Order of Brachot

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If one has two foods of the same brachos chazal established that a person should make the bracha on the halachically important food as will be discussed in this article and exempt the other. Similarly, if one has two or more foods of different brachos there is an order for which the brachos should be made. [1]

Foods of different Brachot

  1. If one has two foods of different Berachot, the order of the Berachot is as follows: HaMotzei, Mezonot (there’s a dispute whether this includes rice), HaGefen, HaEtz, HaAdama, and Shehakol. (The acronym to remember this is Maga Esh (מג"ע א"ש). This order doesn’t change even if one of the foods is from the Shivat HaMinim or one of the foods is preferred to the person making the Beracha. According to Sephardim, HaGefen doesn’t precede olives or dates. [2]
  2. This order doesn’t change even if one of the foods is from the Shevat HaMinim and even if one of the foods is preferred (desired). [3]

HaEtz and HaAdama

  1. However, if one has before him a HaEtz food and a HaAdama food, the usually preferred one takes precedence. If they’re equal in that regard, then precedence is given to the presently preferred food. If both are preferred then Shivat HaMinim takes precedence (according to the above order). If neither are Shivat HaMinim and are equally preferred, then HaEtz takes precedence over HaAdama. [4]
  2. When any of the five grains are cooked into mezonot dishes they take precedence over the Shivat HaMinim because the Bracha of Mezonot precedes HaEtz. Conversely, if the five grains are eaten raw, the Bracha is HaAdama and it the Shivat HaMinim being HaEtz take precedence to the HaAdama. [5]

After the fact

  1. If one made the Brachot in the wrong order, after the fact, both Brachot are valid. [6]

Foods of the same Brachot

  1. If two foods have the same Bracha, then one should make the Bracha on the food that is: Shevat HaMinim, if neither are Shevat HaMinim, then one should make the Bracha on the food that’s complete, if neither are complete, then one should make the Bracha on the preferred food. [7]

Types of bread

  1. If there’s two types of bread (which are both Hamotzei) the order of precedence depends on the grain with which it was made: 1)wheat 2)barley 3)spelt 4)rye and oats. [8]
  2. If both breads are of the same grain, preference is given to the whole roll (as opposed to sliced, broken, or ripped). [9]
  3. If both breads are of the same grain and both are either whole or both are sliced, precedence is given to better quality bread. If all the above is the same, then the larger bread has precedence. Lastly, if all the above is the same, then the preferred bread has precedence. [10]

Shivat HaMinim

  1. The order of having the Shivat HaMinim is 1)Olives 2)Dates 3)Grapes 4) Figs 5)Pomegranates. When any of the five grains are cooked into mezonot dishes they take precendance over the Shivat HaMinim because the Bracha of Mezonot precedes HaEtz. Conversely, if the five grains are eaten raw, the Bracha is HaAdama and it the Shivat HaMinim being HaEtz take precedence to the HaAdama. [11]
  2. In the absence of when there’s no Shevat HaMinim or complete food, then the preferred food is used for the Bracha. This applies if it’s both the food that’s usually and presently preferred. However, if one food is usually more preferred and one that’s presently more preferred, one should make the Bracha on the one that’s regularly more preferred and then immediately have the one that’s presently preferred. [12] If one usually likes both equally, then the one that’s preferred at the moment takes precedence. [13]

After the fact

  1. If one had two foods with the same Bracha, and one didn’t give priority to the ‘halachically preferred’ food, after the fact, no new Bracha is needed if one later eats the ‘halachically preferred’ food as long as one had that food in mind at the time of the Bracha. If one didn’t have the ‘halachically preferred’ food in mind while making the Bracha and one already finished eating the first food, another Bracha is required on the ‘halachically preferred’ food. [14]
  2. Even though the halacha is that Shivat HaMinim is considered ‘halachically preferred’ over a food that’s desired, if one had the food that one desires, since some opinions hold that the food that’s desired is considered ‘halachically preferred’ no new Bracha is needed. [15]
    1. For example, if one had apples and grapes on the table and really one should have made the Bracha on the grapes first, however, if one made the Bracha on the HaEtz first, then another Bracha will be needed for the grapes only under three conditions
      1. one finished eating the apples
      2. the apples weren’t your preference and
      3. one didn’t have explicit intent for the Bracha to cover the grapes. [16]

