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[[file:Chanuka.png|right|''A Chanukkiya lit on the eighth night'']]
== Background==
# In the time of the second Bet Hamikdash the Greek kings made decrees against the Jews in order to make them forget Torah and Judaism. They broke in the Bet Hamikdash and defiled it until Hashem had mercy on the Jews and saved them. The salvation came through the Chashmonaim who were victorious over the Greeks and served as Cohanim Gedolim. They returned to the Bet Hamikdash and could only find one pure flask of oil which was enough to light for only one day. A miracle occurred and it lasted 8 days. On the day that they found the flask, on the 25th of Kislev, the Rabbis established a holiday, 8 days of festivity and joy, called Chanuka. <ref> Shabbat 21b, Rambam Chanuka 3:1-3</ref>
== Mitzvah The Brachot of Chanuka Chanukah Candles==# The mitzvah to light On the first night of [[Chanukah]], before lighting the candles is a very special and dear mitzvahone should recite three [[blessings]]. Even a poor person should rent or sell his clothing or hire himself out in order to get enough for at least one candle for every nightOn all other nights, only the first two are said (and not [[Shehecheyanu]]). <ref> Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 676:1-2, [http://www.dailyhalacha.com/m/halacha. The Gabbai tzedaka (local charity distributor) needs to make sure that aspx?id=2245 Rabbi Eli Mansour] see [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rfW7i8tbi0A&list=PLxgaQHCWTBqcXnB4Z96yb-wvL7LkxOnq2&index=2 Berachot for Hanukka] for the Syrian recitation of the poor have money for at least one candle every night. berachot</ref>Rambam Chanuka 4Here is the text in Hebrew and below it is the transliterated text:12## ברוך אתה ה' אלוקינו מלך העולם, אשר קדשנו במצותיו וצונו להדליק נר (של) חנוכה <ref> S”A 671676:1writes the first bracha without the word shel. The Mishna So is the opinion of the Arizal (Pesachim 99bShaar Kavanot pg 108d) which says a poor person can take from the Tamchui , Pri [[Chadash]], and Gra (Maaseh Rav 231). However Ashkenazim add the charity fund) for 4 cups word Shel based on our girsa of wine on pesach, the gemara explains is because of Pirsumeh NisaGemara, publicizing the miracleRif and Rambam. Maggid Mishna (Chanuka 4Brurah 676:1, based on early sources quoted in Shaar Hatziyun 1. Orchos Rabbeinu 3:12) 17 says from here Rambam learns all that the more so is there publiczing the miracle by candles practice of Chanuka. The Lechem Mishna ibid argues the law of publicizing the miracle by Chanuka is just equal Chazon Ish was to say lehadlik ner shelachanukah (one word with a patach under the 4 cups of winelamed). Sh”t Kanaf Ranana O”C 84 explains Clearly, if a Sephardi said it with the word Shel he fulfills his obligation (Chazon Ovadyah pg 125). Although the Miggid Mishna Shibolei HaLeket (Siman 185) argues that Chanuka candles are more important since it’s the only way to publicize compared to pesach where there’s an entire sedertext of first bracha should be Al Mitzvat Hadlakat Ner [[Chanukah]], the Rosh (Pesachim 1:10) cites Rabbeinu Tam and Riva, who justify the text of [[LeHadlik Ner Shel Chanuka]]. S”A 676:1 rules that the text is LeHadlik. </ref> # The minimum requirement of candles is one candle per house every night# ברוך אתה ה' אלוקינו מלך העולם, שעשה נסים לאבותינו בימים ההם בזמן הזה## ברוך אתה ה' אלוקינו מלך העולם, שהחינו וקימנו והגענו לזמן הזה## Baruch Atta Hashem Elokenu Melech HaOlam Asher Kidishanu BeMitzvotav VeTzivanu Lehadlik Ner (Ashkenazim add: Shel) [[Chanukah]]. The practice is ## Baruch Atta Hashem Elokenu Melech HaOlam SheAssa Nissim LeAvotenu Bayamim Hahem Bazman Hazeh. <ref> Aruch hashulchan 676:3, Orchos Rabbeinu 3:17, and Koveitz Halachos 6:3 actually recommend saying bizman hazeh as opposed to do this mitzvah in the most beautified (Mehadrin) which means bazman hazeh. </ref>## Baruch Atta Hashem Elokenu Melech HaOlam SheHechiyanu Vekiyemanu Vehiygianu Lazman Hazeh.# Many poskim say that one candle for every person in should say all of the [[Brachot]] before lighting the candles, while others say that after the house every first night is lit. one should say LeHadlik, light one candle, then say She’asa Nissim and light the rest. <Ref> The best Gemara (Mehadrin Min HaMehadrin[[Shabbat]] 23a) way to fulfill this mitzvah is according to Sephardim, for one person per house to light one candle on says that on the first night and to add another candle each night and according to Ashkenazim, for every person to light for themselves one candle on the first night should say three [[Brachot]]: LeHadlik, She’asa Nissim, and to add another candle each night[[Shehechiyanu]]. <ref> Shabbat 21b as understood by Sephardim and AshkenazimOn the remaining nights, one says only two [[Brachot]], leaving out [[Shehechiyanu]]. The Rambam (Chanuka [[Chanukah]] 3:4), Tur, and S”A 676:1-2codify this as halacha. * The Maharil (Responsa 145) rules writes that each night one adds one candle for each member should recite all of the household. [He adds that [Brachot]] before lighting, in accordance with the Minhag principle of Spain is to only light add one candle every night per household[[Over LeAsiyatan]].] So holds Rabbenu Yehonatan in name of Ran (Shabbat 21b), Piskei Riaz (Shabbat The Rama 676:2, Chanuka 5)Kitzur S”A 139:12, Rif explained by Buir HaGra 671Mishna Brurah 676:4, and Kaf HaChaim 676:21 concur with the Maharil. However, Tosfot Rav Mordechai Willig (Shabbat 21b D”H VeHaMehadrin) in name of the Ri writes Hilchos [[Chanukah]] and [[Purim]] #1, 35-6) commented that one should only have one increasing per household so that it’s recognizable what night of the Chanuka it minhag islike the Rama. So writes Mordechai * On the other hand, the Maharam (Shabbat 270cited by Hagahot Maimoniyot 3:2) in name of , based on the RiMasechet Sofrim, said LeHadlik before lighting, Meiri leaving She’asa Nissim and [[Shehechiyanu]] for afterwards. Rav Soloveitchik (Shabbat 21bquoted in Nefesh HaRav p. 224 and Mesorah vol 4, p. 8) explained that such is the Minhag, Ran (ibidMasechet Sofrim holds that the Bracha of She’asa Nissim functions as a Birkat HaRoeh and should be made after seeing the candles lit.) He notes that in name of Raahorder to satisfy both views, Tur(671). Ritva (Shabbat 21b) brings both explanations Rav Chaim’s practice was that on all nights besides the first, he would say LeHadlik, light the first candle, say She’asa Nissim, and then light the rest of the Gemaracandles. S”A 671:2 holds like Tosfot and Rama ibidOn the first night, when this is impossible, he made all three [[Brachot]] before lighting. holds like Rambam. Interesting Points: The Taz 671Rabbeinu Yerucham (9:1 writes that here is ) quotes a case where Ashkenazim follow Rambam and Sephardim follow Tosfotsimilar idea in the name of Rabbeinu Yonah. Chemed Moshe 671:4 argues that </ref># If one forgot to say the Rambam concludes so is [[Brachot]] and remembers after he finished lighting before a half hour passed, one should recite “SheAssa Nissim” and "[[Shehecheyanu]]", on the Minhag first night, but not like “Lehadlik Ner”. If one remembers before one finishes lighting the ruling, meaning it’s an old practice even before his time. The Torat HaMoadim candles (Chanuka pg 18on the 2nd day and on) brings one can make all the Rama in Darkei Moshe 671:1 who says [[Brachot]] then and finish the Ashkenazi practice goes even according lighting. <ref> Sh”t Rabbenu Avraham Ben HaRambam 83 writes that it is forbidden to Tosfot since say the candles are indoors and separatebracha of LeHadlik Neirot [[Chanukah]] after one finished lighting [[Chanukah]] candles. Tzeddai Chem (Chanuka 9Shulchan Gavoha 676:4) argues 3 writes that if one remembers any time the Ashkenazic practice for each member of the household to light isn’t like candles are lit one may still say “SheAssa Nissim” and "[[Shehecheyanu]]", on the Rambam who says first night because he should be no worse that one a person lights for everyone according who isn't lighting and just saw the candles so is allowed to the number of peoplesay these [[brachot]] ([[Birchat HaRoeh]]). Sh”t Demeshk Eliezer Y”D 47 agrees. For this reason many challenge However, see also the Rama Sefer Pardes (Rabbenu Asher Ben Chaim pg 66) who quotes his ruling in name of says one can say it as long as the Rambam including Maamar Mordechai 671candles are burning. Sh”t Halachot Ketanot 1:4, Bet Halevi on Torah 3 and Yad Aharon (Chanuka pg 69Hagahot Tur 676). Yet, say that one can make all the [[Brachot]] as long as one didn’t finish lighting all the candles of Hidur. Sh”t Maharil 145, Sh”t Trumat Hadeshen 101, and Sh”t Mahari Mebrona 50 hold Rabbi Akiva Eiger (Mehudra Tanina 13) writes that if one remembers before one finishes one can make all the [[Brachot]] but if one only remembers after he finishes lighting he can’t make Lehadlik Ner just like the explanation held by the Rama and could be sources for his opinion. Also, the Alfasi Zuta [[Brachot]] HaRoeh(Shabbat 2 beginningS”A 676:3) says . Mishna Brurah 676:4, Ben Ish Chaim Vayeshev 10, and Sh”t Chatav Sofer O”C 135 agree.Torat HaMoadim 6:9 adds that since we learn the Rama is following after lighting one can still make the idea bracha of SheAssa Nisim from [[Brachot]] HaRoeh it only applies to the Rambam to light according to first half hour after one sees the number of household members but in order candles as by [[Brachot]] HaRoeh. </ref># If one forgot to satisfy Tosfot’s issue of being recognizable, every person lights instead of say [[Shehecheyanu]] before lighting one person can say it in the half hour after lighting. If one didn’t say it the first night one should say it the second night and so on. So too, if on the eighth night one forgot one can say it in the half hour after lighting. <ref> Shibolei HaLeket 186 and Orchot Chaim ([[Chanukah]] 10) quote a Teshuvat Hagoanim to which Rabbenu Yishaya says that one can say [[Shehecheyanu]] any day after the first when he remembers; BI"H, [[Chanukah]], 3 concurs . Piskei Rid ([[Shabbat]] 23a) explains it means one can only make the bracha at the time of the lighting. However, Bach 676 in name of the Maharash says not to say [[Shehecheyanu]] the second night. Nonetheless, Meiri ([[Shabbat]] 23a) and Riaz (23a), also write that one lights [[Shehecheyanu]] the first night one lights. This is also the opinion of Sh”t Maharam (Prague Edition 57), Tur 676 in name of the Rosh and S”A 676:1. </ref># After the half hour of lighting one can’t say the [[Brachot]]. <ref> Levush 676, Pri [[Chadash]] 676:1, Sh”t Sadeh HaAretz O”C 38, Birkei Yosef 692:1, and Sh”t Igrot Moshe 1:190 hold that one can only make the [[Shehecheyanu]] at the time of the lighting. However, Yavetz in Mor Ukesiah 692, Sh”T Mahari Molcho 78, Sh”t Zera Emet 1:96, and Taharat Mayim (Shiurei Tahara 8:3) hold it can be said any time during [[Chanukah]]. Nonetheless, Mishna Brurah (676:2 and Shar Tzion 676:3), and Torat HaMoadim 6:12 say that because of a Safek [[Brachot]] one doesn’t make [[Brachot]] past the time of lighting. Taharat Mayim implies that by SheAssa Nissim one can say it anytime against the Mor Ukesiah who says that SheAssa Nissim can only be said over the candles. Sh”t Yechave Daat 2:77 says because of Safek [[Brachot]] one doesn’t say SheAssa Nissim not over candles. </ref># If someone had his wife or anyone else light for him the first night he fulfill his obligation of saying [[Shehecheyanu]] and shouldn’t say it the next night. <ref> Bach 676 says that his wife’s lighting with [[Brachot]] doesn’t exempt him from [[Shehecheyanu]]. So says Eliyah Raba 676:5. Torat HaMoadim 6:13 explain that this is the Bach according to his opinion that one who has someone lighting for him at home makes [[Brachot]] HaRoah; however since we hold (S”A 676:3) that if one has someone lighting for home doesn’t make [[Brachot]] HaRoah here too, one fulfills [[Shehecheyanu]] with his wife’s lighting. This is also the opinion of Sharei Knesset Hagedolah 676:2, Magen Avraham 676:2, Pri Megadim A”A 676:2, Mishna Brurah 676:7, and Kaf HaChaim 676:26. Sh”t Yabia Omer O”C 4:50 (4-5), 6:42(3-4) holds that even by [[Shehecheyanu]] we apply [[Safek Brachot LeHakel]]. </ref> ==Order of Lighting==[[Image:Bet Yosef lighting.png|250px|thumb| Shulchan Aruch's order of lighting|right]] # The common practice is that on the first night one lights the rightmost candle. On the second night, one lights the candle that is second to the right (i.e. the new one) followed by the candle all the way to the right. One continues to add candles to the left each night, lighting the new candle first and moving from left to right. <Ref>* The picture of Shulchan Aruch's lighting is above by the summarized halacha. The pictures for the other opinions are below or see different drawings in [http://www.hebrewbooks.org/pdfpager.aspx?req=46444&st=&pgnum=631 Sefer Natai Gavriel (Chanukah pg 637)]. [[Image:Levush's lighting.png| thumb|Levush's order of lighting|250px]] [[Image:Gra's lighting.png| thumb| Gra's order of lighting |250px]]* Maharik (Responsa 183, cited by Beit Yosef 676:5 s.v. Aval) writes that on the first night, one should light the rightmost candle and on subsequent nights should add a candle to the left and light the new one first, such that one lights from left to right (the way English is written). He bases his argument on the Gemara (Sotah 15b) that a person always should turn to the right, which the Mordechai ([[Shabbat]] 2:268) applied to lighting [[chanuka]] candles. The Shulchan Aruch 676:5 codifies this as halacha. This is also the opinion of the Arizal (Shaar Kavanot pg 108c), Nagid VeMitzvah (26:72), Maharil (quoted by the Magen Avraham 676:5), Chazon Ovadia pg. 32. * [The Trumat Hadeshen 106 agrees that if one is lighting opposite the [[Mezuzah]] then one should light from left to right with the new candle always being the leftmost candle which is within a [[Tefach]] of the door. However, if there’s no [[mezuzah]], and one is lighting on the right side of the door as one enters, then one should light right to left so that the new candle is always the rightmost candle and is within a [[Tefach]] of the door. The Sh”t Maharshal 85 agrees with the Trumat HaDeshen. However, the Bet Yosef 676:5 quotes the Trumat HaDeshen and argues that there shouldn’t be any difference whether one is lighting on the left or right of the door one should always light the new candle first and light from left to right.]* However, the Levush (676:5) and Taz (676:6) argue that the Gemara means in one’s first decision between right and left one should go right, but afterwards one may continue to follow that path even if that means going left. Therefore, they rule that on the first night, the candle is placed in the leftmost position, and on the subsequent nights the candles are put to the right of the previous candles and are lit from right to left. This is also the opinion of the Sh”t Panim Meirot 1:98 and Sh”t Semach Tzedek O”C 67.* A third approach is that of the Gr”a (Bei’ur HaGra 676:5 and Maaseh Rav 232). He writes that one always should light the candle closest to the door first, even if it is not the newest candle and even if it means lighting from right to left. * Halacha: Mishna Brurah 676:9 quotes the Bet Yosef and the Gra and concludes one can do like either one. The Pri HaChadash, Be'er Sheva (Sotah 15b), Nezirut Shimshon (Sotah 15b), Sh”t Chatam Sofer O”C 187, Chazon Ovadiah ([[Chanukah]] pg 33) argue on the Levush and hold like S”A. Kovetz Hamoadim (Moriah pg 61), Evan [[Israel]] (9 pg 129a), Sadeh HaAretz O”C 3:33, and Nehar Mitzrayim [[Chanukah]] 7, the Kitzur S”A 139:11, Kaf HaChaim 676:31, Aruch HaShulchan 676:11, Natai Gavriel ([[Chanukah]] 28:2, pg 177), and Yalkut Yosef (Moadim pg 229) write that the halacha and minhag follow Shulchan Aruch. Rav Mordechai Willig (Hilchos [[Chanukah]] and [[Purim]] #1, 37-8) observed that the minhag is like the S”A.* Rav Hershel Schachter (Halachipedia Article 5773 #10) said that common practice is to put the candles in from right to left. He explained that the idea is to start the candles within a [[tefach]] of the doorway.</ref># Ideally one should stand near the candles on the left side of the chanukia so that one need not pass over the candles on the right when lighting.<ref>Mishna Brurah 676:11</ref># Some say one should say HaNeirot Halalu after lighting the first candle, while others suggest saying it after lighting all the candles.<Ref>Masechet Sofrim 20:4 says that a person should say HaNeirot Halalu and implies that it is said in middle of the lighting. Magen Avraham 676:3 says that HaNeirot should be recited after lighting the first candle, while Pri Megadim M”Z 676:5 suggests that perhaps since the Bracha applies to all of the candles, one should say HaNeirot Halalu after lighting all of the candles. Mishna Brurah 676:8 cites both opinions. </ref># Some say that one shouldn't blow out a candle but if one needs to put them out, he should extinguish it another way.<ref>Kaf HaChaim YD 116:115</ref> Others say that there's no concern nowadays.