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When it comes to cooking and reheating foods on Shabbat, aside from the major biblical prohibition of [[Bishul|cooking]] there are three other rabbinic prohibitions. One is that before Shabbat one shouldn't leave raw food on an open fire to cook on Shabbat lest one come to cook. This is called [[Shehiya]]. The second is [[Hachzara]]; that is, on Shabbat one shouldn't return food to the fire that was removed from the fire on Shabbat since it appears like one is cooking and not just reheating. The third one is that it is forbidden to insulate food both before Shabbat so that it remains insulated on Shabbat and on Shabbat itself. This prohibition is called hatmana and is the subject of this article.
==Insulating before Shabbat==
# One is not allowed permitted to insulate a food before [[Shabbat]] , with material that preserves heat such as olive peals. This is permitted even during [[Ben HaShemashot|twilight period]]. However, sesame, salt, lime, or sand as a Gezerah that before [[Shabbat]] one will come is not permitted to insulate food with material that increases the heat lest one insulate with hot ashes containing coals and stoke them. <Ref>S”A 257:1,3, Shemirat lest the food be incompletely cooked and one come to rake the coals on the [[Shabbat KeHilchata 1:65]].</refRef> ## Therefore, even from before See Talmud [[Shabbat]]34b, it is forbidden to wrap a pot with cloth which is standing on the fire or electric plate (not blech)Rashi at loc, Shulchan Aruch O.C. <Ref>Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 257:1:65 </ref># It’s permitted to insulate before [[Shabbat]] On the Sabbath itself insulating is forbidden even with material that doesn’t preserve only preserves the heat like clothing or cloth. ,<Refref> Shemirat See statement of Rava on Gemara Shabbat KeHilchata 1:65, implied from S”A 257:1,3 34a</ref>## Before [[Shabbat]], it’s permissible to wrap as a prohibition lest one discover the pot that is off the fire or to be too cold and heat it up on coals on top of a pot which is off the fire. <ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat KeHilchata ]] and stoke the coals. This does not apply during twilight period as most pots are warm at that time.<ref>Shulchan Aruch 257:1:65 </ref># Even though one can It is permitted to insulate food before [[Shabbat]] which is cooked Machal Ben Dursai, some say one can’t insulate it with clothes on top and coals on bottom because the insulation with the coals keeps the with material that preserves heat, but some permitlike a cloth. <Ref> * The Gemara Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 1:75 (34a3rd edition) allows one to insulate with material that doesn’t preserve heatbased on Shulchan Aruch 257:1 and 3. The Gemara (Shabbat 48a) says that clothing are </ref> There is a dispute if a material pot that doesn’t preserve heatis covered with clothes can be placed on a heating element, which would cause the pot to get hot. See further. * When Hatmana on it’s own doesn’t preserve heat but keeps in heat because of another source (## Everyone agrees that before Shabbat it is permissible to wrap a pot that besides is off the cover fire or on top of clothing, the food a hot pot which is on a Garuf or Katum stove) there is a dispute in off the Rishonim if there’s an issue of Hatmanafire. Ran ([[Shabbat]] Bameh Tomnin) in name of Rabbenu Yonah and Rashba that if the insulation preserves heat because of an external source <ref>Shulchan Aruch 258:1, Mishna Brurah 258:2, Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 1:75 </ref>## According to most poskim, it is forbidden as Hatmana because even before Shabbat to wrap a pot with clothes if the insulation shows one is concerned about keeping the food warm. However the Ramban permits if the Hatmana is done with permitted material and the Shehiyah (leaving food pot is on a covered stove from before [[Shabbat]]) fire or electric hotplate. <Ref>Shulchan