Making One Hundred Brachot Daily
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There is an obligation to recite 100 Berachot every day. Although one easily fulfills this on a regular weekday, it can be particularly challenging on Shabbat and especially on Yom Kippur, so it's important to know the Halachot and be conscious of methods to fulfill this obligation. The purpose is to inspire a person to consider the awe of heaven many times a day. It is considered a merit to prevent a plague and is it commensurate to the mitzvah of saying Modim properly.
Origin of the Obligation
One is obligated to recite 100 Berachot a day.
- Some hold that this law is a biblical obligation, while others hold it's of rabbinic origin.
- There are several sources and reasons given for this law including:
- David Hamelech made an institution to say 100 berachot a day to stop the plague that was killing a 100 people every day.
- The Gematria of each letter of צדיק/tzaddik - 90 / צ amen's a day, 4 / ד Kedushos a day, 10 / י amen yehiy shemei rabba's, and 100 / ק berachot a day.
- Corresponding to the one hundred sockets of the mishkan.
- The gemara (Menachot 43b) learns from the Pasuk (Devarim 10:12) "וְעַתָּה֙ יִשְׂרָאֵ֔ל מָ֚ה ה' אֱלֹקיךָ שֹׁאֵ֖ל מֵֽעִמָּ֑ךְ כִּ֣י אִם־לְ֠יִרְאָה" and says that we shouldn't read it as "מה" (what) but instead "me'ah" (100).  The exposition may be based on the fact that the verse has 100 letters or because Mah in gematria using At-Bash is 100.
- Moshe received it as a Halacha LeMoshe MeSinai
- The pasuk says "Ki Ken Yivorach Gaver" (Tehillim 128:4) and since "Ki Ken" has the gematria of 100, the pasuk can be read to say that a person blesses 100 times a day.
- The 100 berachot protect from the 98 curses in Parashat Ki Tavo in addition to כל חולי and כל מכה. 
- Some poskim say that women aren't obligated in making a hundred brachot daily,  while others say that they are as obligated as men. 
Practically How to Get to 100
Here's a basic breakdown of how you might say 100 berachot in a day:
- Hamapil (1)
- Shacharit (48)
- Mincha (19)
- Shmoneh Esrei (19)
- Mariv (24)
- Hamotzi meal (6)
- Al netilat yadayim (1)
- Hamotzi (1)
- Birkat hamazon (4)
- 2 of your choice
How is a Day Counted?
- There is a dispute whether we count a day for the purposes of this halacha starting from the night or starting from the day. The majority of poskim hold that the count of a hundred Brachot starts at night. If one brought shabbat in early, prays Arvit early, or prays Mincha after Shekia, there is a discussion among the poskim for which day the berachot count.
What Counts as a Bracha?
- Some say that answering Zimmun is considered one of a person’s hundred Brachot every day. 
- Although some argue that the paragraph of אין כאלוקינו counts as 12 berachot , that אמת ויציב... should count as 36 , that the 15 Shir Hamaalot in Tehillim count as 15,, and that Modim should count as 100 since the gematria is 100  this should not be relied upon ideally 
- Because we don't say a Shmoneh Esrei of 19 brachot but rather of 7, one should try to accumulate a hundred through having snacks.
- According to the Mishna Brurah one is only lacking 13 Brachot on Shabbat.  The following is the Mishna Brurah's count of 87 Brachot:
- HaMapil (1)
- Asher yatzer (1)
- Netilat yadayim (1)
- Brachot Hashachar (15)
- Elokai Nishama (1)
- Brachot Hatorah (3)
- Baruch SheAmer (1)
- Yishtabach (1)
- Tzitzit or Tallit (1)
- Brachot Kriyat Shema of Shacharit (3)
- 2 before Shema
- 1 after Shema
- Brachot Kriyat Shema of Maariv (4)
- 2 before Shema
- 2 after Shema
- Shmoneh Esrei (28)
- 3 Meals with Benching on wine (24) each one including
- Kiddish (3)
- at night, HaMekadesh HaShabbat and HaGafen (2)
- during the day, HaGafen (1)
- If one is unable to accumulate a hundred brachot on Shabbat or Yom Tov one can listen to the brachot of Torah reading with intent to accumulate a hundred brachot. There is a dispute in this case when one is listening to the brachot in order to fulfill 100 brachot if one should answer baruch hu ubaruch shemo. Many hold that it is better not to say it.