<ref>Rivevot Efraim 8:103:6</ref> ==Number of Candles to Light==# The mitzvah of lighting [[Chanukah]] candles is a very special and dear mitzvah. Even a poor person should rent or sell his clothing or hire himself out in order to get enough money to purchase at least one candle for every night. The Gabbai [[Tzedaka]] (local [[charity]] distributor) needs to make sure that the poor have enough money to purchase at least one candle every night. <ref>The above halacha is a quote from the Rambam [[Chanukah]] 4:12 and S”A 671:1. This is based on the Mishna (Pesachim 99b) which states that a poor person may take from the [[charity]] fund in order to purchase the 4 cups of wine on [[Pesach]]. The Gemara explains that the poor can take from [[charity]] for this because it has the very significant purpose of Pirsumeh Nisa, publicizing the miracle of our leaving Egypt. The [[Maggid]] Mishna ([[Chanukah]] 4:12) comments that this is the source of the Rambam's ruling that even a poor should should rent or sell his clothing in order to be able to light [[Chanukah]] candles because concept of publicizing the miracle applies even more to [[Chanukah]] than by the 4 cups of [[Pesach]]. The Lechem Mishne ([[Chanukah]] 4:12) argues the law of publicizing the miracle by [[Chanukah]] is equal to the 4 cups of wine. The Sh”t Kanaf Ranana O”C 84 defends the Miggid Mishna saying that the [[Chanukah]] candles are the only way in which we publicize the miracle of [[Chanukah]], whereas regarding [[Pesach]] there are other actions we do to publicize the miracle besides the 4 cups of wine. </ref> # The minimum requirement of [[Chanukah]] candles is that each household should have one candle lit every night. The next best method (Mehadrin) to fulfill this mitzvah is by lighting one candle for every person in the house every night. The best (Mehadrin Min HaMehadrin) way to fulfill this mitzvah is: according to Sephardim, for one person per house to light one candle on the first night and to add another candle each night and according to Ashkenazim, for every person to light for themselves one candle on the first night and to add another candle each night. <ref> * The Braitta on Gemara [[Shabbat]] 21b states that the minimum requirement of [[Chanukah]] candles is that each household should have one candle lit every night. The next best method (Mehadrin) to fulfill this mitzvah is by lighting one candle for every person in the house every night. The best (Mehadrin Min HaMehadrin) way to fulfill this mitzvah is to increase the number of candles light each night, one on the first night, two on the second, and so on. However, regarding the last method there is a dispute to it's precise explanation. * The Rambam ([[Chanukah]] 4:1-2) rules that each night one should add one candle per person per night, meaning that for a family of 10, the first night there would 10 candles and 20 the second night. [He adds that the Minhag of Spain is to only light add one candle per household increasing according to the number of the night.] This is also the opinion of the Rabbenu Yehonatan in name of Ran ([[Shabbat]] 21b), Piskei Riaz ([[Shabbat]] 2, [[Chanukah]] 5), and Rif explained by Buir HaGra 671:4. * However, Tosfot ([[Shabbat]] 21b s.v. VeHaMehadrin) in name of the Ri writes that one should only have one increasing per household so that it’s recognizable what night of the [[Chanukah]] it is. So writes Mordechai ([[Shabbat]] 270) in name of the Ri, Meiri ([[Shabbat]] 21b) that such is the Minhag, Ran ([[Shabbat]] 21b) in name of Raah, Tur(671). Ritva ([[Shabbat]] 21b) brings both explanations of the Gemara. S”A 671:2 holds like Tosfot and Rama 671:2 holds like Rambam. * The custom of Sephardim, as recorded in S"A 671:2 is to have one chanukia per household and increase the number of candles according to the day. This is the ruling of Chazon Ovadia pg. 19. * Interesting point: The Taz 671:1 writes that here is a case where Ashkenazim uncharacteristically follow the Rambam and Sephardim follow Tosfot. Chemed Moshe 671:4 argues that the Rambam concludes so is the Minhag not like the ruling, meaning it’s an old practice even before his time. The Torat HaMoadim ([[Chanukah]] pg 18) brings the Rama in Darkei Moshe 671:1 who says the Ashkenazi practice goes even according to Tosfot since the candles are indoors and separate. Sdei Chemed ([[Chanukah]] 9:4) argues that the Ashkenazic practice for each member of the household to light isn’t like the Rambam who says that one person lights for everyone according to the number of people. For this reason many challenge the Rama who quotes his ruling in name of the Rambam including Maamar Mordechai 671:4, Bet Halevi on Torah ([[Chanukah]] pg 69). Yet, the Sh”t Maharil 145, Sh”t Trumat Hadeshen 101, and Sh”t Mahari Mebrona 50 hold like the explanation held by the Rama and could be sources for his opinion. Also, the Alfasi Zuta ([[Shabbat]] 2 beginning) says that the Rama is following the idea of the Rambam to light according to the number of household members but in order to satisfy Tosfot’s issue of being recognizable, every person lights instead of one person lighting.</ref># If one missed lighting one day it can’t be made up and the next night one should light the number everyone else is lighting. <ref> S”A 672:2. Siddur Rashi 316 pg 151 quotes Rabbenu Yitzchak Bar Yehuda who says that there’s no make up for a missed day, otherwise those who see will think you’re violating the words of the Rabbis. So writes the Tur 672. There’s a dispute whether this means that since it can’t be made up one doesn’t light the next night or one lights like the rest of the world. The Sh”t Maaseh Geonim (55 pg 43) quoting Rabbenu Yitzchak Bar Yehuda that the next night one lights like everyone else. (Thus, Rabbenu Yitzchak means not to light the amount of the night he missed with the amount of that night because that would look like he’s going against the Rabbis); So hold Mordechai 2:268 explained by Sh”t Maharil 28, Agudah ([[Shabbat]] 31), Roke’ach 226 pg 128, Shibolei Leket 186, and Pardes Hagadol 199. However, Sefer Minhagim in name of Meharar MeMerizberg writes that the next night one should light the number of candles you missed last night. [He understood Rabbenu Yitzchak quoted by the Tur that one can’t add 8 candles on the 9th night.] Darkei Moshe 672:3 holds like the Agudah and Rokeach against the Maharam.</ref># If one lit two candles on the first night, he fulfills his obligation and doesn’t have to relight the right number of candles. <ref> Rav Shlomo Kluger (Sh”t HaElef Lecha Shlomo O”C 380) says adding to the number doesn’t ruin the mitzvah as the Rama 263 says by [[Shabbat]] candles. However, Sh”t Ohel Moshe 69 and Sh”t Mishna Sachir O”C 199 argue that since he lit the wrong number, someone seeing this will think he didn’t light it for [[Chanukah]] candles but just for the light. Yet, the Pri [[Chadash]] 675 says one who extinguishes the candles fulfills the mitzvah since the candles are in a Chanukiya that’s only used for [[Chanukah]] it’s recognizable that he lit for [[Chanukah]]. Also, Eliya Raba 671:7 says the first night doesn’t need to illustrate the number of the nights. Sh”t Lehorot Natan 2:51, Sh”t Shraga HaMeir 4:73, 5:75(1), Sh”t Shevet Hakehati 1:202 hold like Sh”t HaElef Lecha Shlomo. Chazon Ovadiah pg. 29 agrees and adds that one who repeats and makes a bracha is making a bracha levatala.</ref>===If One Doesn't Have Enough Candles===# If one only has enough oil for one night and not all 8, he should light for one night according to Halacha and the rest of the nights he will be exempt because it is beyond his control. He should not split it into 8 cups and light less than the halachically required amount on each night. <ref> Chazon Ovadia pg. 28, Shu"t Sde Ha'aretz OC 3:34.* The Beit Yosef famously asks why it is that we celebrate Chanuka for 8 days, if after all they had enough oil for one day, so the miracle was only for 7 days. One of the answers he proposes is that in they split the one cup of oil into 8 parts, and it miraculously lit for the full time. Accordingly, the Neta Sorek (Chiddushei Sugyot 73b) and Divrei Tzvi 671 write that if you only have enough oil for one night, you should split it into 8 cups. However, Chazon Ovadia pg. 28 writes that most poskim disagree and argue that there is no proof from there because the Beit Hamikdash was different because they were accustomed to miracles.</ref># If one has two cups of oil on the second night, and can light the full amount for that night, but he doesn't have anything for the future nights, he should only light one that night and save the other for the next night. <ref> Chayei Adam 154:25, Chazon Ovadia pg. 29 </ref># If, on the eighth night, one doesn't have enough for all 8 candles, he should put enough into one candle to light for the full time, and split the rest between other cups to light 8 for a short amount of time. He should not split all the oil into 8 and be left without a candle that will light for the full amount of time.<ref>Magen Avraham 671:1, Eliya Rabba 671:1, Chazon Ovadia pg. 29 </ref># If on the second night, one only has one candle and he lights that one and later finds another candle, he cannot say a beracha on that second candle because you cannot say a beracha just for the hiddur.<Ref> Chazon Ovadia pg. 30 , Beit Yosef 672, Birkei Yosef 671:3</ref># If on the third night, one only has enough oil to light two candles, he should only light one and not two.<ref> Chazon Ovadia pg. 31, Mishna Brura 671:5, Kaf Hachaim 671:10, Beit Halevi (Al Hatorah, Inyani Chanuka 29b), Chayei Adam 154:25, Shu"t Ketav Sofer 135, Shu"t Shevet Sofer 26, Aruch Hashulchan 671:10, Shu"t Mishpat Kohen 95. Avi Ezri (Chanuka 4:1) disagrees and says you should light as many candles as you have, even if it doesn't correspond to the night you are up to </ref> However, if he can split the second cup into two and light one full cup and two half cups, he should do so.<ref> Chazon Ovadia pg 32</ref> ==How long should the candles last?==For background, see the [[How Long Do Chanukah Candles Have To Be Lit?]] page.# The candles only need fuel to burn for a half hour<ref>Shulchan Aruch 672:2</ref> even nowadays when people are out in the street much later.<ref>[[Shabbat]] 21b says the time of Tichle Regel is when the Tarmodeans (merchants) leave, which the Rif says is about a half hour. The Rambam ([[Chanukah]] 4:5) and Orchot Chaim ([[Chanukah]] 15) write it’s a half hour or (a little) more. The Rosh (2:3), Rabben Yerucham 9:1, Meiri, S”A 672:2, Mishna Brurah 672:1 (who is strict to satisfy all opinions to light by [[Shekiah]] and have it last a half hour past Tzet), and Torat HaMoadim 4:5 agree that the candles need enough oil to be lit for a half hour. Some say that the practice of the Griz was that since the Gemara sets the ending time for candles as when people leave the marketplace, nowadays when many people stay at the marketplace late into the night one should have to light longer than a half hour. Indeed, Avodot VeHanagot LeBet Brisk says that the Griz himself challenged that idea when he heard it from another Rabbi in Brisk, yet he lit candles that lasted for very long only as a hiddur mitzvah. Also, Yomin DeChanukah and Leket Yoshar say there’s a hiddur mitzvah to light for longer than a half hour. However, Chazon Ovadiah pg 66, Sh”t Mishna Halachot 4 pg 79, and Sh”t Or Letzion 44 argue that the measure set by Chazal (a half hour) hasn’t changed because of the practice of our time. Halachos of Chanukah by Rabbi Eider p. 20 agrees.</ref> # If one doesn’t have enough for the each Hidur candle, the Hidur candles don’t need to burn for a half hour. <ref> Magen Avraham 671:1 </ref># A person who is in doubt if his candles will last a half hour can nonetheless light with a bracha. <ref> Smag in name of the Ri, Hagahot Maimon ([[Chanukah]] 4:2), Ravyah (843 pg 579) in name of Rabbenu Tam hold that no minimum measure is needed (the gemara’s two explanation of ‘Tichleh Regel Min HaShuk’ argue and we hold the first explanation). Similarly, Hilchot and Minhagei Maharash in name of Rimzei HaRosh (quoted by Darkei Moshe 672:1), Piskei Tosfot ([[Shabbat]] 89), Leket Yoshar pg 151, Shiltei Giborim([[Shabbat]] 9a:5), Taharat Mayim Shuirei Tahara 8:9, Sh”t Chochavei Yitzchak 1:5(3), Sh”t Bear Tzvi 31 that nowadays when we don’t light for Parsumei Nisa of the public, we don’t need a minimum measure. Thus we have a Safek Safeka(double doubt) perhaps no minimum measure is needed and perhaps even if the measure is necessary, the candle will last the minimum measure. Chazon Ovadiah ([[Chanukah]] pg 67) says if one wants to make a bracha, he can make a bracha with this Safek Sefaka. For more about Safek Safaka BeBrachot see Sh”t Yachave Daat 5:21 (the footnote), Otzrot Yosef 4:3, and Sh”t Chazon Ovadiah 48 pg 866.</ref>
==Getting benefit from the light of the candles==
# It’s forbidden to get benefit from the light of the candles for the first half hour, even on minimal tasks like checking the value of a coin. <Ref> [[Shabbat ]] 22a brought by S”A 673:1 writes that it’s a disgrace to mitzvah to benefit from the candles. Sh”t Ginat Veradim (Began HaMelech 42) writes that the prohibition applies equally to the new candle of mitzvah and extra candles of Hidur. So rules Bear Hetiev 673:2, Sh”T Sh”t Ketav Sofer O”C 133, and Simchat Yehuda (Masechet Soferim 20:6)agree. </ref># However a minimal task that’s for a mitzvah is permitted, but learning by the light of the candles isn’t considered a minimal task. <Ref> Biur Beiur Halacha 673:1, quoted by Yalkut Yosef (Kitzur S”A 673). </ref> # It is permitted to walk by the light of the Chanuka candles and that isn't considered benefiting.<ref>Yalkut Yosef (Moadim Asur Lishtamesh Lorah n. 3). One proof is the Yerushalmi that the Rosh (Seder Avodat Yom Kippur, cited by Bet Yosef 621:4) quotes that the Kohen Gadol would walk in the Kodesh Kadoshim by the light of the Aron. However, the Zohar 3:16a implies that the Kohen Gadol would close his eyes. </ref>
# Therefore it’s the Minhag to light a Shamash so that if one does use the light of the candles it’ll be permitted because of the Shamash. <Ref> Yalkut Yosef (Kitzur S”A 673) </ref>
# The Shamash should be placed slightly higher than the other candles or recognizable distant from the others. <Ref> Yalkut Yosef (Kitzur S”A 673)</ref>
# Nowadays when we have electric lights if the lights are on some say one doesn’t need a Shamash and some say it’s still part of the Minhag. <Ref> Rav Kanievsky (Sefer Yamei [[Hallel ]] VeHodah 25 note 11) says that the Minhag applies even if there’s electric candles. Rav Shlomo Zalman Aurbach (Berchat Moshe; quoted by Halichot Yosef pg 319) says if there are electric lights one doesn’t need a Shamash. </ref> == If done incorrectly==# If one missed lighting one day it can’t be made up and the next night one should light the number everyone else is lighting. <ref> S”A 672:2. Siddur Rashi 316 pg 151 quotes Rabbenu Yitzchak Bar Yehuda who says that there’s no make up for a missed day, otherwise those who see will think you’re violating the words of the Rabbis. So writes the Tur 672. There’s a dispute whether this means that since it can’t be made up one doesn’t light the next night or one lights like the rest of the world. The Sh”t Maaseh Geonim (55 pg 43) quoting Rabbenu Yitzchak Bar Yehuda that the next night one lights like everyone else. (Thus, Rabbenu Yitzchak means not to light the amount of the night he missed with the amount of that night because that would look like he’s going against the Rabbis); So hold Mordechai 2:268 explained by Sh”t Maharil 28, Agudah (Shabbat 31), Roke’ach 226 pg 128, Shibolei Leket 186, and Pardes Hagadol 199. However, Sefer Minhagim in name of Meharar MeMerizberg writes that the next night one should light the number of candles you missed last night. [He understood Rabbenu Yitzchak quoted by the Tur that one can’t add 8 candles on the 9th night.] Darkei Moshe 672:3 holds like the Agudah and Rokeach against the Maharam.</ref># If one lit two candles on the first night, he fulfills his obligation and doesn’t have to relight the right number of candles. <ref> Sh”t HaElef Lecha Shlomo O”C 380 says adding to the number doesn’t ruin the mitzvah as the Rama 263 says by Shabbat candles. However, Sh”t Ohel Moshe 69 and Sh”t Mishna Sachir O”C 199 argue since he lit the wrong number someone seeing this will think he didn’t lit it for Chanuka candles just for light. Yet, the Pri Chadash 675 says one who extinguishes the candles fulfills the mitzvah since the candles are in a Chanukiya that’s only used for Chanuka it’s recognizable that he lit for Chanuka. Also, Eliya Raba 671:7 says the first night doesn’t need to illustrate the number of the nights. Sh”t Lehorot Natan 2:51, Sh”t Shraga HaMeir 4:73, 5:75(1), Sh”t Shevet Hakehati 1:202 hold like Sh”t HaElef Lecha Shlomo. Chazon Ovadiah (Mitzvah Hadlaka 6, pg 29) agrees and adds that one who repeats and makes a bracha is making a bracha levatala.