Aruch 257:8 explains that even though covering with a cloth is done in a permitted way because these are two separate Gezerahs (considered something doesn't preserve the heat, since the Gemara 47b which seemingly prohibits putting an insulated pot on permitted stove is only forbidden because top of the food is put directly on fire insulating the coals but if there’s a space of air in between pot with the coals and cloth becomes like it is insulated with something that preserves the food it’d be permittedheat, which is forbidden even on Friday.) Ran (22a D”H VeMinhagenu)Mishna Brurah 257:37, Kaf Hachaim 257:40, Nemukei Yosef ([[and Shemirat Shabbat]] Lo Yachpor)KeHilchata 1:75 agree.</ref> However, Rabbenu Yerucham if a Sephardic Jew has such a minhag he doesn't need to be stopped.<ref> Chazon Ovadia (pg 68cShabbat v. 1 p. 56), writes that some are lenient and Meiri ([[Shabbat]] Perek Kirah pg 142 D”H Zu Hiy) write that the Minhag there is like the Ramban's explanationa minhag to be lenient against Shulchan Aruch. Ritva 47b mentions the Ramban and adds that some are strict to make a separation between * When Hatmana on it’s own doesn’t preserve heat but keeps in heat because of another source (that besides the cover of clothing and , the pot (as that’s not the usual way to insulatefood is on a Garuf or Katum stove) but concludes that he prefers there is a different stringency which is putting dispute in the pot on top of a cover Rishonim if there’s an issue of Hatmana with something that separates between the pot and stovepreserves heat. S”A 257:8 rules even though Shehiyah is permitted in certain cases Ran (see S”A 253[[Shabbat]] Bameh Tomnin) in name of Rabbenu Yonah and Rashba writes that if the pot insulation preserves heat because of an external source it is covered with clothes even though it forbidden as Hatmana Dvar Hamosif Hevel because this insulation shows one is a material that doesn’t preserve heat it’s forbidden to be left on concerned about keeping the firefood warm. However, the Ramban permits if the clothes aren’t touching the pot it’s Hatmana is done with permitted. Thus, if the pot isn’t touching material and the coals it’s a permissible Shehiyah and if one puts (leaving food on a wide vessel that doesn’t touch the sides of the pot one can put on top of it clothing. Minchat Cohen covered stove from before [[Shabbat]]) is done in a permitted way because these are two separate Gezerahs (Mishmeret [[Shabbat]] 8) explains that S”A requires both requirements 1)the pot doesn’t touch Gemara 47b which seemingly prohibits putting an insulated pot on a permitted stove is only forbidden because the food is put directly on the coals and 2) the clothes don’t touch the sides but if there’s a space of air in between the pot [while coals and the Levush explains the S”A only requires one stipulation]food it’d be permitted.) Ran (22a s.v. Sh”t Chut MeShulash 8VeMinhagenu), Shaarei Yeshua 5:8Nemukei Yosef (Lo Yachpor), and Sh”t Divrei Moshe 64 say Rabbenu Yerucham (pg 68c), and Meiri ([[Shabbat]] Perek Kirah pg 142 s.v. Zu Hiy) write that the Minhag has what to rely on even though S”A was strictis like the Ramban's explanation. Sh”t Zechur LeYitzchak 74 pg 113b brings Ritva 47b mentions the opinion of Maharar Moshe Ben Chaviv who says the Minhag has what Ramban and adds that some are strict to rely on based on make a separation between the Ramban clothing and the opinions that there’s no issue of Hatmana if pot (as that’s not the food usual way to insulate) but concludes that he prefers a different stringency which is cooking for [[Shabbat]] day; nonetheless, Zechur LeYitzchak suggests putting the pot on top of a cover that since separates between the Minhag predates pot and stove. S”A it can continue, but concludes that one should be strict like 257:8 rules even though Shehiyah is permitted in certain cases (see S”A. Eretz Chaim 257253) if the pot is covered with clothes even though it is a material that doesn’t