Ovadia Yamim Noraim pg. 226
  25. Nitei Gavriel 10:3
  26. Nitei Gavriel 10:4
  27. Mishna Brurah 605:3, Nitei Gavriel 10:16, Yalkut Yosef Moadim pg. 75
  28. Mishna Brurah 605:4, Nitei Gavriel 10:17,19
    • Is it proper to do Kapparot with money?
    • Ashkenazim: Mishna Brurah 605:1-2 writes that if there's a concern that there'll be too many chickens for the shochet to slaughter properly one may do Kapparot early or take money, circle it around your head, and give it to Tzedaka. Similarly, Nitei Gavriel 10:17 writes that if one can't get a live animal then one should use money and circle it around one's head say זה חליפתי תמורתי כפרתי and give it to Tzedaka. see also Chayei Adam 144:4
    • Hilchot Chag BeChag (Yamim Noraim, Rav Moshe Karp, pg 276-7) acknowledges (and defends) the minhag to do Kapparot with money, but quotes Rav Elyashiv that in Israel one should do it with a chicken even if one's parent's minhag was to do it with money.
    • Sephardim: Maamer Mordechai (Rav Mordechai Eliyahu, 42:2,4,6) holds that the minhag is to use a chicken unless if one doesn't have a chicken, can't find someone who knows how to slaughter the chicken according to halacha, or finds it difficult (or no time) to clean the chicken and salt it, in which cases one may use money for Kaparot. Maaseh Nissim (vol 1, siman 204) agrees. [Yalkut Yosef in his discussion of Kapparot only discusses how to do it with chickens and doesn't even mention how to do it with money.] However, Sh"t Mayim Chaim 3:22 writes that one should avoid doing Kapparot with chickens and only do it with money. see also Kaf Hachaim 605:11
  29. Rama 605:1 emphasizes using a white chicken. Chazon Ovadia Yamim Noraim pg. 222 agrees. However, the Mishna Brurah 605:4 quotes the achronim who say that one should not make a special effort to get white chickens. Nitei Gavriel 10:9 agrees and adds that one should be sure not to use a black chicken.
  30. Nitei Gavriel 10:11
  31. Mishna Brurah 605:3, Kaf Hachayim 605:16, Chazon Ovadia Yamim Noraim pg. 225, Yalkut Yosef Moadim pg. 76 writes that when circling the chicken around one's head one should say זה חליפתי תמורתי כפרתי
  32. Yalkut Yosef (Moadim pg 76) , Mishna Brurah 605:2, Kitzur Shela quoting in Eliya Rabba 605
  33. Yalkut Yosef Moadim pg. 76, Chazon Ovadia Yamim Noraim pg. 225, Taz 605:3
  34. Rama 605:1. Mishna Brurah 605:5 writes that if the poor person will be embarrassed to take the chicken because it looks like one put their sins on the chicken then one should redeem it and give the money to the poor but if the poor won't be embarrassed it's preferable to give the chicken to the poor because it requires less effort for the poor person to benefit. Chazon Ovadia Yamim Noraim pg. 225 writes that giving the money is the preferred option based on Maharil pg. 315.
  35. Yalkut Yosef (Moadim pg 78), Chazon Ovadyah (Yamim Noraim pg 227)
  36. Yalkut Yosef (Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 605:18), Chazon Ovadia Yamim Noraim pg. 227
  37. Yalkut Yosef (Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 605:18), Chazon Ovadia Yamim Noraim pg. 227, Sh"t Yabea Omer YD 6:2 based on Tur and Shulchan Aruch YD 28:2, Chida in Machazik Beracha 28:2, Ben Ish Chai Parashat Vayelech: Halacha 3
  38. Yalkut Yosef (Moadim pg 78), Chazon Ovadyah (Yamim Noraim pg 227). Halichot Shlomo 3:7 writes that if one wants to do the covering of the blood one should appoint the shochet to do the ritual slaughtering.
  39. Yalkut Yosef (Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 605:17), Chazon Ovadia Yamim Noraim pg. 227
  40. Yalkut Yosef (Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 605:17)
  41. Shulchan Aruch 606:1 writes that Yom kippur doesn't atone for sins between man and his fellow until one appeases his friend. The Birkei Yosef 606:1 and Pri Megadim MZ 606 write that the special power of Yom Kippur to atone for one's sins between man and Hashem doesn't kick in for him until that person asks forgiveness from anybody who he offended. Mishna Brurah 606:1 explains that during the entire year if one offended one's friend one must appease him and if one was unable to do so one may just wait until tomorrow, however, the day before Yom Kippur one must fix everything in order to be cleansed of all one's sins.