</ref> == Placement of the Chanukia/Direction of Lighting==# [All left and right’s are for someone standing inside the house looking at the doorway.] The Chanukia should be placed within a tefach of the right side of the door, opposite the post with the mezuzah. The first night the candle should be placed on the right most side of the Chanukia, furthest from the door. The second night the two candles should be placed on the right most spots and be lit from left to right (the way English is written), moving your hand away from the door, always lighting the new candle first. <ref> S”A 676:5, Arizal (Shaar Kavanot pg 108c), Nagid VeMitzvah (26:72), Mahari Kolon 183, Mordechai (Shabbat 2:268), Maharil (quoted by the Magan Avraham 676:5), Trumat Hadeshen 106, and Bet Yosef 676 hold that one lights from left to right so that “all your turns are to the right”. However Levush and Taz (676:6) say if there’s a mezuzah one sets the first night’s candle on the left most side, closest to the door. The second night the candles are put in the left most spots and are always lit from right to left. So hold Maaseh Rav 232, Sh”t Panim Meirot 1:98, Sh”t Semach Tzedek O”C 67. However Pri HaChadash, Bear Sheva (Sotah 15b), Nezirut Shimshon (Sotah 15b), Sh”t Chatam Sofer O”C 187, Chazon Ovadiah (Chanuka pg 33) argue on the Levush and hold like S”A. A third approach is that of the Gra who says that instead of lighting the newest candle first one must light the same candle first every night. Thus if there’s a mezuzah one set up the candles closer to the door on the left side of the Chanukia and lit from left to right. Mishna Brurah 676:5 quotes the Bet Yosef and the Gra and concludes one can do like either one. However the follow hold like S”A against the Gra: Kovetz Hamoedim (Moriah pg 61), Evan Israel (9 pg 129a), Sadeh HaAretz O”C 3:33, Nehar Mitzrayim Chanuka 7, and Kaf HaChaim 676:31. </ref># If there’s no Mezuzah on the door, the Chanukia should be put within a tefach of the left side of the door (where the mezuzah usually goes). The first night the candle should be placed on the right most side of the Chanukia, closest from the door. The second night the two candles should be placed on the right most spots and be lit from left to right (the way English is written), moving your hand towards the door, always lighting the new candle first. <ref> S”A 671:7 rules if there’s no mezuzah the candles should be put on the left side where the mezuzah usually goes, so says Sefer HaManhig, Ravyah 843, Hagot Maimon (Chanuka 4:8) in name of Rabbenu Simcha, Mordechai (Shabbat 2:266) in name of Rabbenu Yakar, Or Zaruh (2:323) in name of Rabbenu Efraim, Sh”t Maharam MeRotenberg (defus prag 66), Likutim Mehilchot Amarchal 24b, Hagot Rabbenu Peretz to Smak 280, Ran (Shabbat 22a), Tur 671, and Sh”t Maharil 40 against the Orchot Chaim (Chanuka 3), Kol Bo 44, and Sefer HaMeorot (Shabbat 22a) who say even without a mezuzah it’s still put on the right. [Note to reader: the right and left used in this footnote is the reverse of the language found in the sources brought in this footnote because the sources are looking from the perspective of someone walking into the house with the mezuzah on his right, however the sources by the directions of lighting discuss it from the perspective of someone standing inside or outside (by the entrance) facing the public domain [for example: the newest candle is the one closer to the door and it’s lit first so that one’s hand is moving left to right so that “all your turns are to the right” (Bet Yosef)]. For conformity, the directions here are all set to the directions of lighting (which are more easily confused).] </ref># If there’s a courtyard in front of a house it should be put by the doorway of the courtyard and not the doorway of house. But one who lives in an upper floor without a doorway to the public, should light by a window or porch facing the public. <ref> Rashi (Shabbat 21a D”H Mibachutz) says the chanukia isn’t put in the reshut harabim but in the courtyard. The Rashba and Ran explain this to mean that it should be put at the doorway to the house and not the doorway to the courtyard. So holds the Smag (Chanuka) in name of the Ri (not the same one as tosfot, see Bach 671:5), Hagot Maimon (Chanuka 4:30) in name of Ri, Riaz(Shabbat 21a), and Shiltei Giborim(Shabbat 21a). However Tosfot (Shabbat 21a D”H Mitzvah) writes it should be put outside the entrance to the courtyard. So holds Piskei Rid, Rashba, Tur, and S”A 671:5. Rashi (Shabbat 21b D”H im haya dar ba’aliya) writes that one living in an upper floor only puts it by the window if he has no place to put it in the courtyard (this fits with his opinion of putting it in the courtyard not on the entrance). Similarly, the Tur says one puts it by the window only if one doesn’t have a doorway to the public. Implying that if one has a courtyard or door facing the public, that’s preferable to a window. [However Bet Yosef 671:5 comments on the Tur that only if the door to the public or a entrance of a courtyard but if the doorway to the apartment goes into the house itself, putting it by the doorway to the public or courtyard won’t be recognizable that it belongs to the apartment and so it must be put in the window. Nonetheless, Torat HaMoadim 3:2 based on Ritva (Shabbat 21b) says that the Bet Yosef’s concern doesn’t apply to the stairwell because it’s known that all the tenants have rights to the stairwell an upper floor apartment can still put a chanukia there.] </ref># In an apartment building some say that the stairwell is a courtyard and one should light at the entrance to the stairwell towards the public domain <ref>Maadei Shlomo pg 110, Halichot Shlomo 14:1, Shevut Yitzchak vol 5 pg 7 in name of Rav Elyashiv, Kol Bo Chanuka (pg 98) in name of the Griz and Rabbi Yosef Kahenmen</ref> while others say that nowadays we don’t use the stairwell like a courtyard thus light in the apartment itself. <Ref>Orchot Rabbenu (vol 3 pg 3) in name of the Chazon Ish (similar to Chazon Ish OC Eiruvin 65:52) and Yalkut Yosef (Moadim pg 198; Rav Ovadyah in Kol Torah 5725) </ref># Nowadays one doesn’t have to light a Chanukia for a door on a side of the house for which there is no Chanukia. <ref> Shabbat 23a Rav Huna says because of suspicion if a house has two doors (to the outside) he should light by both, and Rava explains that’s only if the doors are on separate sides. So holds Rambam (Chanuka 4:10), Tur and S”A 671:8. However nowadays one doesn’t have to light because of suspicion. So holds Sefer HaTruma 228, Smak 280, Orchot Chaim (Chanuka 13) in name of Rabbi Yehuda MeKorvin, Hagot Maimon (Chanuka 4:30) in name of Rabbenu Simcha, Sh”t HaRashba 1:541, Ritva (Shabbat 23a), Meiri, Mordechai (Shabbat 2:266), Sefer HaMeorot (Shabbat 23a), Shibolei HaLeket 185, Ohel Moed (Chanuka 5, Rama 671, Sh”t Maharshal, Hagot Maharikash, Pri Chadash, Sh”t Bet David O”C 472, Torat HaMoadim 3:8. </ref># Nowadays many have the practice to light indoors even not when it’s dangerous to light outside. Still it should be put to the left of the door (opposite the mezuzah) within a tefach of door. However if there’s a window facing the public, one should light by the window. [Some are strict to light outside with a covering.] <ref> Seemingly the only exemption to lighting outside is a time of danger as in Shabbat 21b. Rashi and Tosfot (D”H Ubeshat Sakanah) explain that it was outlawed by the king to light. Thus Or Zaruh 2:323 asks, now, when there isn’t danger, why don’t we light outside. However Itur 2 pg 114d, Shibolei Leket 185, and HaOhel Moed (Chanuka 5) say that once there was a Minhag not to light outside because of danger, the Minhag stayed in place. Another reason to be lenient is the Ritva (Shabbat 21b), and Rabbenu Perachya who say a prevention to light outside such as wind is also called “time of danger”. Similarly, Rabbenu Yerucham 9:1, Siddur Rav Amram Goan, Hilchot Kesuvot Min HaGoenim, Darkei Moshe 671:9, Bach 671e hold that since thieves come (which is also called “danger”), they would light inside. [Sh”t Imrei Noam 2:29, Sh”t Minchat Yitzchak 6:66 quotes Megilat Taanit 1 says because of fear of scoffers the practice is to light inside.] Nonetheless Meiri (Shabbat 21b), Tosfot (Shabbat 45a D”H Makmi) in name of Ri, Rid, Riaz, Ran, Pri Chadash implies from S”A 671:5 that a “danger” is when it’s forbidden to light (and not just a fear of thievery). Still Raavad, Rashba, Sefer Trumah, and Ritva (against the Rambam) hold that if one lights inside not at the time of danger one fulfills his obligation after the fact. Others who defend the practice to light inside include: Tzafnat Pane’ach (Chanuka 3:3), Yaskil Avdi O”C 7:46, and Torat HaMoadim 3:4. Mishna Brurah 671:35 writes [Sh”t Dvar Yehoshua 1:40 says nowadays one can only light indoors and it doesn’t fulfill the mitzvah to light outside. However Yalkut Yosef (Moadim 231-2) quotes Rav Ovadyah’s response to this that it’s better to light outside but one is allowed to light inside.] </ref># Someone who lives in a yeshiva or college setting where one eats in a different building than he sleeps, some have the Minhag to light by the place he eats and some have Minhag to light where he sleeps. <ref> Torat HaMoadim 2:5. If there’s a cafeteria(place to eat) and dorms(place to sleep) in one building one can light wherever in the building there’s more Pirsume Nisa (Publicizing the miracle) such as the entrance to the cafeteria, in the cafeteria, entrance to the dorms, or in the dorms. If the cafeteria and dorm are separate building is a dispute of the Achronim sourced in the Sh”t 1:542 who says that if one eats daily at someone’s house he must join in the lighting at that house. So the Rama 677:1 rules the main place for the Chanuka candles is where he eats. So holds the Taz 677:2 and Leket Yoshar. However Sh”t Maharshal 85 says the place where one sleeps is primary. So holds Sefer Yosef Ometz Yuzfa 1071, Sh”t Rivivot Efarim in name of Rav Moshe Feinstein in Igrot Moshe (Rav Moshe Feinstein in Igrot Moshe O”C 3:70(3), Y”D 3:14(5)), and Sh”t Minchat Yitzchak 7:48; Chazon Ish holds that the primary place is the place of eating but says as a stringency one should also light without a bracha by the place of sleeping. </ref># One must light in the place where the Chanukia is going to stay. Thus, one shouldn’t light indoors and then move the Chanukia outside or light it in one’s hand and then put it down. If one did so, one should extinguish the candles and relight without a bracha. Consequently, a sick person should light while in bed and then have the Chanukia moved but rather should let another household member light. <ref> Shabbat 22b Rava’s statement, so rules Rambam (Chanuka 4:9), Tur and S”A (675:1). Pri Chadash says one shouldn’t make a bracha if one needs to light again, against Hagot Rabbi Akiva Eiger 675 who says to make a bracha. Because of Safek Brachot one shouldn’t make a bracha (in addition to the idea that perhaps one fulfills the mitzvah not it’s place if it’s recognizable that it’s lit for Chanuka- Sh”t Lev Chaim 3:146), so holds Torat HaMoadim 3:9 and Sh”t Hitorerut Teshuva 2:110. [Also, a sefek sefeka isn’t sufficient to allow a bracha- see Yechava Daat 5:21] Torat HaMoadim 3:9 quotes the ruling of a sick person from Sh”t Lev Chaim 3:146. </ref>===Windy place===# In a place where it’s windy (which would blow out the candle) one is allowed to light inside. Some are strict to light outside with a glass covering. However one should be careful to light with the glass covering on and not that after lighting one covers it with the glass. <ref> Aruch HaShulchan 671:24 says our practice isn’t to light outside since in our areas it commonly rains, snows and there’s strong wind. Also the Rabbis didn’t impose such a burden of setting up a glass case for the Chanukia. Sh”t Shelit Yaavetz 149 writes that one should light outside with a glass covering, implying if there’s wind me’ikar hadin one doesn’t need to light outside. Torat HaMoadim Chanuka 3:3 requires with the glass covering on is because otherwise it’s like lighting a candle that can’t last a half hour which S”A 675:2 renders the lighting unfit even if more fuel is added later. So too Shiltei Giborim (Shabbat 21b), Piskei Riaz, Rivta, Rabbenu Perachya, Back 673, Magan Avraham 673:12, Taz 673e, Pri Chadash, and Eliyah Rabba 673:14 write that one can’t light in a place where the wind would blow it out. Mikrei Kodesh (Chanuka 17) writes that the Mahril Disken would light with the covering on so that at the time he lit he could leave it and it’d stay lit without closing the covering, however he defends the Minhag to light and then put on the cover. </ref># One shouldn’t light in a place where it’s windy. If one did so and it gets blown out within a half hour one doesn’t fulfill one’s obligation, therefore one should relight without a Bracha. <Ref>Mishna Brurah 673:25 writes that just like one shouldn’t light without sufficient amount of oil, one shouldn’t light in a place that’s windy. If one did so and the wind blows it out one should relight it without a Bracha. </ref> # If one lit in a windy area and the candles last a half hour so say that retroactively one fulfilled the mitzvah, while others say that one didn’t fulfill the mitzvah and should relight without a Bracha. <Ref> Sh”t Har Tzvi Siman 114 writes that if the wind doesn’t blow it out certainly one fulfills the obligation retroactively. Rav Shlomo Zalman in Halichot Shlomo (16:6 pg 301) agrees. However, Rav Chaim Kanievsky and Rav Nassim Karlitz quoted in Kovetz Shemuot (Chanuka pg 123) who argue that since it wasn’t light properly even if it doesn’t get blown out one doesn’t fulfill the mitzvah and one should relight without a Bracha.</ref>===Glass cases===# Some achronim say that one shouldn’t light with the glass case doors wide open when one lights and then close them after lighting if it’s a windy place, while most others argue that one may be lenient. <Ref>The Maharal Diskin (quoted by Mikrei Kodesh siman 17 and Moadim UZmanim vol 2 siman 142) holds that one shouldn’t light with the glass case doors open because at the time of the lighting the candles have to able to burn for a half hour and in this case at the time of lighting they were in a windy place. So held the Griz (quoted by Piskei Teshuvot 673:5). However, Rav Chaim Zonenfeld in Sh”t Shelmat Chaim Siman 261 disagrees with the Maharal Diskin. Rav Tzvi Pesach Frank in Sh”t Har Tzvi Siman 114 agrees with Rav Chaim Zonenfeld because one’s intention and completion of lighting was to close the doors. Rav Shternbach in Moadim UZmanim 2:142, Rav Shlomo Zalman in Minchat Shlomo 58:1 (and Halichot Shlomo 16:6), Rav Chaim Kanievsky in Taama DeKra Parshat Vayeshev, and Rav Ovadyah Yosef in Yalkut Yosef (Kitzur S”A 675:2) concur with the lenient position. </ref># Having two Chanukiot in one case can be an issue of lacking recognition of the day of Chanuka and so one Chanukia should be raised so that the flames are seen separately. <Ref>Or Yisrael (Dardak pg 86), Kol MeHeichal (pg 520) in name of Rav Ovadyah Auerbach, and Or Yisrael (Blinsky pg 105) </ref> == Heights of placement of Chanukia==# The Chanukia should be placed between 3 and 10 tefachim (between 24 and 80 centimeters) from the ground of the house. If it’s placed above 10 tefachim, one fulfilled the obligation. <ref> Shabbat 21b the statement of Ravina that it’s a mitzvah (preferable) to place it below ten; Ran (9b D”H Garsi) in name of Rabbenu Chananel and Rabbenu Yonah, Rashba (Shabbat 21b Amar Ravina), Rosh (Shabbat 2:5), Smag (Chanuka 250d), Smak (280,277), Tur and S”A 671:6 hold like Ravina even though the gemara questions him. Bet Yosef 671:6 says since the Rif and Rambam don’t mention this it means you can place it anywhere, but to fulfill everyone’s opinion one should put it below 10. Also Orchot Chaim pg 117d:3 and Kol Bo hold explicitly like Rambam and Rif that only after the fact can light under 10. [Moreover Seder Hayom and Gefen Poriah (Bava Kama 62b) that one doesn’t fulfill his obligation if less than 10.] The Bet Yosef brings the dispute of the Mordechai (Shabbat 266) who writes that since everyone lights indoors, one can light even above 10 and the Tur (671:6) who writes to place it within 10 not differentiating between indoors and outside. Tur 671:6 in name of Maharam MeRotenberg holds that one should place it above 3 tefachim. So holds Mordechai Shabbat 266, S”A 671:6. Birkat Yosef Yedid 3 pg 207, Sh”t Kinyan Torah 1:131(2) imply from Orchot Chaim that under three tefachim doesn’t fulfill the mitzvah. However most argue than if it’s lit less than 3, one still fulfills the obligation including. Yet, Pri Chadash 671, Pri Megadim A”A 671:6, Mishna Brurah 671:26, Kaf HaChaim 671:50, Torat HaMoadim 3:5, and Shaar Shlomo (51, pg 33d) who says someone on the road can even light on the ground. </ref># If it’s above 20 amot (9.6 meters) one doesn’t fulfill the obligation and should extinguish the candle and relight it in the proper height without a bracha. <ref> Shabbat 22a Rav says it can’t be above 20 amot. Tosfot (D”H Ner) says it can’t just be lowered since the mitzvah was already done incorrectly. Tur(671:6), Bach, Taz, Pri Chadash, Mishna Brurah (Shaar Tzion 671:33) says indoors it can be above 20 amot against the Rabbenu Yoel (Ravyah 843) and Rabbi Yitzchak Avuhav (quoted by the Bet Yosef). If one put it above 20 amot, Pri Chadash, Mishna Brurah 671:29 say to relight with a Bracha. Kaf Hachaim (671:53) limits the ruling of the Pri Chadash to only where one finished lighting and stopped thinking about it. However Chazon Ovadiah (Chanuka pg 35) and Torat HaMoadim 3:6 say to relight without a bracha because of the opinion of Rabbenu Yoel (Pri Megadim A”A 671:7), [and Hareri Kodesh who says that perhaps according to Meiri and Shiltot one should repeat Sh’assa Nissim]. </ref># Similarly someone who lives an upper floor apartment, should light by the door of the apartment and if they want they can light at the window even if it’s above 20 amot. Some have the custom to light by the apartment building entrance. <ref> Ritva (Shabbat 21b D”H VeIm Dar) says someone living in an upper floor should light by the window that’s above 20 amot. Pri Chadash 671:6, Pri Megadim A”A 671:8, Machsit HaShekel 671:6 say to light it by the door of the apartment. Chazon Ovadiah (Chanuka pg 36) says that one living in an apartment on the fifth floor (just an example) should light inside his house by the door and if he wants he can light by the window that’s above 20 amot as it’s Pirsume Nisa for the household members and to those on the street according Rabbenu Yoel and for others in a building across the street at the same height (similar to Kol Bo Chanuka pg 99). The custom of lighting by the apartment entrance is sourced in halacha 17. </ref># The measurements are measured to the flame of the candle. <ref> Mishna Brurah (Shaar Tzion 671:33), Chazon Ovadyah (Chanuka pg 36b) say to measure from the flame of the candle like the Pri Megadim (M”Z 671:5) [However Leket Yosher (Chanuka pg 150) writes in name of a student of the Trumat HaDeshen that just the bottom has to be within 10 tefachim.] </ref># If one is lighting in a window, preferably the candles should be within 10 Tefachim from the floor, however, the there’s no issue of lighting in the window above 10 Tefachim. <Ref>Mishna Brurah 671:27, Piskei Teshuvot 671:8 </ref><table width="700" border="1" cellpadding="1" cellspacing="1" bordercolor="#000000" bgcolor="#FFFFFF"><tr> <td><span class="style5"> 0 </span></td><td><span class="style5"> Rav Chaim Noeh </span></td><td><span class="style5"> Chazon Ish </span></td> </tr><tr> <td> 3 Tefachim </td> <td> 24 cm </td> <td> 28.8 cm </td> </tr><tr> <td> 10 Tefachim </td> <td> 80 cm </td> <td> 96 cm </td> </tr><tr> <td> 20 Amot </td> <td> 9.6 meters </td> <td> 11.52 meters </td> </tr></table># Some say that regarding this law one can follow the more lenient of the two measurements. <Ref>Piskei Teshuvot 671:7 </ref>
== Who’s Obligated?==