preserve heat it’s forbidden to be left on the fire. * Sh”t Chut MeShulash 8, Memei Shlomo 257, Sh”t Yaskil Avdi 3Shaarei Yeshua 5:10(4:7)8, Gedolei Tzion 9:11 also quote the Maharar Ben Chaviv and Chazon Ovadyah ([[Shabbat]] 1 pg 56; as in Sh”t Yabea Omer O”C 6:33) conclude Sh”t Divrei Moshe 64 say that one can be lenientthe Minhag has what to rely on even though S”A was strict. </ref># There is no issue Sh”t Zechur LeYitzchak 74 pg 113b brings the opinion of insulating Maharar Moshe Ben Chaviv who says the Minhag has what to rely on based on the Ramban and the opinions that there’s no issue of Hatmana if the food inside other food if there's no separation. <Ref> Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 1:72 </ref># Before is [[cooking]] for [[Shabbat]]day; nonetheless, some say Zechur LeYitzchak suggests that one since the Minhag predates S”A it can leave fully cooked food in a plasticcontinue, nylon, or aluminum bag in an pot of hot food (such as kuggel in chulent)but concludes that one should be strict like S”A. Eretz Chaim 257, howeverMemei Shlomo 257, some forbid because of Hatmana. <Ref> Chazon Ish 37Sh”t Yaskil Avdi 3:10(4:32 rules that a vessel inside a pot of hot water doesn’t have an issue of Hatmana. Even though, Aruch HaShulchan 2587), Gedolei Tzion 9:3 11 also quote the Maharar Ben Chaviv and Sh”t Shevet HaLevi 3:47 argue on the Chazon Ish, Chazon Ovadyah Chazon Ovadyah ([[Shabbat]] 1 pg 6256; as in Sh”t Yabia Omer O”C 6:33) says conclude that one can rely on the Chazon Ish be lenient. Halacha Brurah 257:29 writes that one doesn't need to be stop someone who is lenient, especially if the food since there is fully cooked (for what to rely upon.</ref>## If the cloth is placed on top of a wide tray on top of a pot which Rama 257:7 permits Hatmana). Sh”t Shevet HaLevi 8:15(4) says is on the covered fire such that there is what to be lenient since the bag is only separating cloth doesn't actually touch the sides of the food inside pot it but it would have been hot from the pot nonethelessis permitted. Sh”t Vayeshev Moshe (Zanger) O”C 19 <ref> The Tur 257:8 adds that his father the bag or aluminum isn’t a real vessel that separates Rosh held that if the clothes aren’t touching the food inside pot itis permitted and not a normal way to do hatmana. Rav Shlomo Zalman in Sh”t Minchat Shlomo (2:34(20) in Ostrot Shlomo version), Sh”t LeHorot Natan O”C 12, Kovetz Or Yisrael 5:23, Sh”t Shraga HaMeir 4:63, 6:3, Megilat Sefer on Thus, Shulchan Aruch 257:8 rules that if the pot isn’t touching the coals it is a permissible Shehiyah and if one puts a tray on pot of the pot and clothing on top of the tray so that the cloth doesn’t touch the sides of the pot it is a permissible hatmana. Minchat Cohen (Mishmeret [[Shabbat]] 48) explains that S”A requires both requirements:13, Sh”t Kinyan Torah 4:24, Sh”t Az Nidabru 6:78, Sh”t Or Letzion 1) the pot doesn’t touch the coals and 2:17(13), and Sh”t Maaseh Nisim 163 agree that there’s no Hatmana in our case of a food within another food since it’s not meant to be totally separatethe clothes don’t touch the sides of the pot. [Even though Shemirat [[Shabbat]] 42Kehilchata 1:63 76 accepts this.</ref>## According to most poskim it is strict regarding materials that don’t allow liquid through such as plastic, nylon, and aluminum, however in forbidden to insulate a pot before Shabbat if it is on top of another pot which is on the new edition there’s a retraction in 1fire.<ref>Kaf Hachaim 258:87 quoting Rav Shlomo Zalman to permit in all circumstances.] Meor [[Shabbat]] 3 pg 519, and Menuchat Ahavah writes based on the Magen Avraham 258:1:3(27) are somewhat strict that insulating a pot on top of another pot that is on the issue, the Minhag fire is to be lenient on this issueforbidden even before Shabbat since it is considered like hatmana bdvar hamosif hevel. Mishna Brurah 258:2 agrees. <Kaf Hachaim adds that according to the lenient opinion in the Rama 257:7 since there is no issue of shehiya on a pot on top of another pot there's also no issue of hatmana, but that is only if that is the minhag.