Difference between revisions of "Shnayim Mikra V'Echad Targum"

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==Earliest and lastest time==
 
==Earliest and lastest time==
#  One can begin to read the week’s parsha after the Tzibbur read that parsha’s rishon at Mincha on Shabbat. <Ref> S”A 285:3 says one can start on Yom Rishon, but the achronim explain that he meant it lav davka. So holds Mishna Brurah 285:7, Kaf HaChaim 285:24. see Sh”t Yashkil Avdi O”C 5:39, Sh”t Asse Lecha Rav 7:16.</ref>
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#  One can begin to read the weekly Parsha after the congregation (Tzibbur) read the first Aliyah of the Parsha at Mincha on Shabbat. <Ref> S”A 285:3 says one can start on Sunday, however, the Mishna Brurah 285:7 and Kaf HaChaim 285:24 explain that this was imprecise and really one is permitted to start once the Tzibbur began reading the Parsha at Shabbat Mincha. See Sh”t Yaskil Avdi O”C 5:39 and Sh”t Asse Lecha Rav 7:16.</ref>
# Some have the practice to do the Shenayim Mikrah on Friday afternoon. <Ref> Kitzur S”A 72:11, Orchot Rabbenu (pg 123) writes the minhag of the Stiepler was to read it once on Friday afternoon and once with the Bal Koreh. </ref>
+
# Some have the practice to do the Shenayim Mikrah on Friday afternoon. <Ref> Kitzur S”A 72:11. Orchot Rabbenu (pg 123) writes the minhag of the Stiepler was to read it once on Friday afternoon and once with the Bal Koreh. </ref>
#  One should finish Shenayim Mikra VeEchad Targum by Shabbat lunch. If one didn’t complete it by then one should finish it by Mincha of Shabbat. If one didn’t complete it by then one can fulfill it until Tuesday night. Some hold one can even complete it by that year’s Shemini Esret. <Ref> S”A 285:4, see Kaf Chaim Palagi 27:4, Ben Ish Chai Lech Lecha 14.</ref>
+
#  One should finish Shenayim Mikra VeEchad Targum by Shabbat lunch. If one didn’t complete it by then one should finish it by Mincha of Shabbat. If one didn’t complete it by then one can fulfill it until Tuesday night. Some hold one can even complete it by that year’s Shemini Esret. <Ref> S”A 285:4. See Kaf Chaim Palagi 27:4, Ben Ish Chai Lech Lecha 14.</ref>
#  Vezot Habracha should be read on Hoshana Rabba however if one read it on Shemini Esret you also fulfill the obligation. <Ref> Birkei Yosef 285:4, ben Ish Chai Vezot Habracha 1:15. Mishna Brurah 285:18 write that while it's preferable to read the Shenayim Mikra of Vezot HaBracha on Hoshana Rabba, it may be read on Shemini Aseret. The Piskei Teshuvot 285:4 quotes the Sh"t Kaneh Beshem 1:16 who hols that if one read it prior to Hoshana Rabba one hasn't fulfilled his obligation. However, the Dvir Hakadosh Siman 23(4) pg 124 argues that according to Tosfot one should be able to read it from the first time we read it on Shabbat mincha. </ref>
+
The Shenayim Mikra VeChad Targum of Parshat Vezot Habracha should be read on Hoshana Rabba. However, if one read it on Shemini Esret one also fulfills the obligation. <Ref> The Chida in Birkei Yosef 285:4, Ben Ish Chai (Vezot Habracha 1:15), and Mishna Brurah 285:18 write that while it's preferable to read the Shenayim Mikra of Vezot HaBracha on Hoshana Rabba, it may also be read on Shemini Aseret. The Piskei Teshuvot 285:4 quotes the Sh"t Kaneh Beshem 1:16 who holds that if one read it prior to Hoshana Rabba one hasn't fulfilled his obligation. However, the Dvir Hakadosh (Siman 23(4), pg 124) argues that according to Tosfot one should be able to read it from the first time we read it on Shabbat mincha. </ref>
 
#  Someone for whom it’s difficult to read it on Friday or Shabbat have those to rely to say it Friday night.<Ref> Sh”t Yabe Omer O”C 6:30(5), Sh"t Yitzchak Yiranen 1:29. </ref>
 