- For the laws of making one hundred Brachot on Yom Kippur see the Yom Kippur page.
Making an Unnecessary Beracha
- Some say that one cannot recite a Beracha She'einah Tzerichah to reach the 100 brachot, while others argue that it is permissible. 
Is Intent (Kavanah) required?
- Some hold that no specific intent is required when saying brachot in order to fulfill the mitzvah of making a hundred brachot. However, one must make sure to make the bracha with the proper Kavana of the words or at least intent that one is speaking before Hashem in order that one fulfill the mitzvah of a hundred brachot. 
- Article on The Obligation to Recite One Hundred Berachot Each Day by Rabbi Josh Flug
- Saying 100 Berachos Every Day by Rabbi Aryeh Lebowitz
- Tur Orach Chaim 46. See Ben Ish Chai (I Balak Introduction).
- Or Gedalyahu Tzav citing Daat Zekenim
- Gemara Menachot 43b, Rambam Hilchot Tefilla 7:14, Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 46:3, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 6:7, Yalkut Yosef Orach Chaim 46:3, Sh"t Betzel Hachochma 4:155, Sh"t Binyan Av 3:1, Emet Lyakov Devarim 10:12, Sh"t Ateret Paz 1:1. See Aishel Avraham Siman 46 who says that one should try to recite more than 100 berachot in fulfillment of the Pasuk in Tehillim (71:14): ואני תמיד איחל, והוספתי על כל תהלתך.
- See Sh"t Atret Paz 1:1 at length. The Chida (Machzik Bracha 290:1) writes that going out of the way to complete a hundred Brachot daily is only a virtuous practice.
However, the Petach Dvir 290:3, Sdei Chemed (Chet 34), Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 6:7, Yabia Omer 10 OC 7, and Sh"t Atret Paz 1:1 write that it’s a complete obligation. [Chazon Ovadyah (Shabbat vol 2 pg 339) writes that even the Chida may mean that it’s only virtuous to go out of the way to make the Bracha oneself but accumulating a hundred (including Brachot one listens to such as the Brachot of Torah reading) is an obligation.] Tur 46 also says this obligation is also rabbinic and the pasuk brought in menachot 43b is an asmachta. The Arizal in Shaar Ruach Hakodesh 4a says that there is a level in blessing in heaven that the only way to get to it is saying 100 berachot each day. Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 6:7 writes that a person is obligated to make a hundred brachot daily. Kitzur Shulchan Aruch of Rav Mordechai Eliyahu 6:7 concurs.
Rambam (Sefer Hamitzvot Shoresh 1) quotes the opinion of the Behag that one of the 613 mitzvot is to make 100 berachot daily. However, see Sdei Chemed Maarechet 8: Klal 34 who discusses if indeed the Behag holds that this is a mitzva from the Torah or only Rabbinic. see also Sefer Hamanhig pg. 6 who says that it is in fact biblical but they forgot and Dovid re-instituted it later.
- Bamidbar Rabba Parasha 18, Tur Orach Chaim 46 quoting Rabbi Natronai Gaon, Daat Zekenim MeBaalei Tosfot (Devarim 10:12), Shibbolei Haleket 1 in the name of Rabbenu Shlomo, Hamanhig Tefilla p. 28
- The Reishit Chachma (Shaar HaKedusha ch. 17 s.v. BePrat) writes that the letters of Tzaddik are a hint to saying 90 amens, 4 Kedushot, 100 Brachot, 10 Kadishim. Part of this hint, the Reishit Chachma derives from the Zohar (Tikkunim page 29).
- The Baal HaTurim (Shemot 38:27) writes that the institution of reciting 100 brachot each day corresponds to the 100 sockets of the Mishkan.
- Rashi Menachot 43b
- Tosafot Menachot 43b "shoel" suggest that it is because the verse has 100 letters.