</ref>===Food in Other Food===# There is no issue of [[insulating food]] inside other food if there's no separation. <Ref> Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 1:72 </ref># Before [[Shabbat]], some say that one can leave fully cooked food in a plastic, nylon, or aluminum bag in an pot of hot food (such as kuggel in chulent), however, some forbid because of Hatmana. <Ref> Chazon Ish 37:32 rules that a vessel inside a pot of hot water doesn’t have an issue of Hatmana. Even though, Aruch HaShulchan 258:3 and Sh”t Shevet HaLevi 3:47 argue on the Chazon Ish, Chazon Ovadyah ([[Shabbat]] 1 pg 62) says one can rely on the Chazon Ish to be lenient, especially if the food is fully cooked (for which Rama 257:7 permits Hatmana). Sh”t Shevet HaLevi 8:15(4) says that there is what to be lenient since the bag is only separating the food inside it but it would have been hot from the pot nonetheless. Sh”t Vayeshev Moshe (Zanger) O”C 19 adds that the bag or aluminum isn’t a real vessel that separates the food inside it. Rav Shlomo Zalman in Sh”t Minchat Shlomo (2:34(20) in Ostrot Shlomo version), Sh”t LeHorot Natan O”C 12, Kovetz Or Yisrael 5:23, Sh”t Shraga HaMeir 4:63, 6:3, Megilat Sefer on [[Shabbat]] 4:13, Sh”t Kinyan Torah 4:24, Sh”t Az Nidabru 6:78, Sh”t Or Letzion 2:17(13), and Sh”t Maaseh Nisim 163 agree that there’s no Hatmana in our case of a food within another food since it’s not meant to be totally separate. * In the 2nd edition of Shemirat Shabbat Kehilchasa 42:63 he was strict regarding materials that don’t allow liquid through such as plastic, nylon, or aluminum liners inside chulent or crock pots, however in the 3rd edition there’s an explicit retraction in 1:87 quoting Rav Shlomo Zalman to permit in all circumstances. * Meor [[Shabbat]] 3 pg 519, and Menuchat Ahavah 1:3(27) are somewhat strict on the issue, the Minhag is to be lenient on this issue. </ref>.# It is forbidden on Shabbat to insulate a bottle of liquid inside a container of hot water even if it won't reach yad soledet bo. However, according to Ashkenazim, it is permitted to insulate a bottle of liquid in a container of hot water if the bottle is partly out of the hot water (assuming that there is no issue of bishul).<ref>Mishna Brurah 258:2, Dirshu Footnote 258:7</ref>===Hot Plate Blanket===[[File:Plata blanket.jpg|250px|thumb|right|According to Sephardim it is forbidden and according to Ashkenazim it is permitted if the sides of the pots are clearly and recognizable partially exposed (unlike this picture).]]# One may not completely wrap a pot with a blanket or towel if the pot is on top of a hot plate, covered fire, or any other heating element. Even though the blanket or towel is considered something that doesn't add heat, it is nonetheless considered as something that adds heat once it is on top of a pot which is on a heating element. This may not be done even before Shabbat.<ref>Shulchan Aruch O.C. 257:8, Mishna Brurah 257:37, Halacha Brurah 257:28. <br />* Tur 257:8, quoting the Rosh, writes that those people who insulate a pot on Friday with a cloth and put the pot on a covered fire are doing wrong, since the cloth is considered an insulation that adds heat once the pot is on top of a heating element. The Bet Yosef (257:8 s.v. u'ma shekatav rabenu aval hatmana) writes that Tosfot Shabbat 48a s.v. dzeytim held that it is forbidden to use a cloth to cover a pot on top of covered coals since the cloth becomes something that adds heat since the pot is on top of a heating element. He also quotes the Smag Lav 65, Smak 282, Sefer Hatrumah 231, and Ran (shabbat 22a s.v. aval) citing the Rabbenu Yonah and Rashba as agreeing. He does cite the Ran quoting the Ramban as disagreeing that hatmana and shehiya are two separate issues, and if a cloth isn't something that adds heat itself it isn't considered something that adds heat for hatmana. * Shulchan Aruch 257:8 follows the opinion of the Tosfot, Smag, Smak, Sefer Hatrumah, Rashba, Rabbenu Yonah, Rosh, and Tur unlike the Ramban. This is accepted by the achronim including Shulchan Aruch Harav 257:10, Mishna Brurah 257:37, and Halacha Brurah 257:28. Aruch Hashulchan 257:11 agrees and adds that the Rambam and Rif agree with Tosfot. Halacha Brurah 257:28 adds that the Nemukei Yosef b"b 10a agrees with Tosfot.