Netilat Yadayim for a Meal
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Revision as of 17:39, 5 November 2012 by Darrensultan
The Beracha for Washing Before eating Bread
- The Beracha is "Baruch Ata Hashem Elokeinu Melech HaOlam Asher Kidshanu B'Mitzvotav V'Tzivanu Al Netilat Yadayim"
Minimum amount of bread to obligate Netilat Yadayim
- If one is going to eat more than a Kebaytzah of bread, one must wash Netilat Yadayim with a Bracha. 
- If one is going to eat less than a Kebaytzah but more than a Kezayit of bread, one should wash without a bracha, however, some Ashkenazim hold that one may wash with a bracha. 
- If one is going to eat less than a Kezayit of bread, some say that doesn't have to wash Netilat Yadayim, while others say that one should wash without a Bracha. It is proper to be strict to wash without a bracha.
Which waters are fit for Netilat Yadayim?
- Waters that changed it’s color are unfit for Netilat Yadayim. The same law applies whether the color changed because something fell in, or because of the container. 
- If dye changed the color of water even if it didn’t dissolve the water is unfit. 
- If dirt fell into water it’s not considered water that changed colors. 
- If water that changed it’s color changed back to it’s normal state it’s considered fit. 
- If one does Tevilat Yadayim in a mikvah, the waters are fit even if the waters changed colors unless dye, red wine, or fruit juice fell in and dissolved. 
Going to the bathroom before a meal
- If one goes to the bathroom and then wants to have a bread meal, according to Ashkenazim, one should wash as one leaves the bathroom however this washing should be done without a kli (straight from sink), (preferably, also rub touch one’s shoe or rub one’s scalp), say Asher Yatzer, and then wash again with a Bracha of Netilat Yadayim. (Ashkenazim have what to rely on to follow the next method of washing). However, according to Sephardim, one should wash once, make the Bracha of Netilat Yadayim, and then make the Hamotzei. 
- If one goes to the bathroom during a meal, one should wash his hands without a Bracha. 
If one forgot to wash or say Al Netilat Yadayim
- If one forgot to wash and one already said HaMotzei and ate a little bit of bread, one should wash Netilat Yadayim with a bracha and then continue to eat without another bracha of HaMotzei.
- S"A 158:2 writes that some say if one eats less than a Kebaytzah of bread one should wash without a bracha. Mishna Brurah 158:9 writes that if one eats the size of a Kebaytzah without the shell it is certainly sufficient to make the bracha of Netilat Yadayim.
- S"A 158:2 writes that some say if one eats less than a Kebaytzah of bread one should wash without a bracha. Mishna Brurah 158:9 explains that some say one only makes the bracha upon a Kebaytzah because Tumah only applies to food the size of a Kebaytzah, whereas others say that one makes the bracha upon a Kezayit because that is considered a significant eating in regards to Birkat HaMazon, so too it should be considered sufficient to obligate Netilat Yadayim with a Bracha. Mishna Brurah concludes that if one ate less than a Kebaytzah but more than a Kezayit one should wash Netilat Yadayim without a bracha. Yalkut Yosef 158:4 agrees. However, Vezot HaBracha chap 2, pg 13 based on Igrot Moshe 4:44 and Rav Elyashiv argues that one may say the bracha of Netilat Yadayim as long as one is going to eat a Kezayit, though he adds that it is preferable to eat a Kebaytzah in order to satisfy all opinions.
- S"A 158:3 writes that some say that one doesn't have to was Netilat Yadayim if one is going to eat less than a Kezayit. Mishna Brurah 158:10 quotes the Taz who agrees with Shulchan Aruch in opposition to the Magen Avraham who says that one should wash without a Bracha. Mishna Brurah concludes that one should be strict for the opinion of the Magen Avraham.
- S”A 160:1 writes that the law of waters that changed it’s color is the same whether the color changed on it’s own, because of something falling in, or because of the container. Mishna Brurah 160:2 writes that the Achronim point out that the S”A merely copied the language of the Tur, however, we hold like the Rambam and so it’s permitted.
- Mishna Brurah 160:2
- Mishna Brurah 160:3
- Mishna Brurah 160:5
- Mishna Brurah 160:4
- S”A 165:1 writes that for someone who’s leaving a bathroom and wants to have a bread meal should either wash twice, washing once, making Asher Yatzer, and then washing with a Bracha or to wash once, make a Bracha Asher Yatzer, and then Al Netilat Yadayim. Mishna Brurah 165:2-3 writes that it’s preferable to do the first practice in S”A, but adds that one should make sure that the first washing isn’t a complete washing, otherwise, there’s no need for the second washing.
- Halichot Shlomo 26:26 writes that Rav Shlomo Zalman’s minhag was to wash without a kli.
- Rav Moshe Shternbuch writes In Teshuvot Vihanhagot 1:168 that the best thing to do is to wash properly and say Al Netilas Yadayim, then after drying your hands say Asher Yatzer before hamotzei. Rav Shternbuch adds that his Rebbi, Rav Moshe Schneider witnessed the Chofetz Chaim wash his hands only once and say Al Netilat Yadayim and then say Asher Yatzer after drying his hands, not in accordance with what is written in the Mishna Berura and adds that the Chazon Ish did it this way as well.
- Kesot HaShulchan 33:14 suggests another way to make the first washing not considered effective for eating bread and that’s to wash one hand, touch it with the other, wash the other hand and touch it with the other again.
- Magan Avraham writes that if one doesn’t usually touch one’s shoe or rub one’s scalp before washing it’s improper since it’s a way of causing oneself to make an unnecessary Bracha, the Ben Ish Chai (Shemini 9) and Kaf HaChaim 165:4 hold that it’s justified and so writes the Piskei Teshuvot 165:1.
- S”A 164:2 writes that if during a meal, one accidentally touched an area on the body that’s usually covered or rubbed his scalp one needs to make a new Bracha. The Maharshal argues on S”A and holds that no new Bracha is needed. The Taz, Pri Megadim, Derech Chaim, Magan Giborim agree with the Maharshal, while Mamer Mordechai, Mateh Yehuda, Bigdei Yesha, Bet Meir, (Nahar Shalom, Chemed Moshe 170) agree with S”A. Even though the Mishna Brurah 164:13 makes a compromise and writes that after going to the bathroom, touching a area of the body that’s dirty, or making a long interruption by walking, one needs to wash with a Bracha, since many achronim argue (S”A HaRav 164:2, Ben Ish Chai Kodshim 21, Kaf HaChaim 164:16, Kitzur S”A 40:16) one shouldn’t make the Bracha. Piskei Teshuvot 164:5 writes that the minhag of the world is not to make a new Bracha.
- Rivevot Efraim 1:129, Igrot Moshe 2:53