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# Tochen also applies to non-foods for example it's forbidden to crush a clod of dirt, shave splinters off a piece of wood, sawing wood with intent for the dust. <ref>Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 6:1 in the note, Yalkut Yosef ([[Shabbat]], vol 3, pg 377) </ref>
==Utensils designed for grinding==
# Any tool which is designated for crushing or the like such as a mortar or a knife used only for dicing may not be used in any manner even if it doesn't involve any prohibition of Tochen. <ref>Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 6:2 </ref>
# One should not use an onion slicer (a machine which is made of a set of knifes that surrounds the onion and dices it). <ref>Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 6:3 [I'm not entirely clear about what an onion slicer is.] </ref>
# A vegetable chopper (with blades fitted with springs on an axis) is forbidden since it chops vegetables thinly. <Ref> Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 6:3 </ref>
# It’s permissible to cut vegetables on a cutting board even if it makes line in the board. <Ref>Yalkut Yosef ([[Shabbat]], vol 3, pg 389) </ref>
# It’s permissible to use a peeler to peel vegetables on [[Shabbat]]. <Ref>Yalkut Yosef ([[Shabbat]], vol 3, pg 391) </ref>
 ==Raw fruit or vegetablesFor immediate consumption==# Raw fruits or Since there are some who hold that it is permitted to cut up raw vegetables may not be crushed or cut finely but only may be cut in slightly large pieces. One fruit for "immediate" consumption, and there are others who forbid, many poskim write that one should also be careful to only cut it up the vegetables or fruit with a knife into somewhat large pieces right before the mealfor "immediate" consumption. <ref>Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 6* The Rashba (responsa 4:675) writes that it is permitted to do Tochen immediately before consumption just like it is permitted to do [[Borer]] immediately before consumption. Beit Yosef 321, The opinion of the Rashba is codified as halacha in the Rama 321:12. The Magen Avraham 321:15, however, quotes the Shiltei Giborim who questions this leniency. Similarly, the Chazon Ish OC 57 seems to prohibit chopping into small pieces even for immediate use in opposition to the Rashba.* In discussing the Rashba, the Beit Yosef 321 writes that in order to satisfy all opinions one should cut the item into somewhat big pieces and then eat it immediately. The Chaye Adam (Klal 17:2, Sh"t Harashba 4:75 rule ) rules that for immediate use it consumption one may be cut as small as you want, as long as no special dicing utensil is usedvegetables into somewhat large pieces in accordance with the Beit Yosef. The Mishna Berura 321:45 and Chazon Ish OC 57 prohibit chopping first writes that since some Rishonim disagree with the Rashba one should follow the compromise of the Beit Yosef to cut it up into somewhat large pieces. Nonetheless, he concludes, that one who cuts it up into very small pieces even for immediate useconsumption has what to rely on. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 6:6 agrees. * It is noteworthy that the Mishna Brurah 321:44 and Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 6:6 clarify that this is a case where is using a regular knife (and not a dicing utensil). </ref># According to Sephardim, hold that for immediate consumption it is permissible permitted to cut up vegetables for a salad vegetable even into small pieces only if one . However, it is going praiseworthy to be strict to eat only cut it right awayinto big pieces. <Ref>Yalkut Yosef ([[Shabbat]], vol 3, pg 382) </ref> # It is also considered right away "immediate" if one makes the salad right before beginning the meal in which it will be eaten. Nonetheless, the one who cuts up the vegetables for the salad into big pieces will be blessed. <Ref>Mishna Brurah 321:45, Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 6:6, Yalkut Yosef ([[Shabbat]], vol 3, pg 382) </ref> # The above leniency applies whether one is preparing for one's own immediate consumption or another person's immediate consumption.<ref>Bet Yosef 321 based on the Tosfot (Shabbat 74a s.v. Borer UMayni'ach) writes that it is permitted to do Tochen for another person's immediate consumption just like it is permitted to do Tochen for one's own immediate consumption. Mishna Brurah 321:43 agrees.</ref>
# If one made a salad for one meal and there was left over one is allowed to eat it in another meal. <Ref>Yalkut Yosef ([[Shabbat]], vol 3, pg 389) </ref>
# For a child or someone who can't eat large pieces there is what to rely on to cut it up into small pieces as long as one does so right before the meal. <ref>Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 6:6 </ref>
# Potatoes or vegetables which were cooked may not be put through a strainer in order to puree it (as the strainer is designated for that purpose) but one is permitted to crush it with a fork (even the prongs) as long as it was cooked to the point that it's easy to crush. <ref>Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 6:10 </ref>
==Pre-crushed food==
# Food which was made from crushed particles may be crushed on [[Shabbat]] (not using a utensil designated for crushed but rather a regular knife) if one is going to eat it on [[Shabbat]]. For example , one may crush matza, bread, crackers, chocolate, and sugar. <ref>The Rama 321:12 rules that it is permitted to crush up bread because the flour was already ground up when it was made. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 6:11 extends this to breaking up matza, crackers, chocolate, and sugar.</ref>
# Salt granules which solidified because of a moisture may be crushed on [[Shabbat]], however, one may not crush salt crystals (looking like blocks) or any other spice which has never yet been crushed unless one does two Shinui's (changes) by using the handle of the knife or fork on a plate or the table. <ref>Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 6:11 </ref>
# Food which was crushed very well before [[Shabbat]] or on [[Shabbat]] in a permissible may may be further cut on [[Shabbat]] even in the normal fashion. <ref>Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 6:12 </ref>

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