# Women are obligated in Chanuka [[Chanukah]] candles since they too were part of the miracle of Chanuka[[Chanukah]]. Thus a man who is away traveling he should have his wife light at home for him to fulfill his obligation. Even if he will come <ref>The Gemara [[Shabbat]] (23a) says that night later than tzet hakochavim (the night to light Chanuka women are obligated in lighting [[chanuka]] candlesbecause they too were part of the miracle of [[chanuka]]. Rambam ([[Chanukah]] 4:9), he should still Tur 665, and S”A 665:5 codify this as halacha. Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 139:16 and Chazon Ovadia pg. 25 concur </ref> Thus, a man who is away should have his wife light. Ashkenazim who have the Minhag that everyone in the household lights and they are able at home for him to light where they are should light without a brachafulfill his obligation. <ref> S”A 565:5 says Even if he will come that women are obligated in Chanuka candles based on Shabbat 23anight, Rambam (Chanuka 4:9)but later than [[Tzet HaKochavim]], and Tur 565. Piskei Maharam Riketani (154) holds women can fulfill a man’s obligation on he should still have his behalfwife light. So holds Rabbenu Yerucham 9:1, Rokeach Chanuka 226:3Ashkenazim who have the Minhag that everyone in the household lights, Ritva and Meiri (Shabbat 23athey are able to light where they are, Megilah 4a), Maharil (Chanuka pg 407)should light without a bracha. Levush <ref> * Piskei Maharam Riketani (675154), Bach (675), Taz(675holds women can fulfill a man’s obligation on his behalf. This is also the opinion of Rabbenu Yerucham 9:4)1, Magan Avraham 675Rokeach [[Chanukah]] 226:43, Olot Ritva and Meiri ([[Shabbat 675:1]] 23a, Pri Chadash 675:4Megilah 4a), Eliyah Raba 675:6Baal Hamaor Megilla 19b in the name of the Itur, Sh”t Shar Efraim 42Maharil ([[Chanukah]] pg 407). Levush (675), Shulchan Gavoha Bach (675:6), Mor Ukesia Taz(675:64), machzik Bracha Magen Avraham 675:4, Mishna Brurah Olot [[Shabbat]] 675:9. Sh”t Yechava Daat 31, Pri [[Chadash]] 675:51 writes that since some rishonim and achronim hold one can only light at tzet hakochavim one should let his wife light at the right time and fulfill his obligation according to all opinions. The Yechava Daat holds like the Chaye Adam 1544, Eliyah Raba 675:6, Sh”t Shar Efraim 42, Shulchan Gavoha 675:6, Mor Ukesia 675:33. Kaf Hachiam 6766, Machzik Bracha 675:4, Mishna Brurah 675:9, Chazon Ovadia pg. 25. Chaye Adam adds * Sh”t Yechave Daat 3:51 writes that Ashkenazim can light without a bracha. Interesting point: S”A 689:2 says a women can read the megillah to fulfill for a man his obligation of megillah, since some rishonim and some achronim hold otherwise. one can only light at [[Bahag (quoted by Tosfot Megilah 4aTzet HaKochavim]], Erchin 3a) one should let his wife light at the right time and Morchedai 4a in name of Ravyah (Megilah 569,843) hold women can’t fulfill fulfill his obligation according to all opinions. The Yechave Daat holds like the obligation of a man, but Rashi Erchin 3a, Or Zaruh 2Chaye Adam 154:32433, Rambam(Megilah 1), Rif (quoted by Sefer Eshkol 2Kaf Hachaim 676:30) hold a women 25. Chaye Adam adds that Ashkenazim can fulfill obligation of light without a man]bracha. However Smag (brought by Magan Avraham 589* Interesting point: S”A 689:5), Itur (Megilah 113d), Eshkol 2 pg 30 differentiate between Megilah which is like Torah reading but by Chanuka says a women can fulfill read the man’s obligation according to everyone. Also Torat Moadim Chanuka pg 40 says the Behag only held a women can fulfill megilah [[megillah]] for a man since a women’s to fulfill his obligation is derebanan of [[megillah]], and a man’s is from divrei kabalah some hold otherwise. [Bahag (Ketuvimquoted by Tosfot Megilah 4a, Erchin 3a). Similarly, Sh”t Maharash Halevi O”C 24 says Chanuka isn’t an and Morchedai 4a in name of Ravyah (Megilah 569,843) hold women can’t fulfill the obligation on each person of a man, but on the household and so a women can fulfill it for a man. Thus even those who say Rashi Erchin 3a, Or Zaruh 2:324, Rambam (Megilah 1), Rif (quoted by Megilah Sefer Eshkol 2:30) hold a woman can’t can fulfill the obligation of a man’s obligation agree by Chanukaman]. </ref># A deaf and muteHowever Smag (brought by Magen Avraham 589:5), insaneItur (Megilah 113d), or child not bar/bat-mitzvah isn’t obligated to light and so can’t Eshkol 2 pg 30 differentiate between Megilah which is like Torah reading, but by [[Chanukah]] women can fulfill the man’s obligation of someone who is obligatedaccording to everyone. Also Torat Moadim [[Chanukah]] pg. However 40 says the Behag only held a deaf who can speak is obligated and women can fulfill the megilah for a man since a woman’s obligation of othersis derebanan and a man’s is from divrei kabalah (Ketuvim). <ref> Shabbat 23a says a deafSimilarly, insane Sh”t Maharash Halevi O”C 24 says [[Chanukah]] isn’t an obligation on each person, but on the household and child isn’t obligatedso a women can fulfill it for a man. So holds Rambam (Chanuka 4:9)Thus even those who say by Megilah a woman can’t fulfill a man’s obligation, Tur and S”A 675:3agree by [[Chanukah]] that she can. The Mishna Trumot 1:2 defines deaf in Talmud as </ref># A deaf and mute, but someone just deaf is insane, or child not bar/bat-mitzvah isn’t obligated to light and so can’t fulfill the obligation of someone who is obligated like anyone else. So quotes Pri Megadim M”Z 670:5, Mishna Brurah 675:12, and Torat HaMoadim 2:19. There’s a dispute whether a child However a deaf who can speak is at the age of Chinuch obligated and can fulfill the obligation of an adultothers. Bet Yosef 675e quotes the Ran (<ref> [[Shabbat ]] 23a) in name of the Itur (Chanuka pg 116a) that says a child can fulfill deaf, insane person, and a child aren’t obligated. This is also the obligation opinion of an adult. So writes the Shibolei HaLeket 185, Orchot Chaim Rambam (Chanuka 12[[Chanukah]] 4:9), Tur and S”A 675:3. However Meiri writes that he disagrees with the Rabbis of Provincia who say a child at age of chinuch can fulfill the obligation of an adult. [SeeminglyThe Mishna Trumot 1:2 defines deaf in Talmud as deaf and mute, this but someone just deaf is the opinion of Tosfot (Megilah 19b concerning megilah) that a double derabanan (child only obligated on obligated like anyone else. So quotes Pri Megadim M”Z 670:5, Mishna Brurah 675:12, and Torat HaMoadim 2:19. There’s a chinuch level and it’s only dispute whether a derabanan mitzvah) can’t fulfill child who is at the mitzvah age of one obligated on level [[Chinuch]] can fulfill the obligation of rabanan (an adult for a mitzvah derabanan). The Tur 689 writes that so is Bet Yosef 675e quotes the opinion of the Bahag and Rosh. However Bet Yosef 53 Ran ([[Shabbat]] 23a) in name of Sh”t HaRashba 1:239, and Raavad disagree with Tosfot.the Itur ([[Chanukah]] S”A 675:3 says pg 116a) that a child isn’t obligated to light but some permit “a child at age of chinuch to fulfill can fulfill the obligation of an adult. So writes the obligation of others” YetShibolei HaLeket 185, it’s a dispute in the Achronim whether S”A meant it as “Setam and then Yesh Omerim” (anonymous and then a disagreeing opinionOrchot Chaim ([[Chanukah]] 12) in which case we hold like . However Meiri writes that he disagrees with the anonymous opinion or that it’s not Rabbis of Provincia who say a dispute but child at age of [[chinuch]] can fulfill the “some say” was just explaining obligation of an adult. [Seemingly, this is the first line. Magan Avraham 689:4 opinion of Tosfot (as understood by Pri Megadim A”A 689:4Megilah 19b concerning megilah), Sh”t Zivchei Tzedek 3:41 say that S”A meant the “some say” is just explanatory. However, Yaavetz in Mor U’Kesia 689 understands S”A that we hold like a double derabanan (child only obligated on a [[chinuch]] level and it’s only a derabanan mitzvah) can’t fulfill the anonymous opinionmitzvah of one obligated on level of rabanan (adult for a mitzvah derabanan). So holds Sh”t Kol Gadol 100, Chelko Shel Yedid pg 58b, The Tur 689 writes that so is the opinion of the Bahag and Rosh. However Bet Yosef 53 in name of Sh”t Olat Shmuel 105e, Pri Chadash 675HaRashba 1:3239, Ben Ish Chai Veyeshev 19, Mishna Brurah and Raavad disagree with Tosfot.] S”A 675:13, and Torat HaMoadim 2:19. </ref># A blind person is obligated in lighting. If he’s married3 says a child isn’t obligated to light but some permit “a child at age of [[chinuch]] to fulfill the obligation of others” Yet, his wife should light for him, if he lives alone he should light. <ref> Sh”t Maharshal 76, Magan Avraham 675:4, Eliyah Raba 675:7 write that it’s a dispute in the Achronim whether S”A meant it as “Setam and then Yesh Omerim” (anonymous and then a blind is obligated and preferably should fulfill it through joining with other house members disagreeing opinion) in which case we hold like the anonymous opinion or his wife, otherwise they can light own their own. </ref># Even though a child, who is the age of chinuch that it’s not a dispute but not bar/bat mitzvah, can’t fulfill the obligation of others, the one making the bracha can light “some say” was just explaining the first candle and then let the child light the other candlesline. However a child who isn’t at the age of chinuchMagen Avraham 689:4 (as understood by Pri Megadim A”A 689:4), shouldn’t light any of Sh”t Zivchei Tzedek 3:41 say that S”A meant the candles except for the Shamash“some say” is just explanatory. <ref> Levush 671However, Yaavetz in Mor U’Kesia 671, and Ben Ish Chai Vayeshev 18 hold 689 understands S”A that we hold like the making anonymous opinion. This is also the bracha should light all the candles. However opinion of Sh”t Maharshal 85Kol Gadol 100, Magan Avraham 671Chelko Shel Yedid pg 58b, Sh”t Olat Shmuel 105e, Pri [[Chadash]] 675:113, Ben Ish Chai Veyeshev 19, Mishna Brurah 671675:4913, Ruach Chaim 671:3, and Torat and Torat HaMoadim 2:20 (he writes that his father Rav Ovadyah Yosef would hold his hands while lighting in order to satisfy all opinions)19. </ref># A mourner blind person is obligated in the first 7 days can lighting. If he’s married, his wife should light and make Brachot [however for him, if he shouldn’t light in shul on the first night because of the Shechianu, even in the 30 days of mourning or 12 months for a parentlives alone he should light.] <ref> Sh”t Maharam Mintz 43Maharshal 76, Sefer Mnhagim of Rav Yitzchak Tirna (Yom Kippur 155)Magen Avraham 675:4, Taz 671Eliyah Raba 675:8 7 write that a mourner shouldn’t light in shul the first night because of Shechiyanublind is obligated and preferably should fulfill it through joining with other house members or his wife, otherwise they can light own their own. The Nodea Benyehuda Tanina O”C 141 writes that at home one can light </ref># A child, even if he is the first night with shechiyanuage of [[chinuch]] but not bar/bat mitzvah, may not fulfill the obligation of others. So holds Machzik Bracha 671:10However, Birkei Yosef Y”D 205:14m,Bet HaRoeh pg 59, Chatom Sofer on S”A 671, Chaye Adam 154:17the one making the bracha can light the first candle and then let the child light the other candles. However a child who isn’t at the age of [[chinuch]], Sh”t Binyan Olan O”C 35, Sh”t Olat Shmuel 106shouldn’t light any of the candles except for the Shamash. <ref> Levush 671, Sh”t Machane Chaim Y”D 2:61Yaavetz in Mor U’Kesia 671, Sh”t Rav Poalim O”C 4and Ben Ish Chai Vayeshev 18 hold the making the bracha should light all the candles. However, Sh”t Maharshal 85, Magen Avraham 671:36, Siddur Bet Ovad pf 160b:2, Kemach Solet 137d, Shulchan Lechem HaPanim 676e11, Mishna Brurah 671:4449, and Kaf HaChaim Ruach Chaim 671:73. </ref>3, and Torat HaMoadim 2:20 (he writes that his father Rav Ovadyah Yosef would hold his hands while lighting in order to satisfy all opinions). </ref># A mourner on in the first day is exempt as he is exempt from all mitzvoth 7 days can light and so make [[Brachot]] [however he should have a household member who isn’t a mourner light with a brachashouldn’t light in shul on the first night because of the Shechianu, if that’s not possible, he should have another person light without even in the 30 days of [[mourning]] or 12 months for a brachaparent. ] <ref> Eliyah Raba 670:19 writes one should have someone else light and answer amen. HoweverSh”t Maharam Mintz 43, Sefer Mnhagim of Rav Yitzchak Tirna ([[Yom Kippur]] 155), Erech HaShulchan 670Taz 671:3 writes one should light without a bracha. Kaf Hachaim 670:20 explains 8 write that this is only a dispute if mourner shouldn’t light in shul the first-day mourner is alone, otherwise his wife or a household member can fulfill for him his obligationnight because of [[Shehecheyanu]]. Pri Megadim M”Z 670:5 agrees with Eliyah Raba but argues that The Nodea Benyehuda Tanina O”C 141 writes that at home one can’t answer amen as in S”A Y”D 341 where we follow can light even the anonymous opinion that a first-day mourner doesn’t answer amennight with [[shechiyanu]]. Torat HaMoadim 2This is also the opinion of Machzik Bracha 671:24 agrees with Erech HaShulchan. </ref># A convert can make all the Brachot and say “She’assa Nissim Le’avotenu” but if he wants can change it to say “She’assa Nissim LeYisrael”. <ref> 10, Birkei Yosef Y”D 205:14m,Bet HaRoeh pg 59, Chatom Sofer on S”A 671, Chaye Adam 154:17, Sh”t Rambam (Pasya edition 158Binyan Olan O”C 35, Sh”t Olat Shmuel 106, Kisei Nirdamim Mehuderet Fredman 42Sh”t Machane Chaim Y”D 2:61, Sh”t Rav Poalim O”C 4:36, Siddur Bet Ovad pf 160b:2, Kemach Solet 137d, Shulchan Lechem HaPanim 676e, Mishna Brurah 671:44, Mehuderet Belav 293) writes that a convert can say all of the Brachot like every Jew because he converted he becomes a descendant of Avraham and part of the Jewish people for all their history, however if he wants to change Kaf HaChaim 671:73. </ref># A mourner on the brachot that relate to the Jewish history such first day is exempt as Yetsiat Mitzrayim, he is exempt from all mitzvoth and Chanuka. So quotes Sh”t Rashba 7:54so he should have a household member who isn’t a mourner light with a bracha, Hagot Mordechai Megilah 1:786if that’s not possible, Sh”t Ridvaz 5he should have another person light without a bracha. <ref> Eliyah Raba 670:520; Torat HaMoadim 219 writes one should have someone else light and answer [[amen]]. However, Erech HaShulchan 670:25 says this is also the opinion of S”A based on S”A O”C 533 writes one should light without a bracha. Kaf Hachaim 670:1920 explains that this is only a dispute if the first-day mourner is alone, 199otherwise his wife or a household member can fulfill for him his obligation. Pri Megadim M”Z 670:9. </ref>==Who should rely on 5 agrees with Eliyah Raba but argues that one can’t answer [[amen]] as in S”A Y”D 341 where we follow the household’s lighting?