  42. Rambam Peirush Hamishnayot Yoma 8:6, Aruch Hashulchan OC 602:7
  43. Mishna Brurah 606:1, Yalkut Yosef (Moadim pg 78), Chazon Ovadyah (pg 240)
  44. Yalkut Yosef (Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 606:11)
  45. Rama 606:1, Yalkut Yosef (Moadim pg 80), Chazon Ovadyah (pg 243), Aruch Hashulchan 606:2. In Shaar ha-Tziyun 606:8 he writes that one who forgives receives forgiveness from Hashem, measure for measure. Mateh Efrayim 606:4 says that one who in unwilling to forgive is potentially preventing his prayers from reaching the heavens. Rambam Hilchot Teshuva 2:10 compares one who is unwilling to forgive to the hard-heartened gentiles.
  46. Mishna Brurah 606:8 quoting the gemara Rosh Hashana 17a
  47. Rama 606:1
  48. Mishna Brurah 606:9
  49. Mishna Brurah 606:10
  50. Rama 606:1, Mishna Brurah 606:11. Aruch ha-Shulchan 606:2 writes that if it isn't possible that some of the people who heard the slander will not hear the retraction, then one is obligated to forgive.
  51. Chazon Ovadyah (pg 243)
  52. Rambam Hilchot Teshuvah 2:9
  53. Chofetz Chaim Hilchot Lashon Hara 4:12.
  54. Shalmei Moad (pg 56) and Moadim u'Zmanim 1:54 quote Rav Yisrael Salanter who says that if one spoke Lashon Hara about one's fellow and he doesn't know about it that one should just ask forgiveness in a general way, while the Chafetz Chaim 4:12 argues that one must specify that one spoke Lashon Hara. This is how he is quoted in the book A Lesson a Day page 28 as well. However, if specifying what the Lashon Hara was will embarrass the victim, he writes in Mishna Brurah 606:3 that the speaker doesn't need to elaborate about what he said. Yalkut Yosef 606:16 rules like Rav Yisrael Salanter
  55. Mishna Brurah 606:2
  56. Devar Yehoshua 5:20 says that's enough while Moadim U'zmanim 1:55 quotes poskim that you still need to ask. see also Pele Yoetz on Teshuvah and Hirhurei Teshuvah, pg. 123
  57. Rav Elyashiv quoted in Torat ha'adam li'adam 3:page 36, Alei Shur 2: page 240. On the other hand, Rav Reuven Grozovsky quotes the Alter of Kelm in Sefer hazikaron Even Tzion page 542 that one has fulfilled his obligation.
  58. Shulchan Aruch 606:4, Rosh Yoma 8:24, Mishna Brurah 606:17-8. The Maharil (Erev Yom Kippur n. 3) writes that one should dip after Seuda Mafseket in order to dip as close to actual day of Yom Kippur since the dipping is also to encourage Teshuva. He explains even a person who is completely pure, for example a person who dipped on Erev Rosh Hashana and didn't see an emission, should dip on Erev Yom Kippur in order be involved with Teshuva.
  59. Yalkut Yosef 606:4(1). for more on the proper time see Moed Likol Chai 12:11
  60. Mishna Brurah 606:21
  61. Sh"t Livushei Mordechai OC 19, Sh"t Min Hashamayim 5, Sefer Chassidim 248
  62. Shulchan Aruch 606:4, Chazon Ovadia Yamim Noraim pg. 245
  63. Darchei Moshe 606:3
  64. Rama 606:4, Mishna Brurah 606:22
  65. Yalkut Yosef 606:4(2) (Moadim pg. 82) and Chazon Ovadia Yamim Noraim pg. 245 writes that it's the procedure of pouring 9 Kav on oneself can be with hot water and by taking a shower. He also writes that 9 Kav is about 12.5 liters which is 3.3 gallons. On average this should only take a couple of minutes (see here).
  66. Shulchan Aruch 607:1, Mishna Brurah 607:2, Yalkut Yosef 607:1
  67. Maamer Mordechai (Rav Mordechai Eliyahu, English version pg 453, #44). Yalkut Yosef Moadim page 75.
  68. [[1]]
  69. Shulchan Aruch 610:1 writes that in places where there's a minhag to light candles on Erev Yom Kippur, one should do so, and in places where the minhag is not to light candles on Erev Yom Kippur one should also follow that practice. Shulchan Aruch 610:2 writes that there is an opinion that says one should make a bracha upon lighting candles on Erev Yom Kippur. The Rama 610:2 and Yalkut Yosef 610:1 write that the widespread minhag in Klal Yisrael is to light candles on Erev Yom Kippur with a bracha.
