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==Obligation==
# There is an obligation to eat three meals on shabbat, <ref> Shulchan Aruch 291:1, Mishna Berura 291:1, Rambam [[Shabbat]] 30:9, Yalkut Yosef Shabbat Volume 1 page 399. This is based on the gemara in shabbat 117b which derives from the verse in Shemot 16:25 which mentions the word "hayom" meaning today three times. The gemara 118b goes through the great rewards for one who eats all three meals on shabbat. </ref> and if one missed the meal on friday night, he should eat three during the day. <ref> Rama 291:1 </ref>
# The obligation of eating the third meal of [[Shabbat]] (Seudat Shelishit) is rabbinic. <ref> Mishna Brurah 291:1, Shu"t Maharil 94, Pri Megadim Mishbetzot Zahav 291:1. See Sh"t Tzitz Eliezer 16:13. Pri Megadim Mishbetzot Zahav 291:1 quotes the Levush who says that this obligation is from the torah, even though he himself disagrees. The Sefer Chareidim 14:3 and Maharal quoted by the Taz 472:1 agree with this opinion. </ref>
# Women are obligated in Seudat Shelishit. <ref> S"A 291:6. Yalkut Yosef shabbat 1 page 410. This is based on Rabbeinu Tam in Sefer Hayashar 70:4 which says that women are obligated because they too were part of the miracle of the manna. The Ran on [[Shabbat]] 44a "vikatav" says that it is based on the same source as a woman's obligation in kiddush mentioned in Berachot 20a, that since they are obligated in refraining from melacha, they are also obligated in the mitzvot aseh even if it is only rabbinic. The Aruch Hashulchan 291:4 says that many women are unaware of their obligation and we should work to fix that. </ref>
==Amount to eat==
# If one is full one should eat at least a [[KeBaytzah]] of bread.<ref> S"A 291:1 </ref> However, if one is unable one should at least have a Kezayit. <ref> Mishna Brurah 291:2, Kaf HaChaim 291:5, Yalkut Yosef ([[Shabbat]] vol 1 pg 399) </ref>
# If one only has one whole loaf of bread and a broken piece one should use the whole one for Seuda Shelishit instead of saving it for Melava Malka. <ref> Biur Halacha 291 D"H VeLePachot </ref>
# One doesn't need to cover the loaves of bread before making HaMotzei, however, it's preferable to cover them. <ref> Yalkut Yosef (Kitzur S"A 291:9) </ref>
#One should try to have fish even for seuda shlishit, except if one doesn't like fish he should not force himself. <ref> Yalkut Yosef Shabbat volume 1 page 408. Mishna Brurah 242:2 says this enhances kavod shabbat.
 
==Timing==
# The earliest time to fulfill Seudat Shelishit is from 6 and a 1/2 hours (Shaot Zmaniot) into the day. <ref>S"A 291:2. Yalkut Yosef shabbat volume 1 page 402. The Behag quoted by the Ran [[Shabbat]] 43b "tanu rabanan" says that it could be eaten at any time of the day, but Tosfot [[Shabbat]] 118a "bimincha" and Rosh [[Shabbat]] 16:5 say that it is specifically at the start of mincha gedola. Shulchan Aruch rules like Tosfot and the Rosh. Aruch Hashulchan 291:3 says that you don't fulfill your obligation if you eat earlier than that. He says though in </ref> If one began before the time and continued and ate at least a kezayit after the time he does fulfill his obligation for seuda shlishit. <ref> Yalkut Yosef shabbat volume 1 page 402. Aruch Hashulchan 291:6 says also that if one began before mid-day and had in mind to continue until after mid-day and fulfill his obligation then he does fulfill it. </ref># The Minhag is to eat Seudat Shelishit between Mincha and Maariv/Arvit. <ref> Rama 291:2. Yalkut Yosef shabbat volume 1 page 402-403 Rabbeinu Tam quoted by the Tosfot Pesachim 105a "vihani milei", as well as the Rosh [[Shabbat]] 10:13 say that one should eat before saying mincha because it is forbidden to drink water between mincha and arvit on shabbat because drinking between mincha and arvit could cause harm to the souls that leave after shabbat. Rambam Hilchot [[Shabbat]] 30:10 writes that it is best to eat it after saying mincha and the hagahot maimoniot hilchot shabbat 30:20 agrees and quotes a different version of rabbeinu tam. The Rama quotes both opinions and says that the minhag is to do like the Rambam. The Magen Avraham 291:5 says this is because of the prohibition to eat before davening mincha. Aruch Hashulchan 291:4 also says the minhag is that way also. </ref> If one is unable to have it after mincha one should have it before mincha. <ref> Aruch HaShulchan 291:4. Mishna Berura 291:11 says to make sure to eat before the time of mincha ketana arrives. Yalkut Yosef Shabbat volume 1 page 402 says also that you fulfill your obligation but should try to get somebody to remind you to say mincha if you are going to eat before saying it. </ref>
#Although it is forbidden to begin eating after sunset until one says havdala, <ref> Shulchan Aruch 291:1 </ref> and it is definitely preferable to eat before sunset, some poskim give extra time to begin the meal if one hasn't yet eaten seuda shlishit.