#  Someone for whom it’s difficult to read it on Friday or Shabbat have those to rely to say it Friday night.<Ref> Sh”t Yabe Omer O”C 6:30(5), Sh"t Yitzchak Yiranen 1:29. </ref>
#  If one misses a week one should read last week’s parsha and then this weeks. <Ref> Sh”t Bear Moshe 5:79. However Sh”t Yitzchak Yiranen 1:32 says one can make up a parsha out of order.</ref>
+
#  If one misses a week one should read the previous Parsha's Shenayim Mikra and then the current weeks Parsha. <Ref> Sh”t Bear Moshe 5:79 writes that if one misses a week one should read the previous Parsha's Shenayim Mikra and then the current weeks Parsha. Chazon Ovadyah (Shabbat, vol 1, pg 314) quoted by [http://www.dailyhalacha.com/displayRead.asp?readID=2057 Daily Halacha (by Rabbi Mansour)] agrees. However Sh”t Yitzchak Yiranen 1:32 says one can make up a parsha out of order.</ref>
  
 
==References==
 
==References==
 
<References/>
 
<References/>

Revision as of 00:13, 19 October 2011

Who is obligated?

  1. There’s an obligation on every person to read the parsha that the Tzibbur is currently reading twice and targum once called Shenayim Mikrah VeEchad Targum. [1]
  2. Even someone who will hear the Torah reading in Shul must read Shenayim Mikra. [2]
  3. Even someone who is learned and wants to learn Talmud is obligated to read Shanyim Mikrah. [3]
  4. Even someone who doesn’t understand what he’s reading is obligated.[4]
  5. Women are exempt since many hold it’s included in Limud Torah.[5]
  6. A sick, blind, or illiterate man is exempt but it’s preferable to hear it read from another person.[6]
  7. A mourner within the first 7 days can read it but not with Rashi.[7]
  8. A teacher who teaches children the parsha and goes over the pesukim a few times he only needs to read targum to fulfill his obligation.[8]

What pesukim and what Targum?

  1. The Targum Unkelos we have which includes a Targum of every pasuk can be used even for pesukim that are just names or places.[9]
  2. Rashi’s commentary also counts as Targum. A Yaare Shamayim should read also Targum Unkelos and Rashi[10]
  3. The pasuk Shema Yisrael can be said twice and then it’s Targum.[11]
  4. One doesn’t need to do it on the Yom Tov reading, Rosh Chodesh, or the four parshiot or any reading that’s not in the weekly parsha.[12]
  5. One should read the Haftorah of the weekly parsha even if the Haftorah read in shul is a special one for Rosh Chodesh or Zachor.[13]

How should one read it?

  1. There are three practices as how to read Shenayim Mikra: 1. Read each pasuk twice followed by it’s Targum [14] 1b. Read the entire parsha and then read each pasuk with it’s Targum, 1c. Read each pasuk with it’s Targum and then the entire parsha once. [15] 2. Read each paragraph, petucha (a line break before the next paragraph) or setuma (a short break before the next paragraph) twice and then it’s Targum [16] 3. Read the entire parsha twice and then the Targum. [17]
  2. Some have the practice to read a little bit every day and complete it day Shabbat. [18]
  3. One is allowed to read Shnayim Mikrah while seated. [19]
  4. Some say that it’s Lechatchila to go like the first practice of reading it pasuk by pasuk[20], and some say that there’s one can go like any of the above practices as one wishes [21]
  5. One shouldn’t read Targum and then the pasuk twice and not the pasuk, the Targum and then the pasuk [22]
  6. Bedieved if one did the pasuk, Targum and then the pasuk again he fulfills his obligation. [23]
  7. Some say that one is allowed to read the Shenayim Mikra during Torah reading even if one is reading a different section of the parsha than the Shliach Tzibbur. [24]
  8. All agree that one is allowed to read Shenayim Mikra between Aliyot. [25]
  9. Some say that one fulfills one’s obligation by listening the Torah reading however, others hold that one doesn’t fulfill his obligation even Bedieved. Therefore one shouldn’t only listen to the Bal Koreh rather one should read along word by word. [26]
  10. One is allowed to read the Shenayim Mikra along with the Shliach Tzibbur during Torah reading word by word and fulfill one’s obligation. Some say that this is Lechatchila, while others hold that this is only for Shat HaDachak. [27]
  11. Some say that one fulfills his obligation with listening to someone else read Shenayim Mikra. [28]
  12. Lechatchila, one should read a pasuk twice and it’s Targum but if one read the whole parsha then the Targum one has fulfilled his obligation.[29]
  13. One shouldn’t read Targum and then the pasuk twice and not the pasuk, the Targum and then the pasuk, however bedieved if one did the pasuk, Targum and the pasuk he fulfills his obligation.[30]
  14. One should read it with the tune of Torah reading but Targum shouldn’t be read with a tune. One fulfills his obligation bedieved if he read it without a tune[31]
  15. Someone who owns a Sefer Torah and knows how to read it with the tune and pronunciations should read it from a Sefer Torah. If one doesn’t know the correct way to read it well it’s preferable to read it from a Chumash that has Tamim and Nekudot.[32]
  16. Some have the practice to repeat the last pasuk of the parsha an extra two times. [33]
  17. One shouldn’t interrupt when one is reading it rather one should finish it in one standing. If one is very thirsty one can drink with a bracha. [34]