- Daat Zekenim MeBaalei HaTosfot (Devarim 10:12), Baal HaTurim (Devarim 10:12). See further in the Baal HaTurim who says that it can be based on the gematria of ממך being 100 (but requires further explanation).
- See Sh"t Yosef Ometz 50 in name of Sefer Charedim, Sh"t Atret Paz 1:1 quotes this and discusses whether it is on a deoraitta obligation
- Daat Zekenim MeBaalei HaTosfot (Devarim 10:12)
- Chida in Kesher Gadol 5:32 and Machazik Beracha 46:2
- Sh”t Teshuvot VeHanhagot 2:129, Sh”t Shevet HaKehati 3:63, Birkat Eitan (pg. 146), Vezot HaBracha (pg 185, chapter 20), Sh”t Ateret Paz 1:1, Shevet HaLevi 5:23, and Sh”t Rivevot Efraim 3:47, 5:114 write that women are exempt from making one hundred brachot each day. Halichot Bat Yisrael (14:47 p. 183) writes that women aren't obligated since they're not obligated in all the same brachot as men. His proof is that the poskim starting with the Bet Yosef 46:3 who counted the amount of brachot never counted how women would get to a hundred brachot. He cites the Shevet Halevi 5:23 who agrees. The Ateret Paz 1:1 agrees for the same reason. He also proves it from the Rambam Tefillah 7:15 who counts a hundred brachot for men and not women. Halichot Bayta 13:1 writes that some say women are exempt. In fnt. 2 he cites Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach that it is reasonable that originally women were never obligated since on a fast day it isn't possible for them to do it since they can't put on Tefillin or Tzitzit.
- Rav Elyashiv in Yashiv Moshe (pg 19), Birkat Eitan (pg 141), Rav Hershel Schachter in a shiur on yutorah.org ("Women at Prayer" min 28), Chacham Ovadyah in Halichot Olam (vol 1 pg 59), Halacha Brurah 46:8, and Yalkut Yosef (Otzar Dinim LeIsha 6:1 pg 75) write that women are obligated since it’s a obligation that applies the whole day and is renewed every day similar to the Shagat Aryeh regarding Zecher Yetziat Mitzrayim in Shema. Yalkut Yosef (Otzar Dinim LeIsha 6:1 pg 75) cites some who say that after the fact women can fulfill their obligation with praises of Hashem or by answering Amen to the brachot of others. See Contemporary Questions In Halacha and Hashkafa pg. 106 where he quotes opinions on both sides as well.
- Magen Avraham 46:8, Mishna Brurah 46:14
- Sh"t Atret Paz 1:1 writes that it seems from most rishonim that we count from the day to the night. However, he writes that it seems from Bet Yosef (46 s.v. “Ditanya”) and Mishna Brurah 46:14 that we count from the night to the day based on the fact that they begin their count of the brachot from HaMapil. Additionally, Sh"t Betzel Chachmah 4:155 proved from the poskim's counting of the brachot on Shabbat that we count from the nighttime. This is also the opinion of Yalkut Yosef 46:3.
- Sefer Ha'itim 195 says that the count starts from the morning and finishes the next morning. But he then quotes some who say it is from night to night and he likes that opinion. Torat Chaim Sofer 46:10 writes that if he weren't afraid of the earlier poskim who said it is calculated from night to night he would have thought that the hundred brachot are counted from day to day just like Tefillot are organized starting with Shacharit by day. This view is roundly rejected in Yabia Omer 8 OC 23:24.
- Rav Mordechai Eliyahu (quoted in Mikraei Kodesh Hilchot Yom Kippur 12:5:note 58) holds that one only has the hours of daylight to reach 100 brachot, from the simple meaning of the word “yom.”
