Difference between revisions of "Yom Kippur"

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# It is a mitzvah to eat and drink on Erev Yom Kippur and one should even lessen one's learning and work in order to eat more on Erev Yom Kippur. <ref>S"A 604:1, Yalkut Yosef (Kitzur S"A 604:1) </ref>It is forbidden to forbidden to fast on Erev Yom Kippur. <ref>Rama 604:1 </ref>
 
# It is a mitzvah to eat and drink on Erev Yom Kippur and one should even lessen one's learning and work in order to eat more on Erev Yom Kippur. <ref>S"A 604:1, Yalkut Yosef (Kitzur S"A 604:1) </ref>It is forbidden to forbidden to fast on Erev Yom Kippur. <ref>Rama 604:1 </ref>
 
# This mitzvah primarily applies during the day of Erev Yom Kippur and not the night of Erev Yom Kippur. <ref>Yalkut Yosef (Kitzur S"A 604:2) </ref>
 
# This mitzvah primarily applies during the day of Erev Yom Kippur and not the night of Erev Yom Kippur. <ref>Yalkut Yosef (Kitzur S"A 604:2) </ref>
# Preferably one should amke at least one bread meal on Erev Yom Kippur. <ref>Yalkut Yosef (Kitzur S"A 604:3) </ref>
+
# Preferably one should eat at least one bread meal on Erev Yom Kippur. <ref>Yalkut Yosef (Kitzur S"A 604:3) </ref>
 
# This mitzvah to eat on Erev Yom Kippur applies to women also. <Ref>Yalkut Yosef (Moadim pg 74) </ref>
 
# This mitzvah to eat on Erev Yom Kippur applies to women also. <Ref>Yalkut Yosef (Moadim pg 74) </ref>
 
===Prayers===
 
===Prayers===
 
# There's is no Tachanun on Erev Yom Kippur. <ref>S"A 604:2. Kaf HaChaim 604:18 points out that one does say Tachanun at Mincha before Erev Yom Kippur. </ref>
 
# There's is no Tachanun on Erev Yom Kippur. <ref>S"A 604:2. Kaf HaChaim 604:18 points out that one does say Tachanun at Mincha before Erev Yom Kippur. </ref>
 