</ref> According to Ashkenazim this is forbidden. According to Sephardim this is forbidden, though someone who has a minhag to do so doesn't need to be stopped if he does so before Shabbat.<ref>Shulchan Aruch 257:8, Halacha Brurah 257:28-29, Chazon Ovadia Shabbat v. 1 p. 56.* According to Sephardim, Halacha Brurah 257:29 writes that someone who does insulate the pot before Shabbat with a blanket on top of the heating element, even though it is against most rishonim (Tosfot, Rosh, Tur, Smag, Smak, Sefer Hatrumah, Rashba, and Rabbenu Yonah) and Shulchan Aruch, someone who relies on the Ramban Shabbat 47b who holds that a cloth isn't considered something that adds heat even though the pot is on top of a heating element shouldn't be rebuked. (See there where he adds that although many rishonim are strict there are many who are lenient like the Ramban including Or Zaruah 2:8, Sefer Habatim ch. 5, Ohel Moed 3:10, Ritva Shabbat 47b quoting Rabbenu Tam, Sefer Hayashar no. 235, and Meiri 36b based on Rashi.) Furthermore, if the pot is heating food for the next day there is what to rely upon according to the Shibolei Haleket. Even though this is a minority opinion someone who follows it in conjugation with the Ramban shouldn't be rebuked. Halacha Brurah 258:3 p. 382 clarifies that this lenient is only before Shabbat.</ref> # If one only covers the top of the pot, according to many Ashkenazi poskim, it isn't considered insulation since it is only partially covered and it is permitted even on Shabbat. The exact definition of a partial covering is if the pot is only covered with a blanket on the top and the sides are recognizably exposed for a majority of the circumference of the pot.<ref> * Shemirat Shabbat Kehilchata 1:77-78 writes that it isn't considered insulating if the pot isn't completely covered. It would be permitted even if it is on the fire. In the footnote, he cites Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach who clarified that it is only not considered hatmana if a recognizable part of the side of the pot is exposed around a majority of its circumference and not just one little area. Orchot Shabbat v. 1 p. 110 agrees that covering a pot on a covered fire on Shabbat with clothes is permitted if they only partially cover the pot. The definition is that it needs to be uncovered in a significant way so that it negatively impacts on the heat of the pot.* However, Halacha Brurah 257:29 writes that even Ashkenazim should be strict. He explains that the implication of the Rama who doesn't comment on 257:8 is that it is forbidden to cover a pot on a heating element even though it is only partially covered. He quotes the Pri Megadim E"A 257:18, who explains that even though usually a partial covering isn't an issue for the Rama 253:1, here it is since it is clear that one is insulting the pot to keep it hot. However, he also quotes the Minchat Cohen 2:8 s.v. veheneh (cited by Halacha Brurah v. 14 p. 345) who says that according to the Rama it is permitted. Halacha Brurah writes that Ashkenazim should be strict.</ref> According to Sephardim, it is forbidden even before Shabbat, even if the blanket is only covering the top of the pots and not covering it on all sides.<ref>Halacha Brurah 257:28, based on Shulchan Aruch 253:1 that hatmana on one side is considered hatmana, writes that covering the pot on top of a covered fire is forbidden. He explains that this is the intent of Shulchan Aruch 257:8. </ref># Obviously if one ever does use such a blanket one should be careful that it is fire safe.