  70. Rabbi Eli Mansour
  71. Rav Hershel Schachter in Nefesh HaRav (p. 210). Rabbi Hershel Schachter also explained this in a shiur on Inyonei Yom Kippur (min 50-5). This is based on the Gemara in Eiruvin 40b which writes that once one said the Shehechiyanu bracha for Yom Kippur one has automatically accepted Yom Kippur.
  72. Shemirat Shabbat Kehilchata (Intro ch. 3 n. 8)
  73. Gemara Rosh Hashana 9a learns from Vayikra 23:32 that there is an obligation to add from the weekday onto Yom Kippur called Tosefet Yom Kippur. (This also appears in Yoma 81b). Shulchan Aruch 263:2 brings this as halacha.
    • Shulchan Aruch 271:2 and 608:1 rules that there's no minimum requirement of time one needs to add to Shabbat to fulfill Tosefet Shabbat. 39 Melachos (vol 1, pg 150) rules like Shulchan Aruch that there's no specific minimum time for Tofeset Shabbat. Yalkut Yosef 608:2 rules like Shulchan Aruch.
    • Mishna Brurah 608:2 regarding Yom Kippur references his comments regarding accepting Shabbat early. There Mishna Brurah 271:22 quotes the Rosh who argues that a certain amount of time is needed. [Beiur Halacha s.v. Ayzo Zman posits that this period of time should be no longer than 3/4 of a mil (which is 13.5 minutes).] The Mishna Brurah 271:23 concludes that in order to fulfill the mitzvah of Tofeset Shabbat (adding onto Shabbat) one should refrain from work 30 or 20 minutes before sunset. See When does Shabbat start?. Shemirat Shabbat Kehilchata (new edition, 3:7) rules like Shulchan Aruch but in the footnote (#8) writes that starting 20 or 30 minutes early is praiseworthy.
  74. Shulchan Aruch 608:1, Yalkut Yosef 608:2
  75. Rav Avigdor Neventzal in BeYitzchak Yikare on S”A 306:12 because it’s a need for the congregation even though one usually can’t do Hatarat Nedarim on Shabbat (S”A 341:1).
  76. Ben Ish Chai, Vayeshev, 9; Kaf Hachaim 46:17
  77. Chazon Ovadyah (Yamim Noraim pg 320),
  78. S”A 620:1 writes one should minimize piyutim and selichot in order to finish Mussaf by the end of the seventh hour. Even though some achronim explain S”A simply that one should start Mussaf by the beginning of the seventh hour (midday), many achronim say that the term S”A used wasn’t precise and really he means the time of Mincha which is six and a half hours. That is the opinion of Mishna Brurah 620:2 and Yalkut Yosef (Moadim pg 104). Mishna Brurah 620:1 says that if it is the end of the sixth hour one may skip Avinu Malkenu in order to say Mussaf by the end of the seventh hour.
  79. Mishna Brurah 620:2 rules like the opinion of the Ri quoted by S”A 286:4 (see Mussaf page for lengthy explanation).
  80. Kaf HaChaim 620:1
  81. Kaf HaChaim 620:1
  82. Kaf HaChaim 620:2
  83. Kaf HaChaim 620:3
  84. Kaf HaChaim 620:4
  85. Mishna Brurah 620:3
  86. See Kaf HaChaim 620:5
  87. Rav Schachter (Hilchot Yom Kippur, min 46) citing the practice of Rav Soloveitchik
  88. Chazon Ovadyah (Yamim Noraim, pg 283)
  89. Rav Chizkiyah Dachvash (author of Shtilei Zaytim) in HaMeor (Vol. 61 No. 4 Sivan 5768 pg. 29) suggests from the language of the Rambam that there's no obligation on Yom Kippur. However, Mishna Brurah 46:14 (quoted by Sh"t Tzitz Eliezer 19:11:3:9) writes that on Yom Kippur one should have intent to fulfill this mitzvah from the brachot on the Torah reading and repetition of Shmoneh Esrei.
  90. Shulchan Aruch 611:2, Chazon Ovadyah (Yamim Noraim, pg 282)
  91. Shulchan Aruch 611:2, Chazon Ovadyah (Yamim Noraim, pg 282)
  92. Shulchan Aruch OC 416:4, OC 611:2
  93. Shulchan Aruch OC 611:2
  94. S”A 216:5
  95. Halichot Shlomo (pg 80), Chazon Ovadyah (Yamim Noraim pg 287)
  96. Mishna Brurah 567:13, Chazon Ovadyah (Yamim Noraim pg 310)
  97. S”A 618:1, Mishna Brurah 618:5, Chazon Ovadyah (Yamim Noraim pg 287-9)
  98. S”A 618:7-8, Mishna Brurah 618:21.
  99. Rav Schachter in Halachos of Yamim Noraim (min 5-7)
  100. Chazon Ovadyah (Yamim Noraim pg 307), Shemirat Shabbat Kehilchata (Intro ch. 3, n. 12)
  101. Tashbetz Katan 568 explains that there is a Yaaleh V'yavo in Birkat Hamazon for Yom Kippur since it is a holiday.
  102. Rivevot Efraim 6:320. http://www.aish.com/h/hh/yk/guide/Fasting_on_Yom_Kippur.html permits taking any bitter medicine.