Exceptions to the rule

  1. When there’s a dispute about the Bracha of a food, one should make the Bracha on that one first in order that one doesn’t fulfill their obligation with another food. For example, one should make the Shehakol on orange juice before HaEtz on an orange, since once an HaEtz was made on the orange, some say that the juice was covered, and one wouldn’t be able to make another Bracha. Additionally, one should make Shehakol on chocolate before making HaEtz on a fruit. [17]
  2. There’s only an issue of putting the more important food earlier if one wants to eat both foods. [18]

Bracha Achrona

  1. The order of different Brachot Achrona’s is Al HaMichya and then Boreh Nefashot. [19]

Reference

  1. Vezot HaBracha (pg 124)
    • Tosfot Berachot 41a s.v. Aval infers from the Gemara 39a that HaAdama take precedence over Shehakol because it is more specific. S”A 211:3 rules that HaEtz and HaAdama precede Shehakol, and some say that HaEtz also precedes HaAdama (the Mishna Brurah 211:18 accepts this as halacha (see #3).) Similarly, Rama 211:4, 5 writes that the order the brachot which are more specific are HaMotzei, Mezonot, HaGefen and HaGefen precedes the other Shivat HaMinim. However, Rav Ovadyah in Chazon Ovadyah (pg 276-7) and Yalkut Yosef 211:3 rules like the Bet Yosef, that wine does not precede dates or olives, against the Ben Ish Chai (Matot #1), who rules like the Rama.
    • Mishna Brurah 211:35 summarizes the order as follows: HaMotzei, Mezonot, Hagafen, HaEtz, HaAdama, and Shehakol. Vezot HaBracha (pg 125) writes that even rice precedes Hagefen. However, Pri Megadim (A”A 211:13(2)) and Kaf HaChaim 211:27 argue that rice doesn’t precede Hagefen.
  2. Mishna Brurah 211:35
    • The Rosh explains Ulla (see #1) to mean that when one has foods of two different brachot one may make either bracha first and there’s no preference at all. However, Tosfot 41a s.v. Aval holds that if the brachot are different even Rabbi Yehuda agrees that one should give precedence to the preferred food.
    • Beiur Halacha 211:1 s.v. VeYesh points out that seemingly in the rishonim many hold like the second opinion including Rav Hai Goen, Rabbenu Chananel, Rif, Tosfot, Rabbenu Yonah, and Rashba as opposed to the first opinion which is only the Rosh and Ravyah. Mishna Brurah 211:9 writes that the halacha follows Tosfot to which most rishonim agree.
    • S”A 211:3 writes that if one has a HaEtz or HaAdama food one may make either one first and some say that HaEtz takes precedence. Mishna Brurah 211:18 writes that we are strict for the second opinion; yet, the concern of preference and afterwards Shivat HaMinim override this concern. Therefore, Mishna Brurah 211:18 rules that HaAdama on roasted wheat precedes HaEtz for an apple. Mishna Brurah 211:35 summarizes this and that is the basis for the halacha written above. Yalkut Yosef 211:5 seems to agree.
    • The Rosh 6:25 explains preferred as the food which is usually preferred, whereas the Rambam 8:13 explains that it’s the food which is presently preferred. Mishna Brurah 211:35 writes that Ashkenazim follow the Rosh unless the foods are equal in that regard in which case the one which is presently preferred takes precedence. Even though Kaf HaChaim 211:8 seems to hold like the Rambam, Halacha Brurah 211:5 and Birkat Hashem (vol 3, 3:8) rule like the Rosh because that’s the implication of S”A.