===Kaparot===
 
===Kaparot===
# There is an old minhag (tradition) to do Kapparot during the Aseret Yamei Teshuva (ten days of Repentance) and preferably it should be done on Erev Yom Kippur in the morning. <ref>Rama 605:1 writes that it is an old minhag to do Kapparot on Erev Yom Kippur. Mishna Brurah 605:2 comments that if there's a concern that having everyone do Kapparot on Erev Yom Kippur in the morning won't give the Shochet enough time to do a proper slaughtering on all the chickens one should do Kapparot a day or two earlier because the entire period of Aseret Yamei Teshuva is a time of atonement. Therefore, Natai Gavriel 10:1 writes that it should be done during Aseret Yomei Teshuva and preferably on Erev Yom Kippur in the morning. </ref>
+
# There is an old minhag (tradition) among Sephardim and Ashkenazim <ref>S"A 605:1 writes that one should prevent the minhag to do Kapparot on Erev Yom Kippur. Mishna Brurah 605:1 explains that the reason for this opinion is that it looks like Darkei Amori (superstitious pagan practice). However, the Rama 605:1 writes that it's an old minhag and one shouldn't stop from keeping the minhag. Mishna Brurah 605:2 explains that the minhag is justified because it's similar to a korban and it's as though the punishment one deserves is taking place on the chicken. Yalkut Yosef (Moadim pg 75) and Sh"T Yabea Omer 2:71 writes that this practice is the minhag of all of klal yisrael and it should not be stopped. </ref> to do Kapparot during the Aseret Yamei Teshuva (ten days of Repentance) and preferably it should be done on Erev Yom Kippur in the morning. <ref>Rama 605:1 writes that it is an old minhag to do Kapparot on Erev Yom Kippur. Mishna Brurah 605:2 comments that if there's a concern that having everyone do Kapparot on Erev Yom Kippur in the morning won't give the Shochet enough time to do a proper slaughtering on all the chickens one should do Kapparot a day or two earlier because the entire period of Aseret Yamei Teshuva is a time of atonement. Therefore, Natai Gavriel 10:1 writes that it should be done during Aseret Yomei Teshuva and preferably on Erev Yom Kippur in the morning. </ref> If one didn't do it before Yom Kippur one may do it on Hoshana Rabba. <ref>Natai Gavriel 10:7 </ref>
 +
# One should take a male chicken for a male, female chicken for a female, and both a female and male chicken for a pregnant woman. Some take two female chickens and one male chicken for a pregnant woman. <ref>Rama 605:1, Mishna Brurah 605:3, Natai Gavriel 10:2 </ref>
 +
## A pregnant woman within 40 days of the pregnancy doesn't need to take a second chicken for Kapparot. <ref>Natai Gavriel 10:3 </ref>
 +
## A pregnant woman does not need to pick up all the chickens at once but it's sufficient to pick them up one at a time. <ref>Natai Gavriel 10:4 </ref>
 +
# If one is poor one may use a single chicken for the whole family. <Ref>Mishna Brurah 605:3, Natai Gavriel 10:16 </ref>
 +
# When one takes the chicken and circles it around one's head one should say זה חליפתי תמורתי כפרתי. <ref>Mishna Brurah 605:3 </ref>
 +
# If one can't get a chicken one should take a goose or other animal which isn't fit for a korban. Some say one may even take a live fish. <ref>Mishna Brurah 605:4, Natai Gavriel 10:17,19 </ref>
 +
# If one can't even do that then one should take money and circle it around one's head say זה חליפתי תמורתי כפרתי and give it to Tzedaka. <ref>Natai Gavriel 10:17. Similarly, Mishna Brurah 605:1 writes that if there's a concern that there'll be too many chickens for the shochet to slaughter properly one may do Kapparot early or take money, circle it around your head, and give it to Tzedaka. </ref>
 +
# The minhag is to give the slaughtered chicken to a poor person or to redeem it with money and then give it to a poor person. <ref>Rama 605:1. Mishna Brurah 605:5 writes that if the poor person will be embarrassed to take the chicken because it looks like one put their sins on the chicken then one should redeem it and give the money to the poor but if the poor won't be embarrassed it's preferable to give the chicken to the poor because it requires less effort for the poor person to benefit. </ref>
 +
# Some say that one should preferably use white chickens, however, many say that one shouldn't make a special effort to get a white chicken. Some say not to use a black chicken. <ref>Rama 605:1 emphasizes using a white chicken. However, the Mishna Brurah 605:4 quotes the achronim who say that one should not make a special effort to get white chickens. Natai Gavriel 10:9 agrees and adds that one should be sure not to use a black chicken. </ref>
 +
# If a man took a female chicken or a woman took a male chicken one fulfilled one's obligation yet it's preferable to repeat it with the correct gender chicken. <ref>Natai Gavriel 10:11 </ref>
 +
 
 
==Shabbat Shuva==
 
==Shabbat Shuva==
 
# The minhag is for the Rabbi of the community to give a Drasha on Shabbat Shuva about Hilchot Yom Kippur and Sukkot as well as inspiration for Teshuva. <Ref> Mishna Brurah 429:2 </ref>
 
# The minhag is for the Rabbi of the community to give a Drasha on Shabbat Shuva about Hilchot Yom Kippur and Sukkot as well as inspiration for Teshuva. <Ref> Mishna Brurah 429:2 </ref>