==# A married woman should rely on her husband’s lightinganonymous opinion that a first-day mourner doesn’t answer [[amen]]. Unmarried girls who in still live at in their father’s home can rely on their father’s lighting even according to the Ashkenazic custom. If they want to light, Ashkenazim can light with a BrachaTorat HaMoadim 2:24 agrees with Erech HaShulchan. </ref> # A married women is exempt by her husband because “Ishto Kegufo Dami”(a husband convert can make all the [[Brachot]] and wife are like one person)say “She’assa Nissim Le’avotenu” but if he wants can change it to say “She’assa Nissim LeYisrael”. So writes the Maharshal 88<ref> Sh”t Rambam (Pasya edition 158, Knesset Hagedolah 671Kisei Nirdamim Mehuderet Fredman 42, Mateh Moshe 982, Eliya Raba 671:3, Machasit Hashekel 675:4. Mishna Brurah 675:9 quotes this in name Mehuderet Belav 293) writes that a convert can say all of Sh”t Olot Shmeul 105 and says if women want they can light with the [[Brachot]] like every Jew because he converted he becomes a Bracha like any mitzvah descendant of Avraham and part of the Jewish people for which one’s exempt according to the Ashkenazi Minhag. Mishmeret Shalom 48 says since a married woman doesn’t light and relies on her husbandall their history, her daughters also don’t light as derech eretz. Similarly, Chiddushei Chatom Sofer (Shabbat 21b D”H Vehamehadrin) writes since however if he wants to change the practice used to be [[brachot]] that relate to light outside it wasn’t Derech Eretz for women to light if her husband is already lighting the Jewish history such as Yetsiat Mitzrayim, and since then the Minhag hasn’t changed. Ashel Avraham Mebustatesh 675[[Chanukah]]. The Sh”t Rashba 7:54, Hagahot Mordechai Megilah 1:3 says according to kabbalah women don’t light (unless they have to). However it seems as 786, and Sh”t Ridvaz 5:520 agree. Torat HaMoadim 2:25 finds support for this opinion in the minhag is that Ashkenzic unmarried girls also light.</ref> # According to Sephardim, members of the household that are dependant on their parents fulfill their obligation with the one lighting of the household even if they aren’t home such as children in yeshiva or in the army that don’t sleep at home don’t light where they sleep. However, Ashkenazi Minhag is for single children to light themselves even at home and certainly when not sleeping at home. <ref> ruling of Shulchan Aruch (See S”A and Tur 677:1, based on Shabbat 23a, and Rambam (Chanuka 4:11) rule that a dependant is exempt with his household’s lighting. However, Rambam, Tur, and S”A add that if he has his own household, he should light so people don’t suspect him of not observing Chanuka. However Sh”t Rashba 1:541, Orchot Chaim Chanuka 13, Smak 280, Sefer Trumah 228, Hagot Maimon Chanuka 4:30, Ritva (Shabbat 23a), Mordechai (Shabbat 2:226), Ohel Moed (Chanuka) Shibolei HaLeket 185 say that there’s no suspicion of not lighting by a extra doorway nowadays when we light indoors. Sefer HaTrumah (229 Introduction) says clearly students that learn outside their home don’t light if they have someone lighting for them at home. So write Magan Avraham 677:1, Sh”t Yechava Daat 6:43, and Chazon Ovadyah (Chanuka pg 144-151). Meiri Shabbat 23a and Orchot Chaim (Chanuka 14) say an older and married child should light for themselves. </ref># A married man traveling should have his wife light for him at home and not make the Bracha of Sh’asa Nisim nor Sh’chianu even when he returns home. <ref> S”A 676:3. There’s a dispute in the Rishonim whether one makes a bracha for seeing Chanuka candles if he is fulfilling his obligation with that which they light for him at home. Rashba (Shabbat 23a), Sefer HaHashlamah (Shabbat 23a) in name of Rabbi Asher MeLunil, Smag(Chanuka 250d), Ran(10b D”H Amar Rav Chiya), Tur 676:3, Magid Mishna (Chanuka 3:4) in name of Itur (2 pg 117c), Rosh (Shabbat 8) imply that one doesn’t make a bracha if one is fulfilling his obligation through his household. However Rambam (Chanuka 3:4), Magid Mishna in name of some Geonim, Ravyah 3:843, Riaz (Shabbat 23a), Meiri, Sefer HaMeorot (Shabbat 23a), Orchot Chaim (Chanuka 9) hold that one can make a Bracha even if one is fulfilling his obligation with his house’s lighting. S”A rules 676:3 that one doesn’t make Bracha HaRoeh if is fulfilling his obligation at home. Against the S”A the following rule that one should make the Brachot HaRoeh: Sh”t Maharshal 85, Bach 676:3 (in name of Rif, Rambam, Smak, Rosh, and Aguda), Eliyah Raba Pri Chadash, Biur HaGra, Chaye Adam 154:33. However Shirei Knesset HaGedola 677:3, Taz 676:4, Magan Avraham 676:1, Shulchan Gavoha 676:5, Birkei Yosef 67653:3, Mishna Brurah 676:6, 19 and Torat HaMoadim 2Shulchan Aruch 199:15 rule that one doesn’t make a bracha because of Safek Bracha9). </ref>
== Should a guest light candlesWho fulfills his/her obligation with the household’s lighting?==# A guest at a friend’s houseThe Ashkenazic minhag is that each individual lights for oneself, who doesn’t have anyone lighting for them at homehowever, must chip in (a prutah’s worth) with the owner of the house for the Chanuka candles so Sephardic minhag is that the owner will give him a portion of the candles, either with a kinyan or as a gift, [and the owner will add some oil one person lights for the guest] whole household. <ref> Shulchan Aruch and will fulfill Rama 671:2. For the obligation background see [[#Number of the guest. According to Ashkenzim, if he has his own doorway (candles to outside) he should light by himself, and even if he doesn’t have his own doorway it’s preferable to light by himself]]. </ref> S”A 677:1 says that a guest According to the Sephardic minhag who fulfills his /her obligation with a portion the lighting of the oil, based on Shabbat 23a, Rambam Chanuka 4:11, Tur 677. S”A 677:1 based household?# Household members who are “dependant on Rif 23a rules because of suspicion one should light in a second doorway. However Rama says that nowadays we don’t have this suspicion because we light indoors. So agrees many achronim including Sh”t Maharshal 85, see Sh”t Yechava Daat 6:43. Thus a guest shouldn’t need to light for himself. However Sh”t Mahariv (Likutim 31), (quoted by Magan Avraham 677:3, Mishna Brurah 677:7) says since there’s no suspicion everyone lights indoors and even the guest. Kaf Hachaim adds that household” fulfill their obligation with the Sh”t HaRashba 1:542 one needs a portion lighting of the oil and the wickshousehold. Yad Aharon 677, Sh”t Ginat Veradim (Gan HaMelech 40), Pri Megadim (A”A 677<ref> Shulchan Aruch 671:1), Mishna Brurah 677:3 rule 2 writes that any amount the Sephardic minhag is sufficient against Eliyah Rabba(677:1,2) who says that one must chip in person lights for the amount of oil to burn for a half hourentire house. Sh”t HaRashba 1:542, Magan Avraham 677:1, Pri Chadash 677:1, Eliyah Raba 677:2, Derech HaChaim 677:2, Mishna Brurah 677671:3 say 8 writes that the owner can give him household members who fulfill their obligation with the household lighting includes older children and servants if they "dependent on the table of the portion even as a gifthousehold regularly" (סומך על שלוחנו). Agudah (Shabbat Torat HaMoadim 2:32), Bach 677, Magan Avraham 677:1, say that 4 uses the owner should add some oil because of the guestsame expression. Pri Megadim and Derech Hachaim rule it’s enough the owner add a little bit against the Eliyah Raba who says the owner should add the amount the guest gave and Machasit HaShekel who says the owner should add an half hour’s worthHopefully, this term will be clarified as we continue. </ref>===Woman===# A household member married woman should rely on her husband’s lighting. Unmarried girls who is a guest in a friend’s house but have someone lighting for them still live at home, according to Sephardim may light but without a bracha, even if they have in mind not to fulfill their mitzvah with father’s home can rely on their house’s father’s lightingeven according to the Ashkenazic custom. According to Ashkenazim, one should light by oneself and have what to rely on if If they want make such as bracha. <ref> There’s a dispute whether one can have in mind not to fulfill his obligation with his house’s lighting. Sh”t Trumat HaDeshen 101light, Sh”t Sh”t Maharil 145, Agur 1036, Rama 677 hold one Ashkenazim can have intent not to be exempt and since there’s a doubt whether his house will light with him in mind he can make a bracha for himselfBracha. So agree the Levush <ref> A married women is exempt by her husband because “Ishto Kegufo Dami”(677:1a husband and wife are like one person), Olat Shabbat 677:1, Taz 677:1, Magan Avraham 677:9, Eliyah Rabba 677:4, Sh”t Tevuot Shemesh O”C 7. However Bet Yosef 677 says one can’t rely on So writes the Trumat HaDeshen to make an unnecessary Bracha. So hold Sh”t Maharshal 8588, Pri Chadash 677:1Knesset Hagedolah 671, Mateh Moshe 983982, Sh”t Zera Emet 1Eliya Raba 671:973, Chaye Adam 154Machasit Hashekel 675:33, 4. Mishna Brurah 677675:16 say that it’s better one doesn’t make a bracha. That applies for Ashkenazim. However for Sephardim who always rely on the house’s lighting can’t have 9 quotes this in mind not to fulfill your obligation. Knesset Hagedolah understands Bet Yosef as it’s not forbidden as Bracha Levatala but just an issue name of Bracha Sh’eina Tzaricha; however the Birkei Yosef 677, Maamer Mordechai 677:5 argue that shouldn’t make such a bracha; so hold Sh”t Sadeh Eretz O”C 42, Sh”t Chesed LeAvraham Alkelai O”C 24, Sh”t Zivchei Tzedek 2:37, Sh”t Yechava Daat 6:43 (who Olot Shmeul 105 and says that he personally asked Rav Ezra Attiah this question), and Torat HaMoadim 2:6. </ref> # A Sephardic household member who is exempt with the house’s lighting even if he is in Israel and his household is in America where women want they will only light many hours later. If one wants to light one can light at Tzet in Israel with a bracha. <ref> Yalkut Yosef (Moadim pg 231), Torat HaMoadim 2:7, and Sh”t Mishna Halachot 6:119 explain that Bracha like any mitzvah for which one’s exempt according to many that hold the obligation is only Ashkenazi Minhag. Mishmeret Shalom 48 says since a married woman doesn’t light and relies on the householdher husband, he fulfill his obligationher daughters also don’t light as derech eretz. Similarly, but Chiddushei Chatom Sofer ([[Shabbat]] 21b D”H Vehamehadrin) writes since the Bach who holds there’s an obligation on each individual, may also hold that one should practice used to be to light in his timezone, but concludes that he fulfill his obligation with his household even according outside it wasn’t Derech Eretz for women to light if her husband is already lighting and since then the BachMinhag hasn’t changed. However Sh”t Minchat Yitzchak 7Ashel Avraham Mebustatesh 675:46 3 says because of the doubt one should according to kabbalah women don’t light (unless they have in mind not to fulfill his obligation with his house’s lighting). However because of it seems as the dispute between posikim about whether minhag is that will enable one to make a bracha (see previous footnote), one shouldn’t have Ashkenzic unmarried girls also light. Rav Moshe Feinstein is quoted in mind not to fulfill his obligation with his house’s lighting. Chazon Ovadyah pg 150 and Pri HaAretz sefer Moadei Yeshurun 1:9 pg 6d say 4 says if one a woman wantsto light and recite the beracha, one can light with a bracha at Tzet in Israel because his family didn’t she should light for him in America yetbefore her husband does. </ref>===Single Children===# A guest can intend not According to join with Sephardim, members of the owner’s lighting and light for himself with a bracha. However if he is totally dependant household that are dependent on the house owner such as where one doesn’t pay for expenses or he only pays for some expenses but not for every need, according to Sephardim, he may not have intention to not to their parents fulfill his their obligation with the owner’s one lighting, but he is allowed to light by himself without a bracha, but according to Ashkenazim he may intend not to be part of the owner’s lighting and household even if they aren’t home such as children in yeshiva or in the army that don’t sleep at home don’t light by himself with a brachawhere they sleep. <ref> Rabbenu Chananel (Shabbat 23b), Tur 677, Meiri (Shabbat 23a), Itur (2 Chanuka pg 116c), Ran (Pesachim 6b) imply that one is allowed to intend not to be part of the owner’s lighting and light by oneself. However Darkei Moshe 677:2 quotes the Mahari (Yalkutim 31), Sh”t Maharil (145e), Mishna Brurah 677:3 who say it’s preferable for a guest to light for himself. However for Sephardim since some hold that he is included in the household members who are exempt with the owner’s lighting, one shouldn’t light independently because of Safek Brachot. So holds Torat Moadim 2:12. See next footnote</ref># An older child who However, Ashkenazi Minhag is independent of his parents or a son-in-law who come for Chanuka, according single children to Ashkenazim, should light for himself, but according to Sephardim should rely on the owner of the house themselves even at home and certainly when not by himself. <ref> See previous footnotesleeping at home. </ref># A Sephardic household member who is independent from his parents in that he doesn’t live at home, * Rav Sheshet (or if he has no parentsGemara [[Shabbat]] 23a), should stated that a guest is obligated to light on his own[[Chanukah]] candles. However if he’s living in Yeshiva or college with other Jews he should intend to fulfill Rabbi Zeiri commented that his obligation with the Yeshiva’s lighting or join with some friends and have them lighting wife lit [[Chanukah]] candles for him. Thus they shouldn’t make a bracha on their own lighting. <ref> Since at home, he isn’t exempt from fulfilled his house’s lighting he must light on his ownmitzvah. However, Sh”t Ginat Veradim says the rule that a guest must chip in for the Chanuka candle expenses to fulfill his obligation This is codified by Rambam (S”A 677[[Chanukah]] 4:111) only applies to a guest who pays for all his expenses like food and board, but a student in Yeshiva or College who can rely on them for all his needs Tur and doesn’t account for every expense, doesn’t need to chip in for the Chanuka candles since they definitely allow him a portion of the candles. So holds Yad Aharon, Shulchan Gavoha, Kiseh Eliayahu, Shulchan Aruch HaRav 263:9, Kaf Hachaim 677:3, Sh”t Yechava Daat 6:43, and Torat HaMoadim 2:8 (1 that someone who says he personally asked his father, Rav Ovadyah Yosef). On the other hand, Pri Megadim A”A 677:3 and Mishna Brurah 677:4 disagree with the Ginat Veradim and hold any guest needs has someone else lighting for him at home doesn't have to chip in for the Chanuka light [[Chanukah]] candles. See Sh”t Bet David O”C 472* While the Rambam, Sh”t Chesed LeAlafim Alkelai O”C 24, Sh”t Zivchai Tzedek 2:27Tur, Sh”t Rav Poalim 2:50, Sh”t Mishnat Halachot 7:87. </ref># A guest who is relying on the home owner and the home owner asks him S”A state that if one has his own room that leads to light, he can light for everyone with a bracha. <ref> Torat HaMoadim 2:13 quoting his father, Rav Ovadiah, based on the fact that outside one can appoint a Shaliach would have to light for so people don’t suspect him and all of not observing [[Chanukah]], many Rishonim including the more so if the Shaliah is a household member. So holds Rav Elyashiv (Kuntres Halichot VeHanhagotSh”t Rashba 1:541, Orchot Chaim [[Chanukah]] 13, quoted in Halichot Yosef pg 244)Smak 280, Sefer Chanuka of Rav Kenievsky 13Trumah 228, Hagahot Maimon [[Chanukah]] 4:14b. </ref> # A guest of a motel or hotel which is just for guests and not a home owner30, needs to light for himself Ritva (unless theirs is someone lighting for him at home[[Shabbat]] 23a). <ref> Torat HaMoadim , Mordechai ([[Shabbat]] 2:14 says a hotel guest doesn’t have the laws of a guest at his friend’s house because he’s not living with the owner of the house and he’s renting his own room. So holds the Chovat Hadar 39. Implied from Piskei Riaz (Shabbat 23a226), Piskei Rid Ohel Moed (Shabbat 23a[[Chanukah]]), and Shebolei Shibolei HaLeket 185 say that there’s an obligation on no suspicion of not lighting by a renter even if it’s a just a room in a houseextra doorway nowadays when we light indoors. </ref># Two people who live in a one apartment * Sefer HaTrumah (229 Introduction) says clearly students that learn outside their home don’t light if they eat together and pay have someone lighting for the food together, they should light one set of candles them at home. Magen Avraham (in which they both have a potionIntroduction to 677) and switch off with quotes the Maharshal who should do the Bracha. If they pay for their own food separately even if they are family members they should light separately. <ref> Sefer Pardes Gadol 199e, Sh”t Maaseh Geonim 44, and Shiboeli HaLeket 185 bring says that a dispute between Rabbenu David yeshiva student who hold that two people living in one is dependent on the owner of the house should light separately is considered like a family member and Rabbotenu who said that they can light together. Torat Hamoadim 2:17 explains that this dispute concerns two people who doesn't have separate funds for food because otherwise it’s untenable why Rabbenu David requires separate lighting, however if they didn’t separate the cost of food everyone agrees that they can to light together. Magid Mishna Rav Ovadyah Yosef (Chanuka 4:4), Pri Chadash 677:1, Sh”t Shaarei Yehoshua O”C 7:4 agree with Rabbenu David. However, Sefer HaTrumah 229, Eliyahu Zuta 671:Yechave Daat 6 in name of Tosfot, Levush 677:343, Pri Megamdim A”A 678:3, and Ben Ish Chai Vayeshev 17 agree Chazon Ovadyah [[Chanukah]] pg 144-151) writes clearly that a family member who is dependent on his parents fulfills his obligation with Rabbotenuthe lighting of his parents at home. Mishna Brurah in Biur Halacha Meiri [[Shabbat]] 23a and Orchot Chaim (677:1 D”H Imo[[Chanukah]] 14) quotes this dispute say an older and doesn’t rule on it. Torat HaMoadim 2:17 advises that since everyone agrees that one can light separately