  3. S”A 211:4 says that the order of the SHivat haMinim is according to the proximity each food has to the word “Eretz” in the פסוק “ארץ חטה ושערה וגפן ותאנה ורמון ארץ זית שמן ודבש:” (Devarim 8:8). The order is judged by proximity (reading the פסוק in the forward direction) to either word Eretz, and the first Eretz has precedence. Seemingly then the order should be1)Wheat (first to the first Eretz) 2) Olives (first to the second Eretz) 3)Barley (second to the first Eretz) 4)Dates(second to second Eretz) 5)Grapes (third to first Eretz) 6)Figs (fourth to first Eretz) 7)Pomegranates (fifth to first Eretz). However, the Mishna Brurah 211:25 concludes that barley (when cooked into a dish) precedes olives since Mezonot always precedes HaEtz. Additionally, S”A 211:5 writes that wheat and barley only take precedence when they are cooked into a Mezonot dish, as opposed to when they are eaten raw and require HaAdama. [This is also the opinion of Halachos of Brochos (VeTen Bracha by Rabi Bodner pg 168).] Mishna Brurah 211:27 rules that if one does eat wheat or other grains raw, since they are HaAdama it comes after the other Shivat HaMinim which are HaEtz unless the raw grain is one’s personal preference (like any HaAdama and HaEtz).
  4. VeTen Bracha (Halachos of Brochos by Rabbi Bodner, chapter 11, pg 182)
  5. S”A 211:1 brings two opinions; the first opinion (Behag) is that when there’s two foods which have the same Bracha, if one is the Shivat HaMinim, one should make the Bracha on the Shivat HaMinim. However, the second opinion (Rambam) holds that we go by whichever food is more preferred. Mishna Brurah 211:13 writes that it’s implied from S”A that halacha accords with the first opinion which was brought as an anonymous opinion as opposed to the second which was brought as a minority opinion. S”A 168:1 writes that a food bring whole is more significant to being preferable. Veten Bracha (Halachos of Brochos by Rabbi Bodner pg 167-170, chapter 11) brings these three (Shivat Haminim, complete, and preferred) criteria in this order.
  6. Veten Bracha (Halachos of Brochos by Rabbi Bodner pg 172, chapter 11)
  7. Veten Bracha (Halachos of Brochos by Rabbi Bodner pg 172, chapter 11)
  8. Veten Bracha (Halachos of Brochos by Rabbi Bodner pg 172-3, chapter 11)
  9. S”A 211:4 says that the order of the SHivat haMinim is according to the proximity each food has to the word “Eretz” in the פסוק “ארץ חטה ושערה וגפן ותאנה ורמון ארץ זית שמן ודבש:” (Devarim 8:8). The order is judged by proximity (reading the פסוק in the forward direction) to either word Eretz, and the first Eretz has precedence. Seemingly then the order should be1)Wheat (first to the first Eretz) 2) Olives (first to the second Eretz) 3)Barley (second to the first Eretz) 4)Dates(second to second Eretz) 5)Grapes (third to first Eretz) 6)Figs (fourth to first Eretz) 7)Pomegranates (fifth to first Eretz). However, the Mishna Brurah 211:25 concludes that barley (when cooked into a dish) precedes olives since Mezonot always precedes HaEtz. Additionally, S”A 211:5 writes that wheat and barley only take precedence when they are cooked into a Mezonot dish, as opposed to when they are eaten raw and require HaAdama. Mishna Brurah 211:27 rules that if one does eat wheat or other grains raw, since they are HaAdama it comes after the other Shivat HaMinim which are HaEtz unless the raw grain is one’s personal preference (like any HaAdama and HaEtz).
  10. Mishna Brurah 211:10
  11. Mishna Brurah 211:35, Veten Bracha (Halachos of Brochos by Rabbi Bodner pg 170-1, chapter 11)
  12. Rama 211:5. Mishna Brurah 211:32 emphasizes that one needs explicit intent to cover the other food as opposed to when you made the Bracha on the correct food. Mishna Brurah 211:32 mentions that according to some achronim if one was still eating the ‘non-halachically preferred’ food, no new Bracha is needed for the ‘halachically preferred’ food.
  13. Mishna Brurah 211:33 adds that no new Bracha will be needed if the food one had first was one’s personal preference even if the ‘halachically preferred’ food is one of the Shivat HaMinim.
  14. Veten Bracha (Halachos of Brochos by Rabbi Bodner, chapter 11, pg 182), based on Mishna Brurah 211:32, 33
  15. Vezot HaBracha (pg 127)
  16. Rama 168:1, Veten Bracha (Halachos of Brochos by Rabbi Bodner pg 180, chapter 11)
  17. Veten Bracha (Halachos of Brochos by Rabbi Bodner pg 179, chapter 11)