Revision as of 22:41, 9 September 2011

Erev Yom Kippur

Eating on Erev Yom Tov

  1. It is a mitzvah to eat and drink on Erev Yom Kippur and one should even lessen one's learning and work in order to eat more on Erev Yom Kippur. [1]It is forbidden to forbidden to fast on Erev Yom Kippur. [2]
  2. This mitzvah primarily applies during the day of Erev Yom Kippur and not the night of Erev Yom Kippur. [3]
  3. Preferably one should eat at least one bread meal on Erev Yom Kippur. [4]
  4. This mitzvah to eat on Erev Yom Kippur applies to women also. [5]

Prayers

  1. There's is no Tachanun on Erev Yom Kippur. [6]

Kaparot

  1. There is an old minhag (tradition) among Sephardim and Ashkenazim [7] to do Kapparot during the Aseret Yamei Teshuva (ten days of Repentance) and preferably it should be done on Erev Yom Kippur in the morning. [8] If one didn't do it before Yom Kippur one may do it on Hoshana Rabba. [9]
  2. One should take a male chicken for a male, female chicken for a female, and both a female and male chicken for a pregnant woman. Some take two female chickens and one male chicken for a pregnant woman. [10]
    1. A pregnant woman within 40 days of the pregnancy doesn't need to take a second chicken for Kapparot. [11]
    2. A pregnant woman does not need to pick up all the chickens at once but it's sufficient to pick them up one at a time. [12]
  3. If one is poor one may use a single chicken for the whole family. [13]
  4. When one takes the chicken and circles it around one's head one should say זה חליפתי תמורתי כפרתי. [14]
  5. If one can't get a chicken one should take a goose or other animal which isn't fit for a korban. Some say one may even take a live fish. [15]
  6. If one can't even do that then one should take money and circle it around one's head say זה חליפתי תמורתי כפרתי and give it to Tzedaka. [16]
  7. The minhag is to give the slaughtered chicken to a poor person or to redeem it with money and then give it to a poor person. [17]
  8. Some say that one should preferably use white chickens, however, many say that one shouldn't make a special effort to get a white chicken. Some say not to use a black chicken. [18]
  9. If a man took a female chicken or a woman took a male chicken one fulfilled one's obligation yet it's preferable to repeat it with the correct gender chicken. [19]

Shabbat Shuva

  1. The minhag is for the Rabbi of the community to give a Drasha on Shabbat Shuva about Hilchot Yom Kippur and Sukkot as well as inspiration for Teshuva. [20]

Yom Kippur night prayers

  1. If a congregation didn’t say Kol Nidrei until after nightfall of Yom Kippur the congregation may say it. [21]

Yom Kippur morning prayers

  1. It’s preferable to minimize in piyutim and selichot in order to start Mussaf before six and half hours. [22] However, if one did wait until after six and a half hours one should say Mussaf first and then Mincha unless nine and a half hours passed in which case Mincha should go first. [23]
  2. Some have the minhag to add Piyutim even during the Brachot Kriyat Shema, however, it’s preferable not to add Piyutim there. [24]
  3. The Minhag is to add Piyutim which are relevant to the purpose of the day. However, one shouldn’t add so many not to delay saying Shema in its proper time. [25]
  4. There’s different minhag as whether to say the first פסוק of Mizmor Shel Yom HaShabbat on Yom Tov and Yom Kippur. [26]
  5. A Talmid Chacham should not separate himself to learn Torah while the congregation is praying or saying selichot. [27]
  6. It’s preferable to say less Piyutim slowly instead of saying many Piyutim quickly. [28]
  7. One should sure to say at least ten Vidduy’s (confessions) on Yom Kippur. [29]The Minhag is to count one from Mincha of Erev Yom Kippur, one from Arvit of the night, four from the four prayers during the day and four from the four Chazarat HaShatz’s. [30]