and it’s dispute whether one can light together one married child should light separately to satisfy all opinionsfor themselves. </ref># Someone who doesn’t have a house and isn’t a dependant of someone’s house* Similarly, can’t light candles. If he eats at someone’s house, he can light without a bracha or join in the lighting of the owner Rav Mordechai Willig (by paying for a portion of the candles)Am Mordechai Moadim p. However he can make the Brachot HaRoeh for seeing the candles (She’assa Nisim and Shechianu on the first night). <ref> Rav Moshe Feinstein in Igrot Moshe Y”D 3:14(104-5) based on Rashi (23a D”H HaRoeh) and Torat HaMoadim 2:18 based on Tosfot (Sukkah 46a D”H HaRoeh) rule writes that someone who doesn’t have a house doesn’t light and can only make Brachot HaRoah. [It seems, Sh”t Tzitz Eliezer 15:29 holds one should light man fulfills his primary obligation with his wife’s lighting at home even if he doesn’t have is a houseguest somewhere else.] Bach 677 D”H “U’Mah Shekatav HaRosh” implies if not for suspicion one Similarly, a student can light in the place he atefulfill his primary obligation with his parent’s lighting at home. However Taz 677:2 argues that one can not light in , according to the minhag of the place he ate. Thus one can only Rama, Ashkenazim still may light without with a Bracha (Safek Brachot Lehakel). </ref># If one is eating at someone’s house (bracha even if it’s one’s parents) on Friday night Chanuka, and someone is going to sleep at home that night, should light lighting for them at home after Plag HaMincha. <Ref> Yalkut Yosef (Kitzur S”A 672:11) </ref># A guest on Chanuka according to Ashkenazim should light one’s own Chanukia. * However there’s a dispute as to how long of a stay at someone’s house allows one to light there: some say one must be there for all 8 days, while some say Rav Hershel Schachter (B’ikvei HaTzon p. 123-4) writes that it’s enough to be there for 1 day. <Ref> Biur Halacha quotes a man does not fulfill his obligation with the Pri Chadash who gives the example lighting of a guest who stays his wife in a another city unless he actually goes home for all 8 days of chanuka. Rav Elyashiv (Shevut Yitzchak Chanuka pg 110) holds later that one needs to be there 8 days in order to have some connection to that house in order to light therenight. [See Rav Shachter at yu.edu who also holds this.] Rav Wosner (Piksei Shemuot pg 136)Similarly, Rav Shternbuch he stated in a shiur (Sh”t Teshuvot VeHanhagot 1[http:391), and Rav Shlomo Zalman (Halichot Shlomo 14:18, 19) hold that one only needs to be there for one day in order to light there. </ref># Another option is to join with the owner of the house by giving a coin in order to acquire a portion in the candles/www. Some say one needs to mnake a קנין in order to acquire a partion of the candles, while others disagreeyutorah. <Ref>Shaar HaTzion 677:9, Piskei Teshuvot 677, Peninei Halacha pg 18 <org/lectures/ref>The guest should hear the Brachotlecture. <Ref>Mishna Brurah 677:4 <cfm/784742/Rabbi_Hershel_Schachter/ref># OtherwiseWhere_to_light_Neiros_Chanukah_in_the_dorm-_A_full_discussion|YUTorah.org, one can appoint a שליח “Where to light for oneself Neiros Chanukah in the dorm,” min 24)] that a yeshiva student does not fulfill his obligation with his father’s lighting in another city unless he is at homethat night. <Ref> Shevut Yitchak pg 110, Mishna Brurah 677:14 </ref>
== Brachot HaRoah (Seeing)=='''A wedding on [[Chanukah]]'''# Someone traveling all If the wedding takes place at night then the groom fulfills his obligation with the lighting in a carhis father's house which took place before the wedding. <ref>Rav Elyashiv (cited by Bet Chatanim 15:4, trainYemeh [[Chanukah]] pg 156) rules that if the wedding takes place during the night, planethen the groom fulfills his obligation with the lighting at his father’s house. Rav Vosner (cited by Imrei Shefer [[Chanukah]] pg 172) and Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach (Halichot Shlomo 14:14, or boat and has no one pg 275) agree. Yalkut Yosef 672:11 agrees that if the wedding takes place during the night then the groom fulfill his obligation with the lighting for him at home should preferably his father’s house and adds that if he wants to be strict he may light there again without a Bracha and make Brachot HaRoehafter the wedding at his new house. </ref> Rashi 23a D”H HaRoah says # If the wedding takes place during the day before sunset, the groom fulfills doesn't fulfill his obligation with the lighting in his father's house but rather he must light at his new house. Some say he should light after the wedding, some say he should appoint a messenger to light there, and some say he should leave the wedding between the Chuppah and meal to light at his new house. A minority opinion is that one only makes Brachot Haroah when on may light at the wedding hall.<Ref>If the wedding takes place during the day before sunset, then there’s a boatdispute what the groom should do. So quotes in name of Rashi* (1) Rav Elyashiv (cited by Bet Chatanim 15:4, Machsor Vitri Yemeh [[Chanukah]] pg 201156, Itur Neimat HaChaim pg 244) rules that the groom should light in his new home after the wedding. * (Chanuka 2 ) Chacham Ben Tzion Abba Shaul (cited by Bet Chatanim 15:4, Yemeh [[Chanukah]] pg 117c156), Smag rules that if it’s difficult to leave the wedding the groom should appoint a messenger to light for him. * (Chanuka3)Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach (cited by HaNesuin KeHilchatam 15:60, Yemeh [[Chanukah]] pg 156, Smak Halichot Shlomo (280pg 275, note 47))rules that if the wedding takes place during the day then the groom must light at his new home and should leave the wedding after the chuppah before the meal, Ravyah 3:843go to their new home, Or Zaruah 2:325have a small meal, Tosfot Rid(Shabbat 23a)light [[chanuka]] candles, and Rosh return to the wedding. * (Shabbat 2:84). So rules Rav Moshe Feinstein in Igrot Moshe in Rav Moshe Feinstein in Igrot Moshe Y”D 3Piskei Teshuvot 677:145 (5pg 499)rules that if it’s difficult to leave the wedding the groom may light at the wedding hall because they’re renting the place. However Sh”t Maharsham 5([http:144 writes only in an unroofed boat one can’t light //www.dailyhalacha.com/displayRead.asp?readID=2248 Rabbi Mansour] applies this Piskei Teshuvot even if the wedding takes place during the night but in the parents didn’t have a train one should chance to lightbeforehand. So rules Rav Tzvi Peasch Frank in Mikra’eh Kodesh (Chanuka 18e)Additionally, Rav Ovadyah Rabbi Mansour seems to say that Yalkut Yosef also agrees with this leniency but was unable to find any proof to this from the words of the Yalkut Yosef (Kol Sinai Kislev 5725.), Aruch HaShulchan 677:5, Sh”t Mishna Halachot 7:86, and Sh”t Tzitz Eliezer 15:29 (he says one should </ref># For Ashkenazim there are different minhagim whether single girls light at their parents home.<ref>Halachos of Chanukah by Rabbi Eider p. 10 writes that someone don't have the single daughters light even if he’s in an unroofed boat); Torat Hamoadim 2:18 says chanuka candles themselves since there’s a safek wife doesn't light and it isn't proper for Rashi’s opinion one shouldn’t make the Bracha daughter to light but can make Brachot HaRoehnot the wife. However, others have the minhag that the daughters light. He quotes that this was the practice of Rav Moshe Feinstein. </ref>
== Earliest Time to Light =Traveler===# The time to A married man traveling should have his wife light is immediately after Tzet HaCochavim (15 minutes (in Israel) after sun completely sets). Some Ashkenazim have for him at home and not make the Minhag to light right after sunsetBracha of Sh’asa Nisim nor Sh’chianu even when he returns home. <ref> Shabbat 21b S”A 676:3. There’s a dispute in the Braita says to light from Rishonim whether one makes a bracha for seeing [[Chanukah]] candles if someone is lighting for him at home and he is thereby fulfilling his obligation with the setting of the sun until people leave the marketlighting. The Rashba (21b D”H Ha DeAmrinan[[Shabbat]] 23a), MeiriSefer HaHashlamah ([[Shabbat]] 23a) in name of Rabbi Asher MeLunil, Smag ([[Chanukah]] 250d), Ran(10b s.v. Amar Rav Chiya), and Rama Tur 676:3, Magid Mishna (Darkei Moshe 672[[Chanukah]] 3:4) in name of Maharil Itur (2 pg 117c), and Sefer Minhagim Rosh (of Rabbi Tirna pg 144[[Shabbat]] 8) say to light right after sunsethold that one doesn’t make a bracha if someone is lighting for him at home and he is thereby fulfilling his obligation. However, Rabbenu Tam the Rambam (Sefer HaYashar 221[[Chanukah]] 3:4), Tosfot (Menachot 20b D”H Nifsal) Magid Mishna in name of R”Tsome Geonim, Sefer HaManhigRavyah 3:843, Hagot Mordechai Riaz ([[Shabbat 455]] 23a), Ritva 21bMeiri, Sh”t Trumat HaDeshen 102 in name of Mordechai, Sedah LeDerech 4:7Sefer HaMeorot (2[[Shabbat]] 23a), Bach 672 in name of Rosh 2:3, Tur and Orchot Chaim ([[Chanukah]] 9) hold that one can make a Bracha even if someone is lighting for him at home. S”A 672rules 676:1 say to light 3 that one doesn’t make Bracha HaRoeh if is fulfilling his obligation at the end of the sun setting, for most rishonim that means Tzet HaChochavim, but for R”T it means before Ben HaShimashothome. Pri [[SeeminglyChadash]] 676:3, Bet Yosef who quotes Rambam and then says however, argues that the Tur used the word “the end of the sunset” because the beginning of the sunset is still mostly day, holds halacha should follow those Rishonim who say that one should make the Rambam and Tur don’t argue. However Yad Aharon 672 and Mishna Brurah (Biur Halacha 672:1) explain Rambam as meaning sunset. [[Brachot]] Most achronim hold like S”A HaRoeh if one is personally not going to light that night even if someone is lighting for him at Tzet HaChochavim including home. Sh”t Maharshal 85, Bach 672676:3 (in name of Rif, Shaarei Knesset HaGedolah 672:1Rambam, Smak, Rosh, Magan Avraham 672:1and Aguda), Eliyah Raba 672:1, Maamer Mordechai 672:1Biur HaGra, and Chaye Adam 154:1833 agree. However, Derech HaChaim 672Shirei Knesset HaGedola 677:23, Ben Ish Chai Vayeshev 7Taz 676:4, Sehulchan lechem Hapanim 672Magen Avraham 676:1, Kaf Hachaim 672Shulchan Gavoha 676:2. Thus, one should light at tzet hachochavim which is 13.5 minutes after sunset. [13.5 minutes is the opinion of the Geonim and is Minhag Eretz Yisrael and not like the tzet hachochavim of R”T 72 minutes after sunset because Chanuka is only derabanan and one can rely on the Minhag Eretz Yisrael for derabanan mitzvoth (Sh”t Yabea Omer 2:21). Additionally keeping the time of R”T will lead one to light after the latest time for which one doesn’t fulfill the mitzvah according to many posikim(Sefer Chanuka of Rav Kanievsky pg 13 note 8).] However Pri Chadash 672, Buir HaGra O”C 261 Y”D 266Birkei Yosef 676:17, Maseh Rav 2353, Mishna Brurah 672676:1, and Sh”t Az Nidabru 7:70 say to light after sunset. Rav Moshe Feinstein in Igrot Moshe O”C 4:101 and Rav Chaim Kanifsky in Yemeh Hallel VeHodah 12:86, say to light 10 minutes after sunset and have it last for a half hour before tzet hachovim and a half hour after tzet hachoavim. Torat HaMoadim 42:1 rules to light 15 minutes after shekiah [15 minutes is based on the geonim’s tzet hachochavim (3/4 mil) with the Rav Amram Goan’s lengh of a mil being 18 minutes, the fact rule that in the winter the shaot Zmaniot are shorter, and we add on one doesn’t make a few minutes to be strict for Rabbi Yose’s opinion bracha because of Ben Hashemashot which only happens after Rabbi Yehuda’s finishesSafek Bracha.] </ref># One can’t light earlier than Tzet Hachochavim (or Shekiah If there's two guys in a room together and they're not fulfilling their obligation with their parents, according to those who Ashkenazim each should light at Shekiah) except on Friday night Chanukatheir own. But if one According to Sephardim, it is unable better for them to light at night at all join together and will miss the mitzvah totally, one switch off days who should light after Plag HaMincha without a bracha. But it’s preferable to have someone light for you at the proper time than light early oneself. <ref> Torat HaMoadim 4The Pri Chadash 677:2 rules because many rishonim and achronim (brought below) hold that one doesn’t fulfill 1 quotes the mitzvah even after the fact if lit during the day, one should only light it if one thinks he’s going to miss the mitzvah entirely. Behag (Chanuka pg 25d), and Rambam (Maggid Mishna Chanuka 4:5) hold that if one lights earlier one doesn’t fulfill the mitzvah. However on Shabbat 21b, Rashba, Ran, Ritva, Orchot Chaim (Chanuka 15) hold lighting too early fulfills the mitzvah after the fact. S”A 672:1 writes one can’t there's two adults in a house together and are financially independent they each need to light earlier than Tzet separately and there’s an opinion that if one’s preoccupied he they can light from plag hamincha't join together. Seemingly this is a case of Stam-anonymous opinion and then Yesh Omrim- individual opinion for which we would hold like The Birkei Yosef 671:4 quotes some who say that but adds that the anonymous opinionShibolei Haleket says that they can join together. So holds Kiseh Rachamim 63a, Siddur Bet Ovad 159b, Moed Kol Chai 27:26, Tefilah Ledavid, The Pri Megadim M”Z 673EA 677:9. However some achronim hold still in Shat HaDachak one 8 cites the Levush who says that they can light after Plag because the two opinions in S”A aren’t arguing join but discuss the general case and then the case of someone preoccupied. So holds Levush, Bach, Sefer Yeraim 274, Shaarei Kneset HaGedolah 672:1, Pri Chadash, Chaye Adam 154:18, Pri Megadim A”A 672who says they can't. Biur Halacha 677:1 and Mishna Brurah 672:3s.v. Because of imo cites the dispute one certainly can not make a bracha on the early lighting. </ref># If someone lit earlier than Shekiah after Plag Hamincha, should relight at the proper time of the mitzvah without a brachaBen Ish Chai Vayeshev no. 17 writes that it is better for them to join together. If one lit before Plag Hamincha should relight at the proper time with a brachaKaf Hachaim 671:12 agrees. <ref> Torat HaMoadim Or Letzion 4:347:1 p. Since some hold 281 writes that it doesn’t work is better to join together but if they want they can light after Plag HaMincha (Rambam and Bahag) one should light againseparately with brachot like the Ben Ish Chai. * However one should relight without , Rav Ovadia in Chazon Ovadia p. 151 rules that a person who doesn't know if his wife is lighting for him and he's a bracha guest in deference to the opinions (Rashba, Ran, Ritva, Orchot Chaim) that one fulfills a house and has his own room he can light on his mitzvah then. However if one lit before Plag Hamincha one should relight own with a bracha because . It is clear then that if no one holds that one fulfill the mitzvah at that time. </ref># A boy, who regularly lights at Shkiah, who is becoming Bar Mitzvah a night of Chanuka, lighting for him he can light at Shkiah as usual. Some say to light at Tzet HaChochavim even himself if usually lights at Shkiahhe has his own room. <ref> Sefer Yalkut Yosef Chanuka of Rav Kenievsky 13:16, Sh”t Teshuvot Vehanhagot 2:337 against Rav Vosner p. 476 agrees and explains that there's only a concern that automatically he fulfills his obligation with someone else's lighting if he's staying in Kovetz Mebet Levi kislev 5757 says not the same room but he has his own room then it is possible for him to light until Tzetfulfill his own obligation. Mikrei Kodesh (Chanuka 11:3) leaves it as a questionHowever, this wouldn't apply if he didn't have his own room. </ref>