Earliest and lastest time

  1. One can begin to read the weekly Parsha after the congregation (Tzibbur) read the first Aliyah of the Parsha at Mincha on Shabbat. [35]
  2. Some have the practice to do the Shenayim Mikrah on Friday afternoon. [36]
  3. One should finish Shenayim Mikra VeEchad Targum by Shabbat lunch. If one didn’t complete it by then one should finish it by Mincha of Shabbat. If one didn’t complete it by then one can fulfill it until Tuesday night. Some hold one can even complete it by that year’s Shemini Esret. [37]
  4. The Shenayim Mikra VeChad Targum of Parshat Vezot Habracha should be read on Hoshana Rabba. However, if one read it on Shemini Esret one also fulfills the obligation. [38]
  5. Someone for whom it’s difficult to read it on Friday or Shabbat have those to rely to say it Friday night.[39]
  6. If one misses a week one should read the previous Parsha's Shenayim Mikra and then the current weeks Parsha. [40]

References

  1. Brachot 8a records the obligation and tells us that Rabbi Yehoshua Ben Levi commanded his sons to fulfill it, Mechilta Parshat Bo quoted by Shibolei HaLeket 75 and Bet Yosef 285 tells us Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi commanded his sons to fulfill this obligation before Shabbat lunch, Rashbetz (Brachot 8a) this in name of the Yerushalmi, and the Tosfot and Rosh (Brachot 8b) quote a Midrash. Rambam Tefilah 13:25, and S’A 285:1 rule that it is an obligation.
  2. Hagot Maimon (Tefillah 3:24) quotes the Raavan who says that Shenayim Mikra is only an obligation for those who live in villages that don’t have Torah reading on Shabbat, however, the Hagot Maimon argues on the Raavan. The Tur and S”A 285:1 write explicitly that there’s an obligation of Shenayim Mikra even someone who will hear Torah reading. This opinion is unanimously accepted by the Achronim.
  3. Teshuvot HaGeonim 7 in name of Rabbenu Matatya says that even a talmid chacham must complete Shenyaim Mikra VeEchad Targum. Sh”t Rashba 1:206 agrees. This is brought as Halacha in Chazon Ovadya (Shabbat 1 pg 300), Sh”t Igrot Moshe 5:17, Shulchan Lechem HaPanim (Siman 285), and Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 42:57. Bikkurei Chaim (pg 39) writes that those who think that it’s Bitul Torah since they are capable of learning more in-depth should know that by spending more time on Shnayim Mikra they will be rewarded with long life (Brachot 8a).
  4. Sh”t Yechava Daat 2:37
  5. Sh”t Mishna Halachot 6:60.
  6. Sh”t Radvaz 3:425, Kaf HaChaim 285:9-10, Sh”t Mahari Shatif 18.
  7. Sh”t Habit HaYehudi 3:36(15), SH”t Orchot Yosher Y”D 1:28.
  8. S”A 285:6, Mishna Brurah 285:16, Kaf Hachiam 285:32 adds that according Kabbalah it’s better to read it again all together without a break
  9. chot 8a says that one should also read the pesukim of just names such as “Atarot VeDevon”. Rashi explains that the pasuk chosen by the gemara has a targum but isn’t so well know, the targum Yerushalmi. On these pesukim one should still read it twice with targum rather than reading it three times without targum. So writes the Talmedei Rabbenu Yonah, Ravyah (Brachot 22), Mordechai (Brachot 1:17), Tashbetz 184, Orchot Chaim pg 64b:3, Kol Bo 37, and Leket Yosher pg 55. Since nowadays our Targum is the Mechlalta UMalbusta which is a derivative of Targum Yerushalmi one should read the Targum for the third time. so holds the Badei Shulchan 10b:1, Rabbenu BeChay (end of Matot), and Elfasi Zuta (Brachot 8b).