==Insulating on Shabbat==
# On [[Shabbat]], one is not allowed to insulate food (whether it is cooked or raw) from all sides even if one uses material that doesn’t preserve heat like clothing or cloth because of the Gezerah that one will find the food cold and come to heat it up. <Ref> S”A Shulchan Aruch 257:1,-2, Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 1:65 </ref>## It is forbidden to immerse an unopened can in hot water even if it’s fully cooked and even if the water is off the fire. <ref>Mishna Brurah 258:2, Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 1:65 75 </ref># According to Ashkenazim, it’s permissible to insulate a pot that’s on the fire if the insulation doesn’t come into contact with all (6) sides of the pot only if the food is fully cooked and the food is liquid it must still not have completely cooled. <Ref>Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 1:66 </ref># # With respect to hatmana there is no issue of leaving food in an oven before or on Shabbat since the food isn't touching the heating element.<ref>Orchot Shabbat 2:86</ref> However, regarding Hachzara or Shehiya see [[Permissible_ways_to_heat_up_food_on_Shabbat#Ovens_with_Shabbos_Mode|the article on heating up foods on Shabbat]].# It’s permissible to insulate a [[Kli Sheni ]] with cloth. <Ref>Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 1:68 </ref># It is forbidden on Shabbat to insulate a cold pot that is on top of a hot pot off the fire even if one only uses clothes.<ref>Mishna Brurah 258:2</ref># It’s permitted to insulate on [[Shabbat]] with material that doesn’t preserve heat like clothing or cloth cold food to remove its coldness (not to actually heat it up) chill or to prevent it from getting colderwith material that doesn’t preserve heat like clothing or clothes. <Ref>In [[Shabbat]] 51a, Rav Yehuda in the name of Shmuel says that it’s permitted to insulate cold food. Rashi ([[Shabbat]] 51a) explains that it’s permitted to keep it cold and there’s no Gezerah of Hatmana, implying that heating up cold food even with insulation of material that doesn’t preserve heat is forbidden. Mahari MeLunil 51a, Ravan 346, Ravyah 202 pg 287, and Rabbenu Yishaya MeTeranayah pg 294 concur with Rashi. However Rambam, ([[Shabbat]] 4:4) permits insulating the cold food even to remove its coldness. Rashba 51a in name of the Geonim, Ran 23b, Nemukei Yosef 51a, and Rabbenu Yerucham pg 68c in name of Tosfot agree with the Rambam. S”A Shulchan Aruch 257:6 rules like the Rambam. </ref>
==Crock potPot Cover==# Leaving food in Covering a crock pot from before [[Shabbat]] with its regular cover isn't considered insulating even if it is permitted if touching the food since one's intent is cooking for [[Shabbat]] day and the knob is covered. <Ref>Reasons to permit: 1)There are some Rishonim that permit Hatmana if protect the food is meant to be eaten the next day. [Shibolei HaLeket 57 in name of Rabbenu Simcha says that Shehiya is permitted if a person has two pots and the one that’s cooking for [[Shabbat]] day is separate from the pot cooking for Friday nightgetting dirty. Rabbenu Binyamin (quoted by Shibolei HaLeket), Mordechai ([[Shabbat]] 3<ref>Shulchan Aruch 257:300)2, Rabbenu Yishaya HaRishon ([[Orchot Shabbat]] Bameh Tomnin), and Ravan ([[Shabbat]] 338) concerning Hatmana allow something that is set aside for the next day.] Rama 2572:1 rules like these opinions. However Bet Yosef 253:1(4) concludes that this seemingly goes against many of the Mefarshim that are brought in the following Siman. 