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==Making Birkat HaMazon Over Wine (Benching Al HaKos)==
 #It’s preferable to make a Birkat HaMazon over a cup of wine when making a [[Zimmun]] of three.<ref>Shulchan Aruch OC 182:1, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 45:1, Mishna Brurah 182:4. <br> The Gemara in Pesachim 105b states that Birkat Hamazon requires a cup of wine but does not explain when. Shulchan Aruch 182:1 quotes 3 opinions from the Rishonim:# Even an individual who is reciting Birkat Hamazon should do so with a cup of wine. # Only when 3 people are together, must they recite it over a cup of wine.# Even 3 people are not required to. <br>The Rama adds that all opinions agree that it is preferable to do so. Mishna Brura 182:4 writes that although Shulchan Aruch doesn't show preference for any of the 3, the Maharshal and the Bach are strict that if you have 3, you must have a cup of wine. The Mishna Brura himself concludes that it is certainly preferable to do so, but one is not obligated. /ref> If you are saying birkat hamazon alone, it should not be done over a cup of wine.<ref>see previous note. Although the Tur writes that one should have a cup of wine even when reciting birkat hamazon alone, the Zohar Bamidbar 245b clarifies that there's no obligation to make a birkat hamazon over wine unless there is at least a zimmun of three. Yalkut Yosef 182:1 cites the Zohar and adds that one shouldn't do a birkat hamazon over a cup when he is saying birkat hamazon himself but if one still wants to , he shouldn't pick up the cup.</ref> # Although there doesn't seem to be any differentiation between Shabbat and Yom Tov as opposed to a regular weekday, some people have the practice to use a cup of wine only on Shabbat and Yom Tov.<ref> see Rivevot Ephraim 1:150 who suggests that this could be that since we are not technically obligated to use a cup of wine for even with 3 people, people only really make an effort to be strict in this regard when they have more free time on Shabbat and Yom Tov. Yalkut Yosef 182: 1: in the footnote adds that it could be because we are trying to get to 100 berachot. <br>see also [https://outorah.org/p/5702/ Rabbi Ari Zivotovsky] regarding special occasions</ref>#When reciting Birkat Hamazon over a cup of wine, one should raise up the cup of wine a [[Tefach]].<ref>Shulchan Aruch 183:4 states that when making Birkat Hamazon over a cup of wine one should raise it up a [[Tefach]].</ref>
#However, if one doesn’t have wine in the house one may use Chamer Medina (a drink which is drunk in the country but isn’t water).<ref>Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 45:1, Mishna Brurah 182:14 </ref>
#If one drank from the cup of wine the cup is considered tainted and unfit for making on it Birkat HaMazon until one fixes it by filling it up with wine or water.<ref>Shulchan Aruch 182:3 and 182:6</ref>#The cup used in [[making Birkat HaMazon over wine]] should be washed out in the inside and outside before it is used, however, if it is already clean it doesn't need to be cleaned.<ref>Shulchan Aruch 183:1</ref>#The cup of wine should be filled up completely.<ref>Rama 183:2</ref>#The cup of wine must have a [[Reviyit]] as a minimum, but it is preferable to have it filled up completely. Some have the practice to fill it up so that it spills over the sides and some don't fill it up so much that it spills over.<ref>Rama 183:2, Mishna Brurah 183:9</ref>
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