  10. S”A 285:2, Mishna Brurah 285:6 says reading Unkelos is important since it was the targum of Torah given at har Sinai, and Rashi is also important since he includes the comments of Chazal. Sh”T Kinyan Torah 6:146 in name of Meharash that someone who learns Rashi on the Parsha everyweek is deserving of a portion of Olam Haba in Rashi’s Yeshiva. See Sh”t Shelmat Chaim 171.
  11. Maamar Mordechai 61:5 says since it’s recognizable that one is repeating every pasuk it’s not like he is acknowledging two deities (the issue with saying Shema twice usually see S”A 61:9). So holds Sh”t Yam hagadol 3, Badei Shulchan 72:10, Sh”t Avnei Tzedek O”C 9, Divrei Menachem 61:2
  12. S”A 285:7, Mishna Brurah 285:18 and Kaf Hachaim 285: 35 explain that it’s because one is already completing the Torah by doing the weekly parsha. Kaf Hachaim 285:35, Sh”t Igrot Moshe O”C 3:40 extend this any time that’s not the regular weekly parsha.
  13. Kaf Hachaim 285:36, Chida in Moreh Etzbah 4:131-2, Ben Ish Chai Lech Lecha 11
  14. The Arizal (Shaare Kavanot 62a) would read Shnayim Mikra pasuk by pasuk. The Sefer Itim (pg 244), Magan Avraham 285:1, Maharam MeRutenberg (Pesakim VeMinhagim, Mehura HaRav Kahana pg 217), Or HaShabbat (8:41 in name of the Bal Shem Tov), and Chida in Machzik Bracha 285:10 all hold that Shnayim Mikra should be done pasuk by pasuk. Sh”t Shevet HaLevi writes that such was the minhag of the Chafetz Chaim.
  15. The Birur Halacha (Beginning of 285) writes that reading the entire parsha once and then each pasuk followed by it’s Targum, or reading the each pasuk once followed by it’s Targum and then the entire parsha once are both valid options that are halachically the same as the Arizal’s method because the entire issue is reading the Targum close to the pasuk. This is brought by Bikkurei Chaim 3:1.
  16. Kitzur S”A 72:11 writes that one should read each paragraph twice whether it’s patucha or setuma and then the Targum. The Shelah brings the different opinions and writes that he prefers reading one paragraph at a time and then doing the Targum on that. So was the practice of the Gra (HaMaaseh Rav 60).
  17. Aruch HaShulchan 285:7 according to the simple understanding of “completing the parsha twice with Targum” and supports it from Rashi and Or Zaruah. Torat Shabbat 285 writes that such was the minhag of Mahara MeBalaza. Orchot Rabbenu (pg 123) writes in name of the Steipler that there’s no difference between methods 2 and 3. Mishmeret Shalom 24:33 writes that his father and grandfather had the practice to read the Shenayim Mikra from the Torah and since it was difficult to interrupt between each pasuk to read Targum (and then have to find the place again), they read the entire Parsha twice and then Targum.
  18. Talmedei Rabbenu Yonah 4b D”H LeOlam writes that some had the practice to read a little every day and complete it by Shabbat. This is brought as Halacha by the Aruch HaShulchan 285:1
  19. Pri Megadim (M”Z 690:1, Bikkurei Chaim 3:11
  20. S”A HaRav 285:3, Chazon Ovadya (Shabbat 1 pg 301-2), and Dvar Yom BeYomo (Cheshvan) write that Lechatchila one should follow the Arizal to read it pasuk by pasuk, however, there isn’t a lot of time one can follow the other methods.
  21. Aruch HaShulchan 285:7 writes this regarding all three practices, while Mishna Brurah 285:2 writes this regarding the first two practices.
  22. Mishna Brurah 285:6 says one shouldn’t say targum and then the pasuk twice. Seder Hayom (pg 21a) writes that one who reads Shenayim Mikra in this order doesn’t fulfill the obligation.
