Template:Mistaken Bracha Achrona
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If One Recited Birkat HaMazon
- After the fact if one recited Birkat Hamazon on wine or dates one fulfills one's obligation.
- After the fact if one recited Birkat Hamazon on mezonot, because there is a dispute whether one fulfilled one's obligation one should not recite a new bracha.
- After the fact if one recited Birkat Hamazon on shivat haminim one doesn't fulfill one's obligation.
- If one ate a different food which has the Bracha Achrona of Boreh Nefashot or Al HaEtz and then made Birkat HaMazon by accident according to most authorities one hasn’t fulfilled one’s obligation but in order to concerned for the minority opinion one should hear the correct Bracha Achrona from someone else or have another amount of food and make the correct Bracha Achrona.
- In any case the fact that Birkat HaMazon fulfills one’s obligation after the fact, is true even if one only said the first paragraph of Birkat Hamazon.
- If one ate foods that require a Bracha Mein Shalosh (Al HaMichya, Al HaEtz, Al HaGefen) and began saying Birkat HaMazon, if one remembered in middle of saying the first Bracha one should continue with Bracha Mein Shalosh from the words “Al Shehinchalta LeAvotenu”.
If One Recited Mein Shalosh
- Al Haetz after the fact exempts fruits that are haetz but not vegetables that are haadama. Al Hagefen doesn't exempt fruits.
- After the fact if one recited Al Hamichya for Boreh Nefashot one doesn't fulfill one's obligation.
- Al Hamichya doesn't exempt shehakol foods.
- After the fact Al Hagefen covers grapes.
- After the fact if one recited Al Hamichya in place of Birkat Hamazon for bread, according to the Sephardi poskim one fulfills one's obligation. Ashkenazic poskim hold that one doesn't fulfill his obligation.
- Rabbenu Yonah (Brachot 6a s.v. iy nami) proves from Brachot 12a that birkat hamazon exempts dates and from Brachot 35b that it covers wine. He reiterates the point in Brachot 29b s.v. miyhu. Rosh (Brachot 1:14 and Pesachim 10:10) and Rashba (Brachot 42a s.v. yayain) agree. (See Pri Chadash 208:17 who writes that the Rashba only meant that wine is exempt when it is part of the meal.) Rashba (Brachot 41b s.v. heviyu) shows that the Yerushalmi and Bahag hold that birkat hamazon doesn't exempt dates. Shuchan Aruch OC 208:17 rules like the Rabbenu Yonah, Rosh, and Rashba.
- Based on Gemara Brachot 41b, both the Rabbenu Yonah (Brachot 29b s.v. lacher) and Rashba (Brachot 48a s.v. ha, 41b s.v. meha, 42a s.v. yayin) write that birkat hamazon doesn't exempt mein shalosh even after the fact. Tosfot Pesachim 103a s.v. ana and Rosh Pesachim 10:10 agree. Shulchan Aruch OC 208:17 codifies their opinion. Bear Hagolah and Pri Chadash 208:17 argue with Shulchan Aruch for all mezonot foods since they are filling. Rabbi Akiva Eiger 208:17 comments that for pat haba bkisnin certainly birkat hamazon does exempt it. Mishna Brurah 208:75 concludes that since many achronim disagree with the Shulchan Aruch and hold that birkat hamazon exempts any mezonot since they are more filling than dates which the birkat hamazon covers. He adds that certainly we accept Rabbi Akiva Eiger regarding pat haba bkisnin. Halacha Brurah 208:60 and Birkat Hashem 2:3:22 agree.
- Even though the Rashbam Pesachim 103b writes that if mein shalosh is effective on a food then certainly birkat hamazon is effective. This is also found in the Baal Hameor Pesachim 24b but Ramban rejects it. Additionally, Tosfot Pesachim 103a s.v. ana rejects this types of kal vchomer. Tosfot Rabbenu Yehuda Brachot 41b s.v. maskana, Rashba Brachot 42a s.v. yayin, and Rosh Pesachim 10:10 agree with the Tosfot against the Rashbam. Rabbenu Yonah Brachot 29b s.v. lachar quotes Tosfot. Shulchan Aruch O.C. 208:17 follows the Tosfot unlike the Rashbam. The Mishna Brurah 208:75 accepts this ruling of Shulchan Aruch. Aruch Hashulchan 208:27 explains that the reason it doesn't work is because only the original bracha that chazal instituted for that food works and nothing else. The only exceptions are when the bracha would have been relevant even according to chazal but practically didn't establish it for some reason (such as for wine and dates).
- Halacha Brurah 208:60
- Shulchan Aruch O.C. 208:17
- Shulchan Aruch O.C. 208:17
- Shulchan Aruch 208:13
- Shulchan Aruch O.C. 208:13
- Shulchan Aruch 208:13
- Shulchan Aruch 208:15
- Raah (Brachot 44a) explains that since Al Hamichya is Biblical and the pasuk which indicates the obligation for Birkat Hamazon includes the obligation for Al Hamichya if one says Al Hamichya in place of Birkat Hamazon after the fact one fulfills one's obligation. This is also the opinion of the Bet Yosef 168:6 who rules that for all forms of pat haba bkisnin one should recite Al Hamichya even though potentially it could be bread. Ginat Veradim 1:24, Birkei Yosef 167:10, Birkat Hashem 2:3:18 and Kaf Hachaim 187:1 agree. Aruch Hashulchan 168:23 writes that al hamichya exempts birkat hamazon on a biblical level. (Dirshu 168:63 seems to equate the Aruch Hashulchan's view with the Mishna Brurah and is very difficult.) The Ginat Veradim explains that this idea is based on the Kesef Mishna Brachot 2:1 who quotes the Rambam and Ramban that Birkat Hamazon is deoritta but the number of brachot are derabbanan. Yabia Omer OC 2:12 has a lengthy teshuva proving that Al Hamichya after the fact exempts Birkat Hamazon.
- Mishna Brurah (Shaar Hatziyun 168:71). Piskei Teshuvot 187:2 citing Bach and Drisha 168, Eliya Rabba 168:18, Chaye Adam Nishmat Adam 47:1, Teshurat Shay 1:571, Maharshag 1:34, Dvar Yehoshua YD 3:70, Az Nidbaru 5:31. Yabia Omer 2:12 quotes Ritva Brachot 2:21 to support this approach.