Coming Late to Davening
This is the approved revision of this page, as well as being the most recent.
One should make a great effort to daven with a minyan because Hashem does not reject the Tefillah of a congregation and the Tefillah will be more accepted by Hashem. The halachot below are for someone who comes late to Shacharit. For the halacha of someone who comes late to Maariv, please see the Coming Late to Maariv page.
Someone Who Comes Late to Davening
- Someone who comes late to Davening and sees the minyan is up to the end of Pesukei DeZimrah and realizes that if were he to daven the usual order he would not be able to daven Shmoneh Esrei with a Minyan, he should do the following order: put on Tallit and Tefillin, say Elokei Netsor, Brachot Hatorah, Baruch Sh’amar, Ashrei, Haleluyah Halelu Min HaShamayim, Haleluyah El Bekodsho, Yishtabach, Brachot Yotzer, Shema, Brachot Geulah, Shmoneh Esrei with a Minyan or with the Chazarat HaShatz which is also called davening with a Minyan according to many authorities , after davening he can return to say the Brachot Hashachar, Parshat Akeda, Korbanot and mizmorim of Pesukei DeZimrah that were skipped. However, one should not be making up these prayers during Chazarat Hashatz.
If One Has Less Time
- If there is even less time than that, one should also skip Haleluyah Halelu Min HaShamayim and if there is less time even than that one should also skip Haleluyah El Bekodsho.
- If there is less time than that one should skip all of Pesukei DeZimrah, but after Shmoneh Esrei one should say Pesukei DeZimrah without the Brachot in Baruch SheAmar and Yishtabach.
- If the minyan is saying the Shmoneh Esrei and one has not yet recited Kriat Shema one should not skip Shema and the Brachot in order to recite the Shmoneh Esrei with the tzibbur because being somech geula litfillah for shacharit is more important.
- If one skipped Pesukei DeZimrah and then made a mistake in Shmoneh Esrei for which he needs to repeat (forgetting Yaleh VeYavo on Rosh Chodesh), since he has to say Shmoneh Esrei again he should first say Pesukei DeZimrah with the Shem Umalchut in the Baruch Sh’amar and Yishtabach. [Seemingly this is only if one already missed davening Shema Esreh with a minyan, meaning starting Shmoneh Esrei with the Chazan.]
If One Has More Time
- If one has some more time one should add the mizmorim from Haleluyah Halili Nafshi to Haleluyah Halelu El Bekosho.
- If one has more time one should add the first four pesukim of Vayvarech David.
- If one has more time one should add Az Yashir.
- If one has more time, according to Ashkenazim who say Hodo after Baruch Sh’amar should add Hodo, but according to Sefardim should add the rest of the pesukim of Pesukei DeZimrah (such as Mizmor Letodah and Yehe Kavod).
- If one has more time one should add some Korbanot starting with Lefikach until Shema and Baruch Shem, then parshat Tamid, Ketoret until and not including Rabban Shimon Ben Gamliel, then Anna Bechoach and the Ribbon HaOlamim, Lechen Yehe Rason , (if there is time add Aizehu Mekoman), then Hodo until UBeNiveye Al Tirau, El Nikamot until Hashem Hoshea Hamelech ,Hashem Melech, Lamnatzeach and continue with Pesukei DeZimrah.
- On Shabbat, one should skip Nishmat and not Pesukei DeZimrah. But if there is not enough time to say the mizmorim before Pesukei DeZimrah, Pesukei DeZimrah and Nishmat one should skip the mizmorim before Pesukei DeZimrah and not Nishmat. If one has more time to say some of the mizmorim before Pesukei DeZimrah, he should say the mizmorim “Hashamayim Mesaprim”, "Ledavid Beshenato” and “Tefilah Lemoshe”.
- If one arrives late to shul on Shabbat and will have to skip certain parts of the prayer in order to say the Shmoneh Esrei with the tzibbur some consider it to be better to skip the korbanot while some say it is better that one skip the chapters of Tehillim that are recited especially for Shabbat.
- Shulchan Aruch 90:8, Mishna Brurah 52:3 and 90:28, Rabbi Hershel Schachter (cited by Bet Yitzchak vol 30, p. 590)
- There is a famous dispute between the Kabbalists and Halachists whether one should forgo the regular order of Tefilah or forgo davening with a Tzibbur. The Halachists including the Tur, Shulchan Aruch and Rama hold one should skip in order to daven with a Tzibbur. The Chacham Tzvi 36 also says that one should skip according to the Arizal because the order of Tefilah is only lechatchila and the importance of Tefilah BeTzibbur is an overriding factor. So writes the Shulchan Aruch in Magim Mesharim that it is important to be on time so as not to ruin the order, to be inferred from this is the understanding that were one to come late one would inevitably skip. So say the Yaavetz in Mor Ukesia 52, Eliya Raba 52:5, Kesher Gudal 5:10, Meorei Or (Bear Sheva 21b). However, Bear Heteiv 52 records the practice of the pious did not change the order even if they were late. Shalmei Tzibbur 9b, Minchat Aharon 12:13, Ben Ish Chai in Ben Yehoyada (R”H 35a), Sh”t Yaskil Avdi O”C 1:2(6), Sh”t Simchat Cohen 7:6, and Kaf Hachaim Sofer 52 agree. See also the Shalmei Tzibur quoting the Chacham Tzvi on p. 67c. However, Mamar Mordechai 52:1 says davening in order even at the expense of praying with a minyan only applies to someone who always follows the Arizal but since we follow Shulchan Aruch (especially according to the Chacham Tzvi who says the Arizal agrees with the Shulchan Aruch) one should skip. Naveh Shalom 1 pg 124d, Sh”t Shaar Shlomo Zorafa 60, Chesed LeAlafim 52, and Mishna Brurah 52:1,6 agree. See further Sh”t Igrot Moshe O”C 4: 91, Sh”t Yacheve Daat 5:5.