  23. Kiseh Eliyahu 285:1, Kaf HaChaim 285:6 say one shouldn’t say the pasuk, targum, and then the pasuk. On the other hand, the Levush writes that one is allowed to fulfill one reading of mikra by listening to the Torah reading. The Lechem Chamudot (on Rosh Brachot 41) writes that it’s clear from the Levush that the order Bedieved was to read it once with the pesukim, once with the targum and then again with the pesukim. The Lechem Chamudot is brought as Halacha in Mishna Brurah (Shaare Tzion 285:10), Sh”t Tzitz Eliezer 16:18, Sh”t Beir Moshe 8:3, Sh”t Rivivot Efraim 5:216 all holding that it’s Bedieved. Nonetheless, Shulchan Lechem HaPanim (Vol 5 pg 139), Yesodei Yishurun (Erev Shabbat), Meon Bracha (Brachot 8b; in name of Tosfot Yom Tov) and perhaps Aruch HaShulchan 285:3. The practice of the Chazon Ish (Bekkurei Chaim pg 79) was to read the pasuk, targum, and then pasuk again because he felt that the targum helped him understand the pasuk better the second time.
  24. (a) The Shibolei HaLeket in name of his Rabbi, and Hagot Maimon in name of the Maharam say that one shouldn’t read along with the Torah reading rather one should just listen. This is the opinion of the Magan Avraham 146:5 in name of the Shlah, Kitzur Shlah (pg 81b), Pri Chadash (quoted by Mishna Brurah 146:15), Eliyah Zuta (285:4 in name of Shaar Gedolim), Kaf HaChaim (285:31) in name of Mahara Tuvina, and Gra (Maaseh Rav). (b) On the other hand, the Mordechai (Brachot 19), Hagot Ashurei (Brachot 1:7) in name of Or Zaruah (1:11), Smak 155, Hagot Maimon (Tefillah 12:7) hold that one is allowed to read Shenayim Mikra while the tzibbur is reading the parsha. Accordingly, S”A 285:5 rules that one is allowed to read Shnayim Mikra during Torah reading even if one is reading a section of the parsha that the shaliach isn’t currently reading. The Eliyah Rabba says that one should follow this approach even lechatchila, while the rest of the achronim (including Maamer Mordechai 285:3 and Biur Halacha 285 D”H Yachol) argue that it’s only Bedieved or BeShaat HaDachak. (c) Mishna Brurah 285:14 suggests that one can be lenient to read along with the Shaliach Tzibbur word by word and fulfill one time of Mikra with this. The Levush 285:5 and Perisha 285:1 (explaining the Bet Yosef and Rambam) agree that this is a valid method. This is also the opinion of the Mateh Moshe (quoted by Magan Avraham 146:5) even lechatchila. Similarly, the Orchot Rabbenu (pg 123) in says that the minhag of the Stiepler was to read it once on Friday afternoon and once with the Bal Koreh. However, Sh”t Yechava Daat 2:37 and Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 42:51 writes that only if a person doesn’t have time one is allowed to read it word by word with the Shliach Tzibbur.
  25. Mishna Brurah 285:14 writes that even the stringent opinions about reading the Shenayim along with the Bal Koreh, allow one to read Shenayim Mikra between Aliyot. Orchot Rabbenu (pg 123) writes the minhag of the Stiepler was to read it once on Friday afternoon, once with the Bal Koreh, and the Targum in between aliyot.
  26. The Magan Avraham 285:8, Chaye Adam 7:9, Shulchan HaShabbat 60, Shitilei Zaytim 285:10 write that Bedieved one fulfilled one’s obligation by simply listening to the Bal Koreh. However, the Bet Yosef (D”H Katuv BeHagot) and Rambam (Tefillah 13:25) hold that by listening one doesn’t fulfill his obligation. Therefore, S”A HaRav 285:8 writes that one should rely on this only BeShaat HaDachak. Instead of just listening one is allowed to read along word by word