== Latest Time to Light=A Yeshiva Student===# One shouldn’t delay lighting right after Tzet Hachavim, There is a dispute whether a Yeshiva student who eats and sleeps at the Yeshiva but if one didn’t light he can light with a bracha until Olot HaShachar. If one is lighting late at night and no one financially supported by his parents is up, it’s proper to wake some considered dependent on the table of family up for Pirsume Nisathe household or not. If Most Sephardic authorities rule that he can’tis considered dependent and fulfills his obligation with the lighting of his household, however, many Ashkenazic authorities rule that he should make a brachais considered independent and doesn’t fulfill his obligation. <refRef> In Shabbat 21b * Rav Ovadyah Yosef in Sh”t Yachave Daat 6:43 rules that a Sephardic Yeshiva student fulfills his obligation with the gemara’s first explanation lighting of ‘Tichleh Regel Min HaShuk’(once people leave the market) is ‘if one didn’t light one can still light’his parents. Rambam (Chanuka 4:5) understands this as one He also quotes Rav Ezra Attiyah who didn’t light at Tzet, can still light until ‘Tichleh Regel’; Rashba (Shabbat 21b) understands ruled this as one who didn’t light by ‘Tichleh Regel’ can still light all nightway. Magid Mishna, BahagChacham Ben Tzion Abba Shaul (Chanuka pg 25d)Kovetz Zichron Yehuda, Sh”t HaGoanim Sharei Teshuva 233Sefer Zikaron, Riazvol 1, Ridpg 104-8), Shiltei Giborim, Smak 280, Mordechai Rav Shlomo Zalman (Shabbat 2Halichot Shlomo 14:26512), RanAderet Tiferet 2:31, Sefer HaTrumah 228, Tosfot Yaskil Avdi (Shabbat 21b D”H Deiy Lo Adlikvol 7, Rosh (Shabbat 2:3pg 316), Tur 672, Pri Chadash, Maamer Mordechai 672Yitzchak Yiranen 5:4, Sh”t Sadeh Aretz O”C 35 D”H VaAni, hold like the Rambam that after ‘Tichle Regel there’s no mitzvah. Meiri, Ritva48, and Orchot ChaimBanim Chavivim (Chanuka 15Siman 16) say to light after then without a brachaagree. However Ravyah 3:843, Hagot Maimon See also Rav Mazuz in Or Torah (Chanuka 4:2Kislev 5745), Machsor Vitri . * Torat HaMoadim (236 pg 199), Rabbenu Yerucham 92:1, Siddur Rashi 316 pg 151, Teshuvat Rashi 52, Pardes HaGadol 199, Sh”t Maseh HaGoanim 52 4 pg 43, Tosfot (Shabbat 21b D”H Deiy Lo Adlik45) in name of explains that since the Ri, Sefer Trumah 228 in name of Ri, Shibolei HaLeket 185 in name of Sefer Hatrumah, Ohel Moed Yeshiva students return home during break and are still connected to their parent’s home they are considered dependant on their parent’s house. Torat HaMoadim (Chanuka 2:4pg 48), Teshuvat Ravyah 972, Rosh 2:3, Smak, Rabbene Yerucham 9:1,Meiri, Smag, Orchot Chaim in name of some Geonim and Sefer Hatrumah, and Ran bring continues that even if they don’t fulfill their obligation with the lighting at home they fulfill their obligation with the opinion lighting of the Ri and RashbaYeshiva. Rabben Peretz (on Smak 280) says to light while household members are awake. Ritva says nowadays when we light inside we can light after ‘Tichle Regel’ against He explains that certainly the Tur who says this time applies even nowadays. [Darkei Moshe and Bach write that administration of the Tur also agrees to Yeshiva gives a portion of the Tosfot but just was writing according oil and wicks to the Minhag of his placestudents.] Rama 672:2 rules nowadays one doesn’t need light by Tichleh Regel but one should be careful to light by then. S”A 672:2 rules one should light by Tichleh Regel but if one wasn’t able to light should light until Olot HaShachar. Magan Avraham says He adds that S”A seems to say one can make a bracha but says from Bet Yosef (who asks on the Tur why he says that Rambam would hold not to light after Tichle Regel since one could just light out lighting of Safek even according the Yeshiva isn’t similar to Rambam) implies that there’s the lighting in a clear Safek whether to make a bracha and one doesn’t make a bracha in Safek. Thus Magan Avraham rules Shul where some say that one should only make a bracha if there’s someone else up can’t fulfill one’s obligation because the students are in the Beit Midrash all the time and so it’s considered their house. So holds Eliyah Raba* However, 672:3Shevut Yitzchak (vol 5, Chaye Adam 154:19, Derech Hachaim 672:2, Ben Ish Chai Vayeshev 7, Aruch HaShulchan 672:7, Mishna Brurah 672:11, and Kaf Hachaim 672:26. Magan Avraham also pg 113-4) quotes Maharshal who says to make Rav Elyashiv as saying that a bracha only up to Chatzot. The Gra (Maaseh Rav 236) agrees Sephardic Yeshiva student doesn’t fulfill one’s obligation with the Maharshallighting of one’s parents. Some hold The Shevut Yitzchak explains that one can make the bracha all night like the simple reading of S”A (based on a Sefak Sefeka or other explanations) including Erech Hashulchan 672:4married man fulfills his obligation with his wife’s lighting at home because that’s his primary house, Chemed Moshe 672:3, Moed Kol Chai 27:27however, a Yeshiva student doesn’t live at home and Rav Moshe Feinstein in Igrot Moshe O”C 4:105so his parents can’t fulfill his obligation. Mishna Brurah Peninei [[Chanukah]] (Shaare Tzion 672:17pg 81-2), quotes Rav Ovadyah in Kol Sinai 5725, and Torat HaMoadim 4:4, rule Elyashiva as saying that one shouldn’t make a bracha but shouldn’t stop someone who wants to make this is true even if the parents pay for tuition at the bracha as he has what to rely onYeshiva. Yet Rav Ovadyah in Chazon Ovadyah Sh”t Az Nidbaru 3:53, Shulchan Yosef (vol 2, pg 67 139-140), Yemeh [[Chanukah]] (Chanuka pg 64; published 5767155) writes it in this languagequoting Rav Nissim Karlitz agree. See Teshuvot VeHanhagot 3: if one comes home late and everyone is sleeping if one can wake up one or two house members, ‘Mah Tov’215(that’s correct17), if one can’t wake anyone up then one can still make a bracha. It who seems that Rav Ovadyah Yosef retracted from his ruling in 5725to agree. Listen to shiur by [The same language that it’s Tov to have people up for the lighting is found in Beyomin DeChanuka 242 and Shalmei Moed pg 218 in name of http://www.yutorah.org/lectures/lecture.cfm/751512/Rabbi_Hershel_Schachter/Chanukah Rav Shlomo Zalman AurbachHershel Schachter] </ref># Someone (min 14-16) who came home right before Olot HaShachar can light with seems to hold that a bracha even though it won’t be lit for 30 minutes during person in the night. Some say one should light without a bracha if there’s Israeli army does not 30 minutes for fulfill his obligation with the candle to be light at nightlighting in his home. <ref> * Background: Sh”t Shevet Halevi 8:156 writes Ginat Veradim says the rule that one can light with a bracha even if there’s not 30 minutes guest must chip in for the candles [[Chanukah]] candle expenses to burn before Olot Hashachar. He proves this from the simple language of fulfill his obligation (S”A, Magan Avraham and Mishna Brurah (and all other poskim) that one can light all night until Olot HaShachar. So writes Sh”t Rivovot Efraim 5677:582 in name of Sh”t Shem MeShimon 3 pg 120. Chazon Ovadiah (Chanuka pg 671) seems only applies to agree because he quotes the Shevet HaLevi a guest who pays for all his expenses like food and no one who argues. Yalkut Yosef Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 672:2. Howeverboard, Rav Elyashiv but a student in Sefer Chanuka 13:13 Yeshiva or College who can rely on them for all his needs and Torat HaYoledet 54:7 say not doesn’t account for every expense, doesn’t need to light with chip in for the [[Chanukah]] candles since they definitely allow him a bracha unless there’s 30 minutes before Olot HaShachar. </ref># One should wait for his wife because portion of Shalom Bayit even if that means missing lighting precisely at the time for lightingcandles. <ref> Emet LeYacov 677 in This is also the footnoteopinion of Yad Aharon, Kovetz MeBet Levi kislev 5757. </ref># One who didn’t light at night (before Olot HaShachar) can’t light during the dayShulchan Gavoha, but if one wantsKiseh Eliayahu, one can light without a bracha. <ref> S”A 672Shulchan Aruch HaRav 263:2. Siddur Rashi 116 pg 151 (quoting Teshuvat Rabbenu Yitzchak Bar Yehuda) says if one didn’t light during the night one can’t light during the day. So quotes Sh”t Maaseh Goenim 55 pg 439, Teshuvat Rashi 52, Machsor Vitri 237 pg 201Kaf Hachaim 677:3, Sh”t Maharam MeRotenberg 634, Pardes HaGadol 199, Tur 672, Shibolei HaLeket 185Yechave Daat 6:43, and Roke’ach 226. Ravyah 3Torat HaMoadim 2:843 in name of Rabbenu Tam 8 (who says one can light in the day if one didn’t light at nighthe personally asked his father, Rav Ovadyah Yosef). Sh”t Hitorerut Teshuva 1:119 writes that since we light nowadays indoors one should light as long as On the candle gives off light (before Netzother hand, when Pri Megadim A”A 677:3 and Mishna Brurah 677:4 disagree with the sun’s light overwhelms Ginat Veradim and hold any guest needs to chip in for the [[Chanukah]] candles light). HoweverSee Sh”t Bet David O”C 472, Sh”t Chesed LeAlafim Alkelai O”C 24, Sh”t Zivchai Tzedek 2:27, Sh”t Rav Ovadyah in Kol Sinai (kislev 5725) and Torat HaMoadim 4Poalim 2:50, Sh”t Mishnat Halachot 7:5 argue that even though one should light to satisfy all opinions one isn’t allowed to make a bracha87. </ref># Soldiers A Sephardic Yeshiva whose parents live outside [[Israel]] in the army who can’t a different time zone some say that he may light with a Bracha at night for security reasons and want to light Yeshiva, while it’s still day and extinguish it before it gets dark others say that he can light without a brachafulfill his obligation with the lighting of his parents. <refRef> Yalkut Yosef * Chacham Ben Tzion Abba Shaul (Moadim Kovetz Zichron Yehuda, Sefer Zikaron, vol 1, pg 210106-7) </ref>== Lighting before or after Mariv==# One who came home late and has to pray Mariv and rules that a Yeshiva student whose parents live outside [[Israel]] in a different time zone should light candles should pray firstwith a Bracha at the Yeshiva. This is also printed in Or Letzion v. 4 p. 281. <ref> Chazon Ovadyah (Chanuka pg 71150 (5767) and Mishna Brurah (explained in Biur Halacha) 672:Pri HaAretz 1 brings two proofs :1)Tosfot (Shabbat 23b D”H Hadar) says Tadir VeShEno Tadir, Tadir Kodem (the more common mitzvah comes first) overrides the mitzvah of Pirsume Nisa (publicizing the miracle9 pg 6d agree. So holds Meiri (Shabbat 23b) in name of Gedolei Dorot, Ran (Shabbat 23b), Ramban (Shabbat 22b), Rosh (Shabbat 2Yalkut Yosef 677:13), Rashba 5 (Shabbat 22b), Teshuvat Rashba 1:1070, Rabbenu Yerucham pg 61d.5773)agrees. 2)Kriyat Shema is Deoritta and lighting candles is Derabanan and Peni Yehoshua Brachot 51b, Nodeh BeYehuda Kama O”C 39,41e, and See Sh”t Rama MePano 14 hold Deorittas precede a DerabananMinchat Yitzchak 7:46 who agrees. Even though the Shagat Aryeh argues that Deorittas don’t have any precedence over Derabanan’s, most of the achronim agree with the Peni Yehoshua including: Sh”t Imrei Esh O”C 53, Mispeh Eitan * Rav Shlomo Zalman (Brachot 51b)Halichot Shlomo, Chatom Sofer (Pesachim 102b), and Sh”t Shev Yacov O”C 22. However Magan Avraham 672:5 rules one should light before praying Mariv. Because of Tadir and Shema is Deorittachapter 14, Sh”t Shevut Yacov 2:40, Sh”t Shev Yacov note 22 quoted by Sh”t Orach LeChaim O”C 1, implied from Sh”t Lechem Seirim 21, Shoel UMeishiv (Riviah 2:219) and Chaim VeChesed Mosefia pg 90d:11 says that a Sephardic Yeshiva whose parents live outside [[Israel]] in name of Mahari MeTaril disagree a different time zone can fulfill his obligation with the Magan Avraham. Chidushei Maharsa 8b says that everyone agrees that if it’s close to Chatzot one should pray before lighting because preferably one should pray before Chatzotof his parents. [Bear Hetev 672Torat HaMoadim 2:2 quotes Magan Avraham 7 and then says so holds Knesset Hagedolah. However Shaarei Teshuva 672Sh”t Mishna Halachot 6:1 says that the Bear Hetev made a mistake about the Knesset Hagedolah as appears from Sh”t Shevut Yacov119 agree. Sh”t Shevut Yacov quotes the Shaarei Knesset Hagedolah Mayan Omer (Hagot Hatur 672:15768) who writes that he retracted from his opinion that one should v. 3 p. 343 quotes Rav Ovadia as saying to light before prayingwithout a bracha. ] </ref># Sephardim have Some poskim held that every yeshiva bachor fulfills his obligation with the lighting of the Minhag to pray Mariv at Shkiah and to light individually at Tzet. So too, yeshiva even if the minyan prays at Tzet they should pray and then light individually unless there’s a concern that they won’t be able to light before ‘Tichle Regel’, in which case each individual should light before praying. One should set up the chanukia and candles before Tzet so that after Mariv one can light right awayhis parents aren't lighting for him. <ref> Torat HaMoadim 4Yachava Daat 6:8 and Kaf Hachaim 672:5 say 43 writes that because of Tadir we pray and then light. Chida in Machzik Bracha 672:3, Sh”t Mahari Halevi 1:182, says if there’s a concern yeshiva bachor can be yotzei with the rabbanim of missing ‘Tichle Regel’ the yeshiva's lighting since it is like one could light firstbig family. One should set it up beforehand His reasoning is that the rabbanim of the yeshiva are giving as per Mishna Brurah 672:1 and Kaf Hachaim 672:6. </ref># Ashkenzim who have a gift to the talmidim the Minhag oil to pray at Tzetbe yotzei their obligation. Also, should light at Shkiah before praying Mariv at Tzet. If Tzet came and one didn’t light he should first pray and then light. However some have since the Minhag to always light after praying Mariv. One should set up talmidim make the chanukia and candles before Tzet so bet midrash their home they can be yotzei with that after Mariv one can light right away. <ref> Mishna Brurah 672:1 lighting in name of Mor Ukesiah and the Minhag of the Gra to light before they prayed at Tzet, if one didn’t light until Tzet one prays first because of Tadir and that Shema is Deorittabet midrash. Yalkut Yosef Chanuka p. He also records the practice of some who would always light after Mariv483 agrees. So writes Torat HaMoadim However, Or Letzion 4:8p. One should set it up beforehand 282 writes that the yeshiva isn't judged as per Mishna Brurah 672:1 and Kaf Hachaim 672:6one large family. </ref># If one has an established minyan for Mariv very late, one You can light earlier at Tzet. <ref> Yeshuot Yacov 681:1, Sh”t Az Nidabru 9:47, Sh”t Teshuvot VeHanhagot 2:338, Mitzvah Ner Ish Ubeto 6 footnote 4, and Rav Elyashiv quoted in Halichot Yosef ph 239 say that 't see the rosh yeshiva as the reason head of Tadir (and that Shema is Deoritta) only applies if the two mitzvoth (mariv house since he doesn't eat with them and candles) are both available at he's not sponsoring the same time, but if one’s mariv minyan isn’t until later, one can light earlier at the appropriate timeyeshiva's budget. </ref>
== Minimum MeasurementsBirkat HaRoeh==# The candles only need fuel to burn Someone traveling all night in a car, train, plane, or boat and has no one lighting for him at home should preferably light there without a half hourBracha and make [[Brachot]] HaRoeh. <ref> Shabbat 21b Rashi 23a s.v. HaRoah says the time of Tichle Regel is one only makes [[Brachot]] Haroah when the Tarmodeans (merchants) leave, which the Rif says is about on a half hourboat. Rambam So quotes in name of Rashi, Machsor Vitri pg 201, Itur (Chanuka 4:5[[Chanukah]] 2 pg 117c) and Orchot Chaim , Smag (Chanuka 15[[Chanukah]]) writes it’s a half hour or , Smak (a little280) more. The accepted opinion is a half hour. So writes Rosh (2:, Ravyah 3, Rabben Yerucham 9:1843, Meiri, S”A 672Or Zaruah 2:2325, Mishna Brurah 672:1 Tosfot Rid (who is strict to satisfy all opinions to light by Shekiah and have it last a half hour past Tzet[[Shabbat]] 23a), and Torat HaMoadim 4Rosh ([[Shabbat]] 2:58). Some say This is also the opinion of Rav Moshe Feinstein in name of the Griz that since the Gemara sets the ending time for candles as when people leave the marketplace, nowadays when many people stay at the marketplace late into the night one should have to light longer than a half hour. However, Chazon Ovadiah pg 66, Sh”t Mishna Halachot 4 pg 79, and Sh”t Or Letzion 44 argue that the measure set by Chazal Igrot Moshe Y”D 3:14(a half hour5) hasn’t changed because of the practice of our time. However, Avodot VeHanagot LeBet Brisk says that the Griz himself challenged that idea when he heard it from another Rabbi Sh”t Maharsham 5:144 writes only in Brisk, yet he lit candles that lasted for very long only as a hiddur mitzvah. Also Yomin DeChanuka and Leket Yoshar say there’s a hiddur mitzvah to an unroofed boat one can’t light for longer than but in a half hour. </ref> If train one doesn’t have enough for the each Hidur candle, the Hidur candles don’t need to burn for a half hour. <ref> Magan Avraham 671:1 </ref># A person who is in doubt if his candles will last a half hour can nonetheless should light with a bracha. <ref> Smag in name of the Ri, Hagot Maimon (Chanuka 4:2), Ravyah (843 pg 579) in name of Rabbenu Tam hold that no minimum measure This is needed (also the gemara’s two explanation opinion of ‘Tichleh Regel Min HaShuk’ argue and we hold the first explanation). Similarly, Hilchot and Minhagei Maharash Rav Tzvi [[Pesach]] Frank in name of Rimzei HaRosh Mikra’eh Kodesh (quoted by Darkei Moshe 672:1[[Chanukah]] 18e), Piskei Tosfot Rav Ovadyah Yosef (Shabbat 89Kol Sinai Kislev 5725), Leket Yoshar pg 151, Shiltei Giborim(Shabbat 9aAruch HaShulchan 677:5), Taharat Mayim Shuirei Tahara 8Sh”t Mishna Halachot 7:986, and Sh”t Chochavei Yitzchak 1Tzitz Eliezer 15:529 (3), Sh”t Bear Tzvi 31 that nowadays when we don’t he says one should light for Parsumei Nisa of the public, we don’t need a minimum measure. Thus we have a Safek Safeka(double doubt) perhaps no minimum measure is needed and perhaps even if the measure is nessecary, the candle will last the minimum measure. Chazon Ovadiah (Chanuka pg 67he’s in an unroofed boat) ; Torat Hamoadim 2:18 says if since there’s a safek for Rashi’s opinion one wants to shouldn’t make a bracha, he the Bracha but can make a bracha with this Safek Sefaka. For more about Safek Safaka BeBrachot see Sh”t Yachave Daat 5:21 (the footnote), Otzrot Yosef 4:3, and Sh”t Chazon Ovadiah 48 pg 866[[Brachot]] HaRoeh. </ref>