- Rabbi Shimon Sofer in Hitorerut Teshuva 3:502 says that the berachot count for the count of shabbat, while Sh"t Bitzel Hachochma 4:155 says they count for the previous day. According to Rav Stern in Bitzel Hachochma, one would need to make up all berachot recited before shabbat started, including the 7 of the shemoneh esrei and 4 of kriat shema, and if he starts the meal then those berachot as well. This is also the view of Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach (Minchat Shlomo 2:4:27), who writes that
Chacham Ovadia Yosef (Yabia Omer 10 OC 7, Chazon Ovadia Shabbat vol. 2 pg. 337 and Halichot Olam 1:pg. 59) argues with this whole approach and says that it all depends on each individual's starting and ending the day. Therefore, the birkat hamazon of seudat shlishit counts for Shabbat even if one recites it after Shabbat is over. Shevet Halevi 5:23 and Yalkut Yosef 46:3:4 agree.
- Sefer Keysad Mezamnin 1:22
- Shibbolei Haleket Siman 230. Manhig Tefilah p. 31 writes that in France the minhag was to recite Ein Kelokenu on Shabbat in order to get 12 more brachot and he dismisses it since they aren't real brachot with Shem Umalchut. Taz 642:3 says that this is the reason we recite that paragraph on Shabbat, so that we can get extra berachot
- Yafeh Lalev OC 2:290
- Divrei Menachem Siman 46
- Kaf Hachaim Palachi 15:37
- Yalkut Yosef 46:3:6
- Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 290:1.
- Mishna Brurah 46:14
- Tur, Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 284:3 say one can do this, but the Magen Avraham 46:8 writes that one should only rely on accumulating a hundred Brachot using Brachot that one heard from the Brachot on Torah reading if one is unable to make the Brachot oneself by eating snacks. This is also the opinion of the Shulchan Aruch HaRav Orach Chaim 46, and Mishna Brurah 46:14. Pri Megadim (Mishbetzot Zahav 124:4 says that in this situation answering Amen would be required to fulfill one's obligation. See Sh"t Yabia Omer 8:23:24.
- Otzrot Hahalacha v. 5 p. 86 quotes Vezot Hatorah p. 385 that one should answer baruch hu ubaruch shemo even if he has in mind to listen to that bracha and count it towards his 100 brachot. Dor Hamelaktim Shabbat v. 2 p. 951 quotes Elef Hamagen (622:6), Menuchat Ahava 1:8:15, Mitzvat Hameya Brachot Khilchata 2:3:8, Moriya v. 140 p. 179, and Zechur Lavraham 5764 p. 422 as holding that it is fine to answer baruch hu ubaruch shemo when you're listening to fulfill the mitzvah of 100 brachot. However, they quote Rav Moshe Feinstein (Shirat Shlomo Kuntres Tefila Lmoshe n. 97), Rav Chaim Kanievsky (Rivon Kriyat Sefer v. 39 p. 2), and Rav Nevinsal (Yerushalayim Bmoadeha Shabbat v. 2 p. 184) who hold that it is better not to answer baruch hu ubaruch shemo when listening to fulfill 100 brachot.
- Magen Avraham 46:8 based on gemara in Yoma 70a which prohibits the recitation of unnecessary brachot.
- Yabia Omer (vol. 8 OC 23), Yechaveh Daat 6:26, Chazon Ovadia (Berachot page 8), Yalkut Yosef (Pesukei DeZimrah p. 53) says that if fruits were brought to the table before Birkat Hamazon one is allowed to push off making the bracha until after Birkat Hamazon to reach 100 brachot. Sh”t Mishneh Halachot 15:60 also rules that this is not considered bracha sheayna tzricha since you are creating the obligation to recite it in order to fulfill the mitzva of reciting 100 berachot. Magen Avraham 215:6 holds that you can only wait to eat the fruit for dessert if they have not been brought to the table yet. See Yabia Omer 9 OC 27:2 and Chazon Ovadia (Shabbat vol. 2 page 226)
- Rabbi Dovid Aharon Brizman (Av Bet Din Philadelphia) in Vol. 59 No. 1 Tishrei 5766 pg 4-5 writes that since the entire mitzvah of making a hundred brachot is meant to inspire Yirat Hashem one doesn't need specific intent to fulfill the mitzvah and making the brachot with Kavanah is sufficient. However, he does quote the Yaavetz and Seder HaYom who hold that a bracha without intent doesn't count for this mitzvah. Nonetheless, he suggests that perhaps intent that one is speaking before Hashem suffices (like the Grach in Hilchot Tefillah).