2) There 76</ref>==Wrapping with Tin Foil==# It is permitted to cover a dispute in the Rishonim whether there is Hatmana when the food with tin foil since it is touching the coals even though really just to prevent the food itself isn’t coveredfrom getting dirty or dusty being uncovered. S”A 253:1 end of saif rules (based on Rosh ([[Shabbat]] 3:1)However, Tur 253:1, Ran 15b D”H Kirah, and Magid Mishna 3:4 in name one should not use multiple layers of Rambam) that if the pot is touching the coals directly it’s forbidden tin to do hatmana in any casecover food. However Rama 253<ref>Igrot Moshe 4:1 says that there are those who permit (namely74 Hatmana no. 3, Mordechai ([[Orchot Shabbat]] 299, Hagahot Maimon 7:20, and Or Zaruh 2:8 pg 3c) and so is the Minhag77. Chazon Ish 37[https:19 argues on this Rama and follows S”A//itorah. Some distinguish between the pot directly com/global-search/wrapping%20foil Rabbi Mansour ("Hatmana: Foil –Placing Wrapped Foods on the coals and where there’s a small airspace in between including Mishna Brurah (Shaar Tzion 257:43Blech") and Shulchan Aruch HaRav 257:10 (based on Ritva [[Shabbat]] 47b). Thus, Chazon Ovadyah (1 pg 64) argues writes that Sephardim can be lenient like Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach who says that the small airspace it is reason permitted to permit wrap a food in aluminum foil even according if one isn't doing it to S”A, while Shulchan Shlomo 257:13 doesn’t consider the airspace as an interference between the coals and the pot because that’s the way prevent it cooksfrom getting dirty. Those who permit: Rav Vosner (Kovetz MeBet Levi 9, [[Shabbat]] LeYisrael pg 373), Sh”t Shevet HaLevi 9:52, and Rav Moshe Feinstein (Sefer Otzrot Ha[[Shabbat]] and Sefer Matmin UMevashel Beshabbat quote It is just like encasing it in his name) permit (according to the Rama). Chazon Ovadyah ([[Shabbat]] 1 pg 64) permits according to S”A based on a Safeka Safeka, and the small airspace, as long as one covers the knob to serve as a reminder. [see http://www.dailyhalacha.com/Display.asp?ClipDate=8/24/2008 who quotes Rav Ovadyah.] Those who forbid: Rav Shlomo Aurbach in Shulchan Shlomo 257:13 forbids. Rav Elyashiv commonly quoted “in his name” (as in Sefer Otzrot Ha[[Shabbat]] and Sefer Matmin UMevashel Beshabbat) as forbidding the crock pot, however Shabbat Hayom recounts that he and his friend Rabbi Ofir Malka showed Rav Elyashiv the pot and Rav Elyashiv permitted it according to the Rama. </ref> ==Crock Pot=={{Crock Pots}}
==Thermos==
# Many permit pouring hot water from a Kli Rishon into a thermos on [[Shabbat]] as long as the thermos is completely dry before pouring into it. <Ref> Shalmei Yehuda 6:4 quoting Rav Elyashiv, Chazon Ish 37:35, Az Nidbaru 1:48-9, 3:17, Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 1:70, and Sh”t Igrot Moshe 1:95 permit pouring hot water from a Kli Rishon into a thermos and there would be no issue of Hatmana. However, according to Sh”t Shevet HaLevi 1:93 that it’s forbidden to put hot water into a thermos, the thermos should be considered a [[Kli Sh’Melachto LeIssur]]. </ref>==Hot Water Urn==# It is permitted to use a water boiler on Shabbat and it isn't considered hatmana to keep the water that was there from before Shabbat hot.<ref>Rav Ovadia Yosef in Mayan Omer 2:9 p. 119. The footnote explains even though the water is completely covered it isn't considered insulated since that is how the machine is made. </ref>
==Rewrapping==
==Sources==
<references/>
[[Category:Shabbat]]

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