References

  1. S"A 604:1, Yalkut Yosef (Kitzur S"A 604:1)
  2. Rama 604:1
  3. Yalkut Yosef (Kitzur S"A 604:2)
  4. Yalkut Yosef (Kitzur S"A 604:3)
  5. Yalkut Yosef (Moadim pg 74)
  6. S"A 604:2. Kaf HaChaim 604:18 points out that one does say Tachanun at Mincha before Erev Yom Kippur.
  7. S"A 605:1 writes that one should prevent the minhag to do Kapparot on Erev Yom Kippur. Mishna Brurah 605:1 explains that the reason for this opinion is that it looks like Darkei Amori (superstitious pagan practice). However, the Rama 605:1 writes that it's an old minhag and one shouldn't stop from keeping the minhag. Mishna Brurah 605:2 explains that the minhag is justified because it's similar to a korban and it's as though the punishment one deserves is taking place on the chicken. Yalkut Yosef (Moadim pg 75) and Sh"T Yabea Omer 2:71 writes that this practice is the minhag of all of klal yisrael and it should not be stopped.
  8. Rama 605:1 writes that it is an old minhag to do Kapparot on Erev Yom Kippur. Mishna Brurah 605:2 comments that if there's a concern that having everyone do Kapparot on Erev Yom Kippur in the morning won't give the Shochet enough time to do a proper slaughtering on all the chickens one should do Kapparot a day or two earlier because the entire period of Aseret Yamei Teshuva is a time of atonement. Therefore, Natai Gavriel 10:1 writes that it should be done during Aseret Yomei Teshuva and preferably on Erev Yom Kippur in the morning.
  9. Natai Gavriel 10:7
  10. Rama 605:1, Mishna Brurah 605:3, Natai Gavriel 10:2
  11. Natai Gavriel 10:3
  12. Natai Gavriel 10:4
  13. Mishna Brurah 605:3, Natai Gavriel 10:16
  14. Mishna Brurah 605:3
  15. Mishna Brurah 605:4, Natai Gavriel 10:17,19
  16. Natai Gavriel 10:17. Similarly, Mishna Brurah 605:1 writes that if there's a concern that there'll be too many chickens for the shochet to slaughter properly one may do Kapparot early or take money, circle it around your head, and give it to Tzedaka.
  17. Rama 605:1. Mishna Brurah 605:5 writes that if the poor person will be embarrassed to take the chicken because it looks like one put their sins on the chicken then one should redeem it and give the money to the poor but if the poor won't be embarrassed it's preferable to give the chicken to the poor because it requires less effort for the poor person to benefit.
  18. Rama 605:1 emphasizes using a white chicken. However, the Mishna Brurah 605:4 quotes the achronim who say that one should not make a special effort to get white chickens. Natai Gavriel 10:9 agrees and adds that one should be sure not to use a black chicken.
  19. Natai Gavriel 10:11
  20. Mishna Brurah 429:2
  21. BeYitzchak Yikra on S”A 306:12 because it’s a need for the congregation even though one usually can’t do Hatarat Nedarim on Shabbat (S”A 341:1).
  22. S”A 620:1 writes one should minimize piyutim and selichot in order to finish Mussaf by the end of the seventh hour. Even though some achronim explain S”A simply that one should start Mussaf by the beginning of the seventh hour (midday), many achronim say that the term S”A used wasn’t precise and really he means the time of mincha which is six and a half hours. That is the opinion of Mishna Brurah 620:2 and Yalkut Yosef (Moadim pg 104). Mishna Brurah 620:1 says that if it is the end of the sixth hour one may skip Avinu Malkenu in order to say Mussaf by the end of the seventh hour.
  23. Mishna Brurah 620:2 rules like the opinion of the Ri quoted by S”A 286:4 (see Mussaf page for lengthy explanation).
  24. Kaf HaChaim 620:1
  25. Kaf HaChaim 620:1
  26. Kaf HaChaim 620:2
  27. Kaf HaChaim 620:3
  28. Kaf HaChaim 620:4
  29. Mishna Brurah 620:3
  30. See Kaf HaChaim 620:5