  103. Shabbat Shabbaton, 64
  104. Shabbat Shabbaton, 64
  105. Shabbat Shabbaton, 68
  106. Shabbat Shabbaton, 74
  107. Shabbat Shabbaton, 76
  108. Shabbat Shabbaton, 81
  109. Shabbat Shabbaton, 43
  110. S”A 611:1, 613:1
  111. S”A 613:1, Chazon Ovadyah (Yamim Noraim pg 311)
  112. S”A 613:2 writes that since washing not for pleasure isn’t forbidden it’s permissible to wash one’s hand upon waking up for Netilat Yadayim. Mishna Brurah 613:3 writes that one may wash one’s hands three times as usual. Nitei Gavriel 43:2 says that those who have the practice to wash four time may do even on Yom Kippur.
  113. Nitei Gavriel 43:11, Yalkut Yosef (Kitzur S”A 613:2), Chazon Ovadyah (Yamim Noraim pg 310) based on S”A 613:3
  114. Nitei Gavriel 43:10
  115. Chazon Ovadyah (Yamim Noraim pg 312)
  116. Nitei Gavriel 43:8
  117. Nitei Gavriel 43:3-4 based on Mishna Brurah 613:9
  118. Mishna Brurah 613:5
  119. S”A 613:10, Chazon Ovadyah (Yamim Noraim pg 312)
  120. S”A 614:1, Mishna Brurah 614:1, Chazon Ovadyah (Yamim Noraim pg 313). Nitei Gavriel 46:5 writes that this prohibition applies equally to women as men and references Minchat Chinuch 313.
  121. Nitei Gavriel 46:2 and Rabbi Doniel Neustadt on Torah.org write that it is forbidden to use deodorant on Yom Kippur. Rabbi Yissachar Krakowski on yeshivaworld.com writes that while some are lenient regarding aerosol deodorant one should avoid it by applying a thick layer on Erev Yom Kippur.
  122. Shulchan Aruch 614:2, Chazon Ovadyah (Yamim Noraim pg 313)
  123. Ben Ish Hai, Vayeshev, 9; Kaf Hachaim 46:17
  124. Chazon Ovadyah (Yamim Noraim pg 320)
  125. Rav Hershel Schachter in a shiur on Inyonei Yom Kippur (min 47-8) quotes Rav Soloveitchik as saying that one shouldn't wear shoes which have raised heels so that one feels the roughness of the ground. He based this on the Rambam Shivitat Asor 3:7 who writes that one may wear cloth (non-leather) shoes because one feels the roughness of the ground, implying that non-leather shoes are only permitted if one still feels the roughness of the ground. This is also recorded in Nefesh HaRav (p. 110).
  126. Shulchan Aruch 616:1 writes that children may not wear non-leather shoes. However, the poskim including Chazon Ovadia (Yamim Noraim p. 340) and Minchat Shlomo 2:60:21 write that today since the children don't go around barefoot it is permitted but better to avoid.
  127. Shulchan Aruch 615:1, Yalkut Yosef 615:1
  128. Shulchan Aruch 615:1, Yalkut Yosef 615:1
  129. Yalkut Yosef 615:1
  130. Yalkut Yosef (Moadim pg 112)
  131. Darchei Moshe 623:2, Chemdat Yamim, page 98
  132. Chazon Ovadia on Yamim Noraim, page 369
  133. Yalkut Yosef, Moadim, page 112
  134. Yalkut Yosef, Moadim, page 113
  135. Yalkut Yosef, Moadim, page 113
  136. Chazon Ovadia, Yamim Noraim, page 376
  137. Shulchan Aruch 624:3, Rambam Shabbat 29:28, Chazon Ovadyah (Yamim Noraim pg 384)
  138. Sh"t Yabia Omer 10: footnotes to Rav Pealim 3:38
  139. Shulchan Aruch OC 624:4, Yalkut Yosef Moadim pg. 116, Chazon Ovadia Yamim Noraim pg. 378
  140. Yalkut Yosef Moadim pg. 116, Chazon Ovadia Yamim Noraim pg. 378
  141. Mishna Brurah 624:7
  142. Yalkut Yosef Moadim pg. 116, Chazon Ovadia Yamim Noraim pg. 387, Shoel U'Meishiv 1:129