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==Explanations for Waiting between Meat and Milk==
In the Gemara Chulin 105a, Rav Chisda says it’s permitted to eat meat after cheese but forbidden to have cheese after meat. Mar Ukva relates that his father would wait a whole day after having eaten meat to eat cheese, while his practice is to wait from meal to meal. Rashi (Chullin 105a s.v. Asur) explains we’re more strict regarding meat because the taste from the meat and it’s fat stays in the mouth for a very long time. However, the Rambam (Maachalot Asurot 9:28) writes that the reason is that there’s a fear that meat is stuck between one’s teeth. The Tur YD 89:1 says that if one according to Rashi if one just chewed on meat (and didn’t swallow) one doesn’t have to wait because there’s not a strong taste when just chewing meat, if meat is found between one’s teeth after the allotted time one must remove the meat since it still has the taste of meat. However, according to the Rambam if one chewed on meat one must wait as there is a real concern of meat getting stuck in one’s teeth but if meat is found between one’s teeth after the allotted time one doesn’t have to remove it because the one only waited that time so that the meat between one’s teeth would become digested and lose the status of meat. The Tur 89:1 concludes that one should be strict for both opinions. This is the accepted ruling by the S”A 89:1, Shach 89:2, Biur HaGra 89:3, and Taz 89:1. The Pri Megadim (YD M”Z 89:1) writes that according to both reasons (taste of meat and meat stuck in teeth) if one only chewed on a cooked meat dish (not actual meat) one shouldn’t have to wait, however, it’s proper to wait. This is quoted by the Pitchei Teshuva 89:1 and Kaf HaChaim Y.D. 89:3.
* Some Rishonim (Tosfot Chullin 104b quoting רבינו תם and Bahag) hold that there’s no minimum amount of time one only needs to wash one’s hands and wash out one’s mouth. The Baal HaMoer, Yerayim (Siman 149) and Raah (Bedek HaBayit pg 83) agree with this.
## waiting 3 hours<ref> The Rabbenu Yerucham (Isur Ve'heter no. 39) writes that one can wait 3 or 4 hours, however, he contradicts himself in his book Toldot Adam Vechavah 15:5 where he writes that one should wait at least 6 hours. See further in an article on [https://daf-yomi.com/Data/UploadedFiles/DY_Item/14587-sFile.pdf daf-yomi.com]. Darkei Teshuva 89:6 quoting the Mizmor Ledovid defends the practice of 3 hours based on the fact that in some places in the winter there was only 3 hours time between the morning meal and dinner. The Darkei Teshuva quotes those who dismiss this practice. The Badei Hashulchan 89:35 writes that he didn't find a source for his minhag other than the Chaye Adam 127:10 who says that some are lenient to wait a few hours.</ref>
## waiting 1 hour<ref>Rama 89:1 writes that the minhag is to wait one hour. The Taz 89:2 explains that really this opinion is based on the Rabbenu Tam and Bahag that one doesn't have to wait any period of time; rather one simply needs to wash out one's mouth with liquids and solids, wash one's hands, and end the meal with a bracha achrona.</ref>
# Sephardim generally hold that one should keep 6 hours. <Ref>S”A YD 89:1, Kaf Hachaim Y.D. 89:20, Yabia Omer YD 1:4 </ref>
# Some Ashkenazim of German descent have the minhag to keep 3 hours, some Ashkenazim of Dutch descent have the minhag to wait 1 hour, and most Ashkenazim keep 6 hours. <Ref>Rama 89:1. Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 46:9 says one should wait 6 hours. Rama 89:1 writes that the minhag is to wait 1 hour but concludes that it’s appropriate to wait 6 hours. Shach 89:8 explains that anyone who has a sense of Torah should keep 6 hours. Mishneh Halachot 16:9 agrees and encourages everyone to keep 6 hours. The Biur HaGra explains that the source for the 1 hour minhag is based on the Zohar. Meiri (Chullin 105a) mentions that one should wait 6 hours or close to that. Sh”t Yabia Omer YD 1:4 explains that the hours weren’t precise because they didn’t have an exact way to keep track of time. </ref>
# For a child some say that one should gradually build it up, at the age of 2 to wait 1 hour, at age 5 to wait 3 hours, and at age 9 to wait 6 hours <Ref>Rav Yakov Kamenetsky (Emet L'Yakov 89 no. 36) said that until the age of 3 there's certainly no reason to have the child wait to drink milk and even until the age of 6 is a big chumra. Sh”t Teshuvot VeHanhagot 1:435, Children in Halacha pg. 35 writes that for below the age of 3 a child may eat dairy immediately after but should wash out the mouth, between 3 and 6 should wait at least an hour, beyond 6 should wait the full time </ref> while others say that under the age of 9 it’s sufficient to wait one hour (with washing one’s hands and mouth). <Ref>Sh”t Chelkat Yacov 2:88-9, 3:147. Sh"t Yabea Omer YD 1:4 also says for children it is enough to wait only 1 hour </ref> However, once a child reaches within one year of their Bar/Bat Mitzvah, they should wait the full time <ref> Yalkut Yosef Dinei [[Chinuch]] Katan pg. 267 </ref>
===Chewed but Didn't Swallow===
# If one chewed meat but didn’t swallow one should wait 6 hours. <Ref>Shulchan Aruch YD 89:1 </ref>
# If one only chewed on a cooked meat dish (cooked with real meat) one should wait the allotted time. <ref>Pri Megadim (YD M”Z 89:1), Pitchei Teshuva 89:1 and Kaf HaChaim Y.D. 89:3 </ref># If one tasted meat without chewing and immediately spit it out whole then one doesn’t have to wait until eating dairy <Ref>Kaf HaChaim Y.D. 89:4, Rav Yakov Kamenetsky (Emet L'Yakov 89 no. 35) </ref> however, one should first wash out one’s mouth. <Ref> Darkei Teshuva 89:12, 13, 22 </ref>
===How Are Six Hours Calculated?===
# 6 hours is calculated with 60 minute hours and not [[Shaot Zmaniot]]. <Ref>Kaf HaChaim Y.D. 89:5 </ref># 6 hours begins from when one stopped eating meat and one should wait to begin the dairy meal until then. <Ref>Kaf HaChaim Y.D. 89:9 and Hilchot Baser BeChalav 1:8 based on the Dagul Mirvava 89:1 against the Aruch HaShulchan 89:4 who says to wait from the end of the meal (even not meat foods). Mishneh Halachot 5:97 and Divrei Shalom YD 24 agree with the Kaf Hachaim. </ref>
===Meat Stuck in One's Teeth===
# If one found meat between one’s teeth after 6 hours one should remove the piece of meat before eating dairy. <Ref>S”A YD 89:1 </ref>
# If one is not concerned and generally there is not meat stuck between his teeth after 6 hours, then one doesn’t need to check before eating dairy, however, if one has gaps in between one’s teeth or the like so that it’s likely that meat got stuck one should check before eating dairy. <Ref>Kaf HaChaim Y.D. 89:15 </ref>
===In the Same Meal===
# If one ate a meat meal and continued the meal with parve foods for 6 hours one may not have dairy as part of the same meal rather one must make [[Birkat HaMazon]] and then have dairy. <Ref>Shach 89:5 citing Maharshal Yam Shel Shlomo Chullin 8:9, Taz 89:2, Kaf HaChaim Y.D. 89:17 </ref>
# Even according to the opinion that one only need to end the meal of meat in order eat dairy one shouldn't intentionally say Birkat Hamazon to complete the meal and then be permitted to eat dairy.<ref>The Rama 89:2 writes that it isn't right to intentionally complete a meat meal with intention of eating dairy immediately afterwards. But he notes that some aren't careful about that. Taz 89:3 strongly attacks such a minhag and says that it doesn't follow any opinion. Yet, the Pitchei Teshuva 89:2 cites the Bechor Shor who defends the minhag.</ref>
===Sick===
# Someone sick who needs to eat milk within 6 hours may eat as long as he waited one hour<ref>Pitchei Teshuva 89:3 quoting Chatom Sofer 73, Shevet Halevi 2:35, Ben Ish Chai (Shana Sheni Shelach no. 11), Kaf Hachaim Y.D. 89:21, Yabia Omer 1:4:11, Yalkut Yosef 89:22</ref> said a bracha achrona on the meat, washed out one's mouth with a food and a drink, brushes one's teeth, and washes one's hands.<ref>Badei Hashulchan 89:36, Shoel Vnishal YD 2:26. He adds that if it is hard to wait even one hour it is permitted to eat even within one hour as one as long washes one's mouth with a food and a drink, brushes one's teeth, and washes one's hands.</ref>
===If One Already Made a Bracha===
# If one forgot that one recently ate meat and now made a bracha on the dairy he should take a bite of the food so that it isn't a bracha livatala as long as one hour passed since one ate the meat.<ref>Yachava Shu"t Yechave Daat 4:41 </ref>
===Dirty Pot===
# If one cooked parve in a dirty meat pot whether one needs to wait 6 hours after eating that food is a dispute.<ref>Shach 89:19 is lenient. Yad Yehuda 89:5 explains that he is lenient even if the pot was dirty and not nullified in 60.</ref> Others are strict.<ref>Eliya Rabba 173:4 argues on the Shach completely. Badei Hashulchan 89:89 seems to be strict as he quotes Eliya Rabba at the end.</ref>

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