- The following hold it is Tefillah Betzibbur: Sh”t Me’at Mayim 21, Taharat Mayim 400:9 in name of Rambam, Sh”t Chatam Sofer 4(edition Yerushalim 5733), Petach Hadvir 52, Ashel Avraham 52, Sh”T Bear Yitzchak O”C 20:2, Chazon Ish 19:7, Sh”T Ish Matzliach O”C 11, Bear Moshe 1:12, Sh”t Shevet Levi 4:11. Sh”T Pri Tevuah 68, Sh”t Yechave Daat Y”D 5:7. However the Pri Megadim 52e, Sh”t Chavselet Hasharon O”C 2, Sh”t Amudei Esh 3:7, Sh”t Igrot Moshe O”C 3:9 argue it should not be considered Tefillah Betzibbur.
- Shulchan Aruch 52:1. Siddur Rav Amram Goan 1:102 says if one is late one should just say Baruch Sh’amar, Tehilat LeDavid (Ashrei without the first two pesukim), and Yishtabach. Smak 11, quotes Rav Neturei Goan who says one should add Haleluyah El Bekodsho. The Smag (Asin 19 pg 109b), Hagahot Maimon (Tefilat 7:50) in name of Rav Moshe Goan agrees. The Hagahot Smak 11 adds Haleluyah Min HaShamayim. Hagahot Maimon writes this in name of Sefer HaMitzvot. Rosh (Brachot 2:5) and Talmidei Rabbeinu Yonah (Brachot 23a) hold like Rav Amram Goan. Shulchan Aruch 52:1 holds like the Hagahot Smak that if there is less time one skips Haleluyah Min Hashamayim. Rama adds that if there is less time one also skips Haleluyah El Bekodsho. See Rav Grunstein regarding skipping korbanot for pesukei dzimra.
- Yalkut Yosef Sheerit Yosef 1:page 12 and Hilchot Hashkamat Haboker 5764 page 1129
- Shulchan Aruch 52:1 holds like the Hagahot Smak that if there is less time one skips Haleluyah Min Hashamayim. Rama based on Rav Amram Gaon adds that if there is less time one also skips Haleluyah El Bekodsho. Rama 52:1 based on the Rosh (Brachot 5:6), Mishna Brurah 52:6, and Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 14:7 hold that at a minimum one may say an abbreviated Pesukei DeZimrah consisting of only Baruch SheAmar, Ashrei, and Yishtabach.
- Shulchan Aruch 52:1 writes that if one sees that the congregation is up to the Brachot of Shema and one will not have time to say Pesukei DeZimrah, one should start the Brachot of Shema with the congregation and after one said Shmoneh Esrei one says Pesukei DeZimrah without the Brachot, meaning one may not say Baruch SheAmar or Yishtabach. This is based on the following Geonim and Rishonim: Siddur Rav Amram Goan 1:102 pf 200a) in name of Rav Neturnai Goan, Aruch (Erech Tefilah), Sh”t Rashba 3:285, Machzor Vitri 23, Or Zaruha 1:100, Smak 12:77, Hagahot Maimon Tefilah 7:50, Rashba 1:589 in name of Ramban, and Shibolei HaLeket (Siman 7). See, however, the opinion of the Rabbenu Yonah (Brachot 23a) that one may say these Brachot after Shmoneh Esrei.
- Mishna Brurah 52:6 quotes the Mishkenaot Yacov who argues on Shulchan Aruch and says that it is preferable to say Shmoneh Esrei alone rather than skip Pesukei DeZimrah. However, Rabbi Hershel Schachter (cited by Bet Yitzchak vol 30, p. 593) quoting Rav Soloveitchik and Rav Ovadyah in Sh"t Yechave Daat 5:5 hold like Shulchan Aruch that it is preferable to say Shmoneh Esrei with the congregation rather than say Pesukei DeZimrah with Brachot.
- Shulchan Aruch 111:3, Mishna Brurah 111:11. Mishna Brurah adds that for arvit one would skip to Shmoneh Esrei with the tzibbur rahter than saying Kriat Shema with the Brachot. see Coming Late to Maariv.
- Hagahot Rabbi Akiva Eiger 52 says if one forgot to say mashiv haruach one should say Pesukei DeZimrah with Brachot before he repeats Shmoneh Esrei. Maharsham in Daat Torah 52 quotes Sh”t Tiferet Tzvi 15 who agrees to Rabbi Akiva Eiger but says on Rosh Chodesh one should first say Hallel with the tzibbur before saying Pesukei DeZimrah but then one can only say Pesukei DeZimrah without Brachot since Hallel fulfills the obligation of saying praise from Tehilim for the day. Torat Chaim Sofer 52e says against the Rabbi Akiva Eiger so that one should repeat immediately so as not to interrupt between Geulah and Tefillah. Halacha Brurah 52:2 holds like Rabbi Akiva Eiger, Daat Torah, and Sh”t Tiferet Tzvi since anyway one is repeating Shmoneh Esrei one has to first prepare with praise as in Pesukei DeZimrah. Lumdus in Halacha: [Birur Halacha 52:3 says one could argue on the Rabbi Akiva Eiger based on the dispute of Rishonim (Tosfot Brachot 26b) whether one goes back for a Shmoneh Esrei that one forgot the Yaleh VeYavo can repeat if he is not able to add the Yaleh Veyavo in the Tashlumin. According to one opinion one can return since it is as if one did not pray at all and according to the other opinion one may not repeat because he has nothing to add. So too according to the opinion that it is not as if he did not pray at all, then one should not be able to say Pesukei DeZimrah with Brachot. Perhaps one can answer that only by Yaleh VeYavo which is just an addition is there a dispute if the Shmoneh Esrei counts, but by Mashiv HaRuach or Ten Tal UMatar which is part of the words of the bracha everyone agrees that it is considered as if one did not pray. Rav Chaim MeBrisk (Shuirei Grach pg 74) agrees. Thus, only by Mashiv HaRuach does Rabbi Akiva Eiger say you can say Pesukei DeZimrah but not for Yaleh VeYavo. However we do not pasken like this idea because Yalkut Yosef 1 pg 238 says that Ten Tal UMatar is even more of an addition since if one remembers within the Shema Esreh Ten Tal UMatar can be said even in Shema Kolenu but Yaleh Veyavo requires you to return to the beginning of the Bracha Ratzeh. So writes the Sh”t Har Tzvi O”C 54, Magen Avraham 108:16, Sh”t Chesed LeAvraham (Mehudra Tanina 20)]
- Magen Avraham 52:1 says even though it sounds from Rama 52 like one should add Hodu if one has time, the Rif already wrote that the main part of Pesukei DeZimrah is from Tehilat Ledavid to Kol hanishama, meaning that they precede Hodu and so the Rama only meant to add this after one was already saying all the Haleluyah’s and so agrees the Smag. So says Biur Gra 52:3, Bear Hetiev 52:3, Machsit HaShekel 52:1, Shulchan Aruch HaRav 52:1, Mishna Brurah 52:4.
- Halacha Brurah 52:3 in name of Chaye Adam 19:4.
- Halacha Brurah 52:3 in name of Chaye Adam 19:4.
- Rama 52:1 in name of Hagahot Maimon Tefilah 7:50 says if one has more time than saying Pesukei DeZimrah with skipping one should add Hodu. Magen Avraham 52:1 explains that the Rama only means to add this after we add Vayevarech David since that is the opinion of the Smag. This is also the opinion of Mishna Brurah 52:4. Aruch Hashulchan 52 says that Az Yashir precedes Hodu against the Chaye Adam who says Hodu precedes Az Yashir. Bear Hetiev 52:3 in name of Lechem Chamudot that Mizmor Letodah is on the level of Hodu. Sephardim follow the Maamer Mordechai 52:2 and Kaf Hachaim 52:3.
- Halacha Brurah 52:3, Sh”t Rav Poalim O”C 2:4, Sh”t Yechave Daat 5:5 in the footnote, Sh”t Ish Matzliach 1:15pg 42a, 76c.
- Halacha Brurah 52:4. Chaye Adam 19:6 says Nishmat is an obligation of Shabbat (based on Pesachim 118a) and if there is little time one just says Baruch She’amar, Tehilat Ledavid, Nishmat, and Yishtabach. This is also the opinion of Mishna Berurah 52:5. The Sh”t Meishiv Halacha 439-440 adds that one should even miss Tefilah Betzibbur for Nishmat. However it seems that even the Chaye Adam would agree that one can skip Nishmat for Tefilah Betzibbur. On the other hand, Shalmei Tzibbur (shalmei chagiga pg 203b) holds Pesukei DeZimrah comes before Nishmat since it is a Tadir- regularly said passage compared to Nishmat. This is also the opinion of Siddur Bet Menucha 133b, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 14:7, and Shaarei Teshuva 281e in name of Shalmei Tzibbur. Sh”t Yechave Daat 5:5 footnote 1 argues with the Chaye Adam in that Nishmat is only a Minhag (based on Rambam and Talmidei Rabbenu Yonah); similarly the Sh”t Michtam LeDavid O”C 13 notes that it is not sourced in the Gemara, meaning the practice of saying it on Shabbat is not in the Gemara. The Lechem Hapanim on Kitzur Shulchan Aruch and Leviat Chen 18 agree.
- Yalkut Yosef Hilchot Hashkamat Haboker 5764 page 116. In conclusion, he prefers the latter.