  27. Perisha writes that by reading the parsha word by word with the Shliach Tzibbur one fulfills one time of reading the parsha. This is brought as Halacha in Aruch HaShulchan 285:3.
  28. Shaarei Teshuva 285:6 quotes the Radvaz who says that listening to someone else read Shenayim Mikra fulfills the obligation if one had kavana for the words.
  29. Chazon Ovadya (Shabbat 1 pg 301-2). Sefer Itim pg 244 says one should read it pasuk by pasuk. Leket yosher pg 54 says if one doesn’t have targum he can read the whole parsha twice and do targum when he finds Targum. Shelah writes that some read it pasuk by pasuk and some read the whole parsha twice and then the Targum and he prefers reading one paragraph at a time and then doing the Targum on that. So was the practice of the Gra (HaMaaseh Rav 60). However the Arizal (Shaare Kavanot 62a) would read it pasuk by pasuk. So holds the Magan Avraham 285:1, Maharam MeRutenberg (Pesakim VeMinahgim, Mehura HaRav Kahana pg 217), Chida in Machzik Bracha 285:10.
  30. Mishna Brurah 285:6 says one shouldn’t say targum and then the pasuk twice. Kiseh Eliyahu 285:1, Kaf HaChaim 285:6 say one shouldn’t say the pasuk, targum, and then the pasuk. However bedieved one fulfills his requirement so holds Shaare Tzion 285:10, Sh”t Tzitz Eliezer 16:18, Sh”t Beir Moshe 8:3, Sh”t Rivivot Efraim 5:216
  31. Sh”t Torah Lishma 406, Kaf Hachaim 132:6, 285:12-13, in 285:4 he writes in name of Maggid Mesharim one should say it slowly and carefully. Sh”t Teshuvot Vehanhagot 2:204 says bedieved one fulfills his obligation.
  32. Chazon Ovadya (Shabbat 1 pg 302-3)
  33. Kaf Hachaim Palagi 27:3, Chida in Morah BeEtzba 4:131
  34. Kaf Hachaim 285:15, Kaf Hachaim Palagi 27:4 hold one shouldn’t even stop for divrei torah, however, Sh”t Divrei Chachamim 27(4) in name of Rav Shlomo Zalman Aurbach that one can interrupt for divrei Torah but it’s better not to interrupt at all.
  35. S”A 285:3 says one can start on Sunday, however, the Mishna Brurah 285:7 and Kaf HaChaim 285:24 explain that this was imprecise and really one is permitted to start once the Tzibbur began reading the Parsha at Shabbat Mincha. See Sh”t Yaskil Avdi O”C 5:39 and Sh”t Asse Lecha Rav 7:16.
  36. Kitzur S”A 72:11. Orchot Rabbenu (pg 123) writes the minhag of the Stiepler was to read it once on Friday afternoon and once with the Bal Koreh.
  37. S”A 285:4. See Kaf Chaim Palagi 27:4, Ben Ish Chai Lech Lecha 14.
  38. The Chida in Birkei Yosef 285:4, Ben Ish Chai (Vezot Habracha 1:15), and Mishna Brurah 285:18 write that while it's preferable to read the Shenayim Mikra of Vezot HaBracha on Hoshana Rabba, it may also be read on Shemini Aseret. The Piskei Teshuvot 285:4 quotes the Sh"t Kaneh Beshem 1:16 who holds that if one read it prior to Hoshana Rabba one hasn't fulfilled his obligation. However, the Dvir Hakadosh (Siman 23(4), pg 124) argues that according to Tosfot one should be able to read it from the first time we read it on Shabbat mincha.
  39. Sh”t Yabe Omer O”C 6:30(5), Sh"t Yitzchak Yiranen 1:29.
  40. Sh”t Bear Moshe 5:79 writes that if one misses a week one should read the previous Parsha's Shenayim Mikra and then the current weeks Parsha. Chazon Ovadyah (Shabbat, vol 1, pg 314) quoted by Daily Halacha (by Rabbi Mansour) agrees. However Sh”t Yitzchak Yiranen 1:32 says one can make up a parsha out of order.