== Doing an activity before lighting candles=====Eating=Performing Labors while the Candles are Burning==# When the time to light comes, before one lights, one can’t eat There is a meal (with a Kebetza of bread) before lighting, but a snack, fruit, or drink are allowed. Some are strict longstanding practice that women not to eat a half hour before do any work while the time candles are lit, to remind them that it is prohibited to benefit from the lightof Chanuka candles. <ref> Sh”t Maharshal 85, Yosef Ometz Yuzfa 1066, magan Avraham 672Tur and S"A 670:51, Eliyah Raba and Pri Chadash write that one can’t eat before one lights. Machasit HaShekel and Mishna Brurah (Shaar Tzion 672Aruch Hashulchan 670:14) say one should be strict not to eat a half hour before. Maharshal quotes Bach 672 who says that even Rabbenu Yonah who says concerning Bedikat Chametz that one doesn’t have to stop a meal that began when it was permitted would agree by lighting Chanuka candles that are a passing mitzvah8, one should stop a meal when the time to light arrives. So Ben Ish Chai (Vayeshev 7) and Sh”t Seridei Esh 2:43 hold that one should interrupt the meal against Sh”t Bet Efraim O”C 63 Yalkut Yosef Moadim pg 110:2 who permits continuing. 190, Chazon Ovadiah Ovadia Chanuka pg 68 writes that a snack not a Kebetsah just like eating before megilah (Sh”t Yabea Omer O”C 9:67). 12 <br /ref> For this law, cake has the same law as bread. <ref> Ashel Avraham 431 quoted This practice is brought down by Yalkut Yosef (Kitzur Tur and S”A 672:3) </ref>===Learning===# Once the time comes to light one can’t learn Torah. <ref> Sh”t Marharshal 85, Bach 672 D”H Upasak, Bear Heteiv 672:10, Knesset Hagedolah (Hagot HaTur), Taz (672670:1), Magan Avraham 672Aruch Hashulchan 670:5, Chaye Adam 154:20, and Emek Bracha 71 write 8. Mor Ukesiah 670 explains that learning the practice is also to show that it’s forbidden when to use the time for lighting comes against light of the Erech HaShulchan 672candles. The Taz 670:2. Chazon Ovadiah pg 68, and Sh”t Elef HaMagen 15 write one shouldn’t be strict says that the custom is similar to stop a half hour early because their custom of Bitul Torah as abstaining from melacha on [[Rosh Chodesh]]. The basis for the Achronim say by Bitul Chametz (Mishna Brurah 431:7). Halichot Yosef pg 254 says this custom on [[Rosh Chodesh]] is implied from that the Maharshal, Bach, and Chaye Adam but women did not participate in the sin of the Machasit HaShekelGolden Calf so they were rewarded with the [[Rosh Chodesh]]. However Doleh UMashkeh Similarly, since the miracle of [[Chanukah]] was brought about through the heroic actions of Rav KenievskyYehudis, and Kuntres Piskei Shmuot pg 86 say not it is a worthy custom for women to learn even a half hour before commemorate this by abstaining from melacha. Chayei Adam [[Chanukah]] 154:3 also mentions the story of Yehudit as the timebasis for this custom. </ref># Some allow one However, this only applies to Hilchot Chanuka because one won’t forget to lightstrenuous labor such as sewing or weaving but not cooking or baking. <ref> Orchot Rabbenu Chazon Ovadia Chanuka 3pg. 12, Shu"t Shraga Hameir 6:51 brings proof from S”A 27587:2, Shu"t Kinyan Torah 7 that one can learn Bameh Madlikin by the light of the fire:52, but is unsure whether one needs to appoint a person to remind you to lightBeer Moshe (brought in Nitei Gavriel pg. Similarly218), Sh”t Mekadesh Yisrael Rav Yaakov Kamenetsky (Chanuka 23) who brings a proof from Pesachim 11a that someone involved in Bedika won’t eat the ChametzEmes Liyaakov footnote to Siman 671, [http://www.dailyhalacha.com/m/halacha. aspx?id=3001 Rabbi Eli Mansour] </ref># A regular shiur of Torah learning between Mincha and Maariv or after Maariv should continue on Chanuka even if it continues an This only applies for the half hour after Tzet. When they finish they should announce that they should light the Chanuka candleshave to burn halachically. <ref> Torat HaMoadim 4:7, Yalkut Yosef (Moadim pg 211), Mekor Chaim 672, Pekudat Elazar 672 pg 62d, Ner Mitzvah pg 28, Chazon Ovadyah (Ovadia Chanuka pg 73). 12, and Machzik Bracha 672 hold one should delay lighting for Torah of the many against Noheg KeSoan Yosef (Chanuka 5 pg 185)[http://www.dailyhalacha.com/m/halacha. Since one can light with a bracha even after ‘Tichle Regel’ (S”A 672aspx?id=3001 Rabbi Eli Mansour], Eliyah Raba 670:2) even though it sounds like it’s Bedieved, because of Bitul Torah of a congregation Kaf HaChaim 670:8, and Mishna Brurah 670:4 say that it’s Lechatchila to light later. The issue only forbidden during the half hour of not learning when the time comes for lighting which is only so that one doesn’t forget to light but a congregation won’t forget and will remind each other. Chazon Ovadyah brings proof from Meiri and Sefer Meorot on Shabbat 21b who write that mitzvah against the Yeshivot in France would continue learning and only light when they finished learning half-way into the night. [Similar idea by Bedikat Chametz that permits it after the time comes is found in Sh”t Maharanach 2:79, Knesset Hagedolah 431, Olat Shabbat 431Magen Avraham 670:2, Shulchan Gavoha 431:6, and Shulchan Aruch HaRav 431. Even though Kesef Mishna says in name of Rambam that a shiur shouldn’t take place after the time for Bedika, Chatam Sofer (Pesachim 431:6) Magelei Tzedek who says Kesef Mishna was referring to learning at home but if that it was a shiur in shul it’s permittedapplies as long as the candles are lit.] </ref># The Although some women have the practice in Israel is that the Avrechim (Semicha students) and Kollel members leave their studies early to pray Minchanot perform labor at all on Chanuka, Arvit and then light with their familythis practice is incorrect because this is excessive idelness. <ref> Chazon Ovadyah Ovadia Chanuka pg 75 testifies to this practice. So writes Rav Shlomo Zalman Aurbach in Halichot Shlomo 13, Yalkut Yosef Kitzur S"A 670:3, Mishna Berura 670:5 </ref># Men can do melacha as usual on Chanuka.<ref> Chazon Ovadia Chanuka pg 296 and it’s written about him that he would get angry at Avrechim who continued learning and have their wives light at the appropriate time. 14, Mateh Moshe 974, Pri Chadash 670, Bach 670, Taz 670:2 </ref> However some hold # The type of melacha that it’s preferable to appoint one’s wife to light at is forbidden while the proper time so as not to take away from candles are lit are the regular learning. If that’s not possible one should light after he finishes his regular schedule types of learning. Nonetheless if the Avrechim plan melacha that are forbidden on returning to learn at candle lighting then one can interrupt to light at the proper time[[Chol Hamoed]]. <ref> Some hold (Yalkut Yosef (Kitzur S”A 672:8), Halachos of Chanukah by Rabbi Eider p. 4 quoting Rav Hershel Schachter in YU) based on the Meiri and Sefer Meorot on Shabbat 21b who write Moshe Feinstein says that the Yeshivot in France would continue learning and only light laws of working follow those of Chol Hamoed when they finished learning half-way into the nightcooking is permitted. Thus since S”A 671See Rivevot Efraim 1:1 says that lechatchila one should light at Tzet and bedieved one can light all night, because of the issue of Bitul Torah of Rabim one shouldn’t interrupt learning 436 who quotes several opinions regarding whether it is permitted to light at cook during the proper time. Nonethless, Chazon Ovadyah defends first half hour while the practice (to interrupt to light with their family) because the Avrechim candles are concerned with Bitul Torah and will learn also at home, and can tell their family about Chanuka when they lightlit. </ref>
===Sleeping=Related Pages==# Similarly, one may not go to sleep a half hour before * [[Chanukah]]* [[Placement of the Chanukah Candles]]* [[Earliest and Latest time of candle lighting unless one appoints someone to wake oneself. <Ref>Piskei Shemuot pg 99 </ref>light Chanukah Candles]]===Other activities===* [[Lighting Chanukah Candles on Friday afternoon]]* [[Lighting in Shul|Lighting Chanukah Candles in Shul]]# One make not begin a significant * [[Doing an activity which take time, however just writing a note is permissible. <Ref>Mishna Brurah 672:10, Piskei Shemuot pg 97 </ref>===If one began===# Even if one began before the time to light candles, one should stop whatever one’s doing when the time to light comes. <Ref>Mishna Brurah 672:10</ref>===Those who aren't lighting===Chanukah Candles]]# Some say that if a man is coming home late (an hour or more) after the time for lighting * [[Leftover oil and is careful to light when he gets home, his wife and children are permitted to eat. <ref> Chazon Ovadiah pg 68, (quotes Sh”t Nachlat Tzvi Y”D 262 concerning Brit Milah) allows the children and wife to eat.</ref> However, others disagree and hold that someone who isn’t lighting and will fulfill the mitzvah with someone else should also refrain from eating, working, or learning as above unless there’s wicks]]* [[Having a need in which case one can be lenient. <Ref>Piskei Teshuvot 672:7. However Sh”t Besel HaChochma 4:58kosher Chanukia]]* [[Kosher oil, Halichot Shlomowicks, and Rav Kanievsky (quoted by Halichot Yosef pg 260) say if it’s the Minhag candles for women not to eat a meal before the Chanukah Candles]]* [[A poor person lighting. In response, Chazon Ovadiah rules that if there’s not Chanukah Candles]]* [[Where Does a known Minhag, then one doesn’t have to wait. Similarly, Rav Yacov Kamenetsky in Emet LeYacov 676 says according to the Ashkenaz Minhag, if the children want to eat they can light for themselves. </ref>Guest Light Chanuka Candles?]]
== Lighting Chanuka Candles in ShulLinks==# The congregation should light candles between Mincha and Mariv even at Shkiah because the congregation would leave right after Mariv and there wouldn’t be Pirsume Nisa for the candles* [http://www. <ref> Rashba (Shabbat 21b) says that if one wants he can light at Shkiah because there’s also Pirsume Nisa thenhebrewbooks. Orchot Chaim org/56810 Yalkut Yosef Hilchot Chanukah (Chanuka 15Hebrew 5773), Ritva and Ran on Shabbat 21b. Bach 672 says in Shul the Shaliach Tzibbur can light at Shkiah. Sh”t Shev Yacov 22 pg 28a says it’s established to light between Mincha and Mariv (and so says Avudraham 54d) and the reason is that if they light after Mariv the whole congregation would leave. Sh”t Zivchai Tzedek (O”C 2:29,3:112 pg 213) writes that that was the Minhag of Bagdad based on the Yesh Omerim of S”A 672:2. So rules Chazon Ovadyah pg 69 and records that such is the Minhag Yerushalayim. Sh”t Shraga HaMeir 7:44 says that if the congregation forgot to light in between Mincha and Mariv they should light before Alenu so there’s a minyan still there. See also Yeraim 102e. ]==Sources==<references/ref>
== The oils that are Kosher==# All oils are kosher for lighting candles and it’s preferable to light with olive oil because that was the oil used in the Bet HaMikdash and with it the miracle occurred. If one doesn’t have oil, one can use wax. Some specifically use wax candles because it burns brightly. [Propane is judged like wax candles.[Category:Chanukah]] <ref> Shabbat 21b brings a dispute whether the not kosher wicks and fuels of Shabbat candles are Kosher or not for Chanuka candles. Rambam (Chanuka 4:6), Tur, and S”A 673:1 rule that they are Kosher for Chanuka. Tosfot (Shabbat 23a), Orchot Chaim (Chanuka 7), Roke’ach 226, Kol Bo 44, Manhig, Hagot Maimon (Chanuka 4:5), Meiri (Shabbat 21a,23a), and Mordechai 268 in name of Maharam hold that all oils are Kosher for Chanuka and olive oil is the best. Rama 673:1 rules based on the practice of the Maharil that olive oil is the best. There’s 4 opinions about using wax candles: 1) Sefer Minhagim of Rav Yitzchak Tirna 144, Darkei Moshe 673:1 in name of Rabbi Avraham of Prag, Levush 673:2 and Mateh Moshe 990 writes the wax is equal to olive oil. 2)Chaye Adam 154:8 and Pri Megadim A”A 676:5 seem to equate wax with other oils. 3) Meiri 21a, Mahari MeBruna 39, Maharshal 85, Sh”t Chacham Tzvi 45, Mishna Brurah 673:4 say any oil is preferable to wax. 4) Mor Ukesiah 673 and Ner Mitzvah of the Maharal disqualify wax altogether. Concerning propane see Torat HaMoadim 5:1 </ref># If one can’t afford to get olive oil for all of them one should get olive oil for the one of mitzvah and light the rest with other oil. If that’s not affordable, one should light the one of mitzvah with olive oil and the rest with wax. If that’s not affordable one should light all them with wax. It’s preferable to light every night with the number of that night with wax candles than to light one every night with olive oil. <ref> Sh”t Shevut Yacov 2[[Category:31, Bear Hetev 673:1, Moed Kol Chai 27:55 allow one to light one candle of olive oil and the rest of other oils. Sh”t Shaar Efraim 39, Eliyah Raba 673:2, Yad Aharon (Hagot bet Yosef), and Yeshuot Yacov 673:2 say not to light with one candle olive oil and the rest wax. However this implies that one can light with one candle of olive oil and the rest other oils (so says the Mishna Brurah (Shaar Tzion 673:1, Kol Sinai (kislev 5725)). However Bear Hetev, Shaarei Teshuva (673:1), Siddur Bet Ovad 27, and Moed Kol Chai understand the Shaar Efraim that even that’s forbidden. Birkei Yosef 673:2, Mateh Yehuda (Shevet Yehuda 35d) and Pri Megadim A”A 676e rule leniently allowing oil with wax. Thus Torat HaMoadim 5:2 rules to use oil with wax only if oil with oil is not possible. Chaye Adam 154:24, Sh”t Binyan Olam O”C 34, Mishna Brurah 671:7, and Torat HaMoadim 5:2 rule that it’s better to light according to the number of the night than to use olive oil. </ref># Someone involved in sticking wax candles to the Chanukia and then finds oil, should switch to use oil. If one started the bracha on the wax candles one can’t switch to oil. <ref> Sh”t Shevut Yacov 1:37 says once one sticks the wax candles to the Chanukia one began the mitzvah and shouldn’t change to oil. Sh”t Chacham Tzvi 45 argues that that isn’t called starting the mitzvah. Sh”t Shevut Yacov defends himself in teshuva 2:30 and agrees even though one started the mitzvah one doesn’t have to change to oil but can if he wants to be strict. Most of the Achronim hold like the Chacham Tzvi including:Sh”t Shaar Yosef 8, Birkei Yosef 673:3, Sh”t Yad Eliyahu Melublin 42, Sh”t Tiferet Yosef O”C 36, Sh”t Nachalat Binyamin O”C 132, Sh”t Shelat Shalom (Kama 113), and Kol Sinai (Kislev 5725). Shaarei Teshuva 673:1 and Aruch HaShulchan 673:6 say that once one begins the bracha one can’t change to oil at all. </ref># One can’t use an electric light (because it lacks oil and wick) or a gas flame (because it lacks a wick) for Chanuka candles. If one has nothing else one should turn it on without a bracha (whether one can get benefit from it, see later on).If one later gets a candle he should light with a bracha. <ref> Rav Ovadyah Yosef in Sh”t Yacheve Daat 4:38, Yabea Omer O”C 2:17(12),3:35, 10:54(19), Chazon Ovadyah (Chanuka pg 93), Sh”t Bet Yitzchak Y”D 120, doesn’t allow electric or gas lights. Rav Shlomo Zalman Aurbach in Halichot Shlomo (Moadim 283), and Rav Elyashiv in Kovetz Teshuvot 3:103 say if there’s nothing else available if the lights are set up so it’s recognizable that it’s Chanuka candles one can light (and seemingly make a bracha). Gas: Pitchei Sharim (Shabbat 21a) and Sh”t Yad HaLevi O”C 116 forbid the use of gas bulbs. Sh”t Yam Hagadol 32 allows gas but not electric lights.[Atret Zekenim 673 quotes Maharal of Prague who forbids even wax because the miracle happened with oil.Holidays]] Electric: Ashel Avrham Nemark (Shabbat 22a), Sh”t Mayim Chaim Mashash 279, Or Chadash 5665 pg 36, Sh”t Ohel Yitzchak Posek in name of Rabbi Yachanon Fershel, and Sh”t Kochavei Yitzchak 5-8 allow electric lights. However, Sh”t Levushei Mordechai Winkler (Talita O”C 59, Mehudra Batra 19), Sh”t Har Tzvi O”C 2:114, Sh”t Bear Moshe 6:59, Sh”t Ohel Yitzchak Posek 3, Sh”t Darkei Shalom Leiter 63(5), Pedukat Elazar 23, Sh”t Eliyahu Kalsakin 63, Sh”t Dvar Eliyahu 63, Sh”t Mishpatei Uziel O”C 1:7(2), Sh”t Mahargash 2:107, Kaf HaChaim 673:19, Sh”t Mishnat Sachir 2:203, Even Yisrael 9 pg 127b, Sh”t Yashkil Avdi O”C 2:9(8), 3:17,Sh”t Tzitz Eliezer 1:20(12), and Sh”t Shevet Hakehati 3:199 forbid the use of electric lights. </ref># Oils that spoiled that are inedible are unfit, unless it’s inedible because it’s bitter and it’s not spoiled is fit just like wax which is fit even though it’s inedible. <ref> S”A 154:12 if a mouse is found in the oil and it makes it spoiled it can’t be used to light in the Shul. Knesset Hagedolah extends this halacha to all candles of mitzvah. Pri Megadim A”A 154:19, M”Z 154:10, Erech Hashulchan Y”D 104:10, Mishna Brurah 673:3 say this law explicitly by Chanuka. By lighting in a shul, Magan Avraham 154:15, Olot Tamid 154:15, Ben Ish Chai (Vayeshev 12) say that spoiling that makes it inedible is unfit but if it’s just bitter it’s fit. </ref># All wicks and oils are kosher for Chanuka candles even the wicks and oils that are unfit for Shabbat candles such as wicks of cotton, hair or silk, and oils of castor oil or pitch (See Hilchot Shabbat Candles), which the wicks don’t draw well from the oil. <ref> Shabbat 21a brings a dispute in the Amoraim. We hold that these wicks and oils are permitted for Chanuka. It’s only a potential issue on Friday afternoon and even then it’s permitted since we are not afraid that on Shabbat you’ll fix the wick (to draw better) because the Chanuka candles are forbidden to benefit from their light and if they go out one donesn’t have to relight them. Rambam (Chanuka 4:6), Tur and S”A 673:1. </ref># On Friday afternoon if one puts in the exact measure required, enough oil for a half hour after Tzet, he can use the unfit wicks and oils (wicks and oils unfit for Shabbat candles). However if he puts in a lot of oil to last longer than the half hour after Tzet, he may not use the unfit wicks and oils (wicks and oils unfit for Shabbat candles).The Shamash on Friday afternoon can’t be lit with the unfit wicks and oils. <ref> Meiri(Shabbat 21b), Sh”t Rashba 1:170, Bet Yosef 673, Rama 673:1 say this difference by Friday afternoon. S”A 672:2 rules that if the oil lasts longer than the required half hour it’s permitted for benfit. Thus there’s an issue that one will fix the wick==References==<references/>

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