*Mishna Berura 299:1 says that if one hasn't yet eaten the meal or is really starving then one can still eat until a half hour before tzet hakovachim.
#If one began eating before sunset he may continue after. <ref> Shulchan Aruch 299:1, Aruch Hashulchan 299:3. Mishna Berura 291:2 says that having said the beracha is enough of a start to your meal to allow one to continue afterwards. He also quotes an opinion that this only applies during bein hashemashot but after tzet hakochavim one would not be allowed to continue. Rama says that the minhag is not so, rather one can continue even after tzet hakochavim, and the aruch hashulchan 299:4 says that is the minhag. </ref> However, this doesn't apply if one was only drinking not as part of a meal <ref> Shulchan Aruch 299:1 </ref> or to eating only mezonot or fruit, so one must stop if that is all that he is having. <ref> Aruch Hashulchan 299:5 </ref>
==Birkat Hamazon==
#One is obligated to say ritze vihachalitzenu after eating seudat shlishit during birkat hamazon as well as adding yaale viyavo on rosh chodesh or chol hamoed. <ref> Yalkut Yosef Shabbat volume 1 page 410. </ref> This applies even if the meal continued past tzet hakochavim. <ref> Yalkut Yosef shabbat 1 page 414 </ref>
#If he forgot to say it and remembered
*after finishing boneh yerushalayim but before the next beracha he should insert there a beracha instead of ritze "Baruch Ata Hashem Elokenu Melech Ha'olam Asher Natan Shabbatot Le'menucha Le'amo Yisrael Be'ahava Le'ot U'berit Baruch Ata Hashem Mekadesh Ha'Shabbat."
*after beginning the fourth beracha he should just continue and not repeat. <ref> Yalkut Yosef shabbat 1 page 411. For the rules for the first two meals see http://www.dailyhalacha.com/m/halacha.aspx?id=1198. </ref>
 
for a women even if she remembered before starting the fourth beracha she may only say the beracha without Hashem's name or just continue onward. <ref> Yalkut Yosef shabbat 1 page 412. </ref>
==Kiddush==
# There is no obligation to do Kiddush at Suedat Shelishit, but it is nice to make a beracha on wine during the meal. <ref> Yalkut Yosef shabbat volume 1 page 405. Shulchan Aruch 291:4 says you do not need to say kiddush for seudat shlishit, and Mishna Berura 291:21 adds that it is nice to make the beracha on wine because it enhances the meal. Rambam [[Shabbat]] 30:9 says that we establish the third meal with lechem mishne and wine. The Tur 291 says that this sounds like we should say kiddush on seudat shlishit as well, but says that the Rosh disagrees because just like there is only one kiddush at night, so too in the day. The Beit Yosef 291 says since most rishonim hold that we don't say kiddush, it is unnecessary, but you don't lose anything if you do. Rav Avigdor Neventzal in the Biyitzchak Yikare edition of the Mishna Berura 291:4 footnote “ein tzarich” says that Rav Shlomo Zalman did drink wine during the meal, and adds that if one person says the beracha out loud, everybody fulfills the rambam that one should establish his meal on wine. </ref>
==References==
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