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==Removing Peas from a Pod==
#It is permitted to separate One may remove peas from an edible pod. One on Shabbat normally, however, if the pod is inedible one may not only remove the peas from a little at a time in an inedible pod on [[Shabbat]]abnormal fashion.<ref>Mishna Brurah 319:21, 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 325), Torat Hamelachot 5:9 v. 2 p. 78 </ref>
#Peeling fruits (such as oranges or bananas) or vegetables (such as onions or cucumbers) is not considered a violation of Dosh. Nonetheless one should be careful of the conditions of [[Borer]] such as only peeling it right before eating and not using a peeler (but one may use a knife or one's hands).<ref>Rama end of 321, Chaye Adam 14:1, 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 323-4) </ref>
#One may not the husk from an ear of corn on [[Shabbat]].<ref>39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 327-8) writes that according to some opinions it's forbidden. However, Halachos of [[Shabbat]] (Rabbi Eider, chap 8, pg 95) writes that it's forbidden (and bases it on the Maharsham 320:83).</ref>
==Removing shell Shell of nutsNuts== #One may remove the shell of nuts (pecans, brazil nuts, filberts, peanuts) on [[Shabbat]].<ref>39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 324-5) , Chazon Ovadia Shabbat Vol v. 4, Pg p. 101 </ref>
#One may not remove the outer hull (a thick pulpy layer) of an almond or walnut on [[Shabbat]], however, one may remove the inner hard wood-like shell.<ref>39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 325-6) </ref>
#There is a question of removing the outer thin peel of a garlic bulb on [[Shabbat]] however most poskim permit and certainly it's permitted to remove the peel around the individual cloves.<ref>39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 326) </ref>
==Squeezing a fruitFruit==
#It is forbidden to squeeze a fruit in order to extract its liquid if one squeezes the fruit into a liquid or empty vessel. The prohibition is violated whether it is done by hand or with a utensil.<ref>Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 5:1,2. [[Squeezing]] a liquid out of a solid ([[Sechita]]) is Mefarek which is a [[Toldah]] of the Melacha of [[Dash]] (Iglei Tal, [[Dash]] #8, Mishna Brurah 320:1).
*Shulchan Aruch O.C. 320:1 writes that it's forbidden to squeeze olives and grapes and the juice which flows from them on their own is also forbidden for consumption. However, berries and pomegranates even though they are forbidden to be squeezed the juices from them that flow on their own are permissible if the fruit was meant to be eaten and not be squeezed for the juice. Lastly, all other fruits may be squeezed. The Rama 320:1 explains that in places where it's normal to squeeze certain fruits for their juices it is also forbidden to squeeze those fruits just like berries and pomegranates; in other words, the Rama 320:1 holds that a fruit's usage is based location. Mishna Brurah 320:5 explains that [[squeezing]] berries and pomegranates is forbidden rabbinically because some people squeeze them for the juice like grapes and olives. However, all other fruit in the days of Shulchan Aruch weren't squeezed for juice and were eaten. That's why it is permissible to squeeze such fruits because the fruit if considered like a solid and extracting one solid from another is permissible.
*Therefore, the Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata (chap 5 note 4) writes that nowadays that it is common to squeeze all fruits for their juice it is forbidden to squeeze any fruit on [[Shabbat]]. On the other hand, 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 328) lists certain fruits which are rabbinically prohibited to squeeze including oranges, lemons, grapefruits, apples, pineapples, cherries, strawberries, peaches, plums, pomegranates, and tomatoes. Similarly, Yalkut Yosef ([[Shabbat]], vol 3, 343 and 491) delineates certain fruits which are squeezed for the juices in some places such as grapes, olives, berries, pomegranates, apples, grapefruits, pears, mangoes, tangerines, and pineapples would be forbidden to squeeze on [[Shabbat]], however, fruits which are not squeezed anywhere such as quince or watermelon one be squeezed on [[Shabbat]]. Yalkut Yosef (pg 344) adds that even when it is permissible to squeeze a fruit, it may only be done by hand and not with a juicer (tool).</ref> One may not squeeze a fruit into an empty vessel with intent to put solid food in afterwards.<ref>Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 5:5. The Mishna Brurah (Sha’ar Ha’tziun Siman 320, no. 23) quotes a dispute amongst the Rishonim regarding squeezing into a plate with the intention of subsequently pouring it into food. The Chazon Ish (O”C 55:6) rules that it is only permitted if it is directly onto food and such is the opinion of Shemirat Shabbat Kehilchata (chap. 5, seif 5). See, however, Biur Halacha 320:1 s.v. muter. </ref>
#It’s permitted to squeeze a fruit with one’s hand onto a solid food if either the food absorbs the liquid or the liquid is meant to improve the flavor of the food.<ref>Gemara Shabbat 144b, Shulchan Aruch O.C. 505:1, Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 5:3,7, 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 345), Chazon Ovadia Shabbat Vol. 4, Pg 137-138 </ref>
*Shulchan Aruch 320:1 writes that it's forbidden to squeeze olives and grapes and the juice which flows from them on their own is also forbidden for consumption. However, berries and pomegranates even though they are forbidden to be squeezed the juices from them that flow on their own are permissible if the fruit was meant to be eaten and not be squeezed for the juice. Lastly, all other fruits may be squeezed. The Rama 320:1 explains that in places where it's normal to squeeze certain fruits for their juices it is also forbidden to squeeze those fruits just like berries and pomegranates; in other words, the Rama 320:1 holds that a fruit's usage is based location. Mishna Brurah 320:5 explains that [[squeezing]] berries and pomegranates is forbidden rabbinically because some people squeeze them for the juice like grapes and olives. However, all other fruit in the days of Shulchan Aruch weren't squeezed for juice and were eaten. That's why it is permissible to squeeze such fruits because the fruit if considered like a solid and extracting one solid from another is permissible.*Therefore, the Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata (chap 5 note 4) writes that nowadays that it is common to squeeze all fruits for their juice it is forbidden to squeeze any fruit on [[Shabbat]]. On the other hand, 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 328) lists certain fruits which are rabbinically prohibited to squeeze including oranges, lemons, grapefruits, apples, pineapples, cherries, strawberries, peaches, plums, pomegranates, and tomatoes. Similarly, Yalkut Yosef ([[Shabbat]], vol 3, 343 and 491) delineates certain fruits which are squeezed for the juices in some places such as grapes, olives, berries, pomegranates, apples, grapefruits, pears, mangoes, tangerines, and pineapples would be forbidden to squeeze on [[Shabbat]], however, fruits which are not squeezed anywhere such as quince or watermelon one be squeezed on [[Shabbat]]. Yalkut Yosef (pg 344) adds that even when it is permissible to squeeze a fruit, it may only be done by hand and not with a juicer (tool).</ref> One may not squeeze a fruit into an empty vessel with intent to put solid food in afterwards.<ref>Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 5:5. The Mishna Brurah (Sha’ar Ha’tziun Siman 320, no. 23) quotes a machlokes Rishonim regarding squeezing into a plate with the intention of subsequently pouring it into food. The Chazon Ish (O”C 55:6) rules that it is only permitted if it is directly onto food and such is the opinion of Shmiras Shabbos k’Hilchiso (chap. 5, seif 5). See, however, Biur Halacha 320:1 s.v. muter </ref>#It’s permitted to squeeze a fruit with one’s hand onto a solid food if either the food absorbs the liquid or the liquid is meant to improve the flavor of the food.<ref>Gemara Shabbat 144b, Shulchan Aruch 505:1, Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 5:3,7, 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 345)Chazon Ovadia Shabbat Vol. 4, Pg 137-138 </ref> ===Liquids that oozed That Oozed out on their ownTheir Own===
#Juice that oozed (by itself) out of a fruitby itself, which is specifically designated if the fruit was meant to be eaten, it is permitted to drinkthat juice, however, if the fruit was meant to be squeezed for its juice the juice that came out on its own is forbidden.<ref>Shulchan Aruch O.C. 320:1, Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 5:11.See Chazon Ovadia Shabbat Vol. 4, who permits the drinking of juice that came out on its own only for fruits with a derabanan sechita prohibition (and those fruits are designated for eating) . </ref>#For example, if someone cut watermelon or grapefruit to eat it and juice oozed out it is permitted to drink the juice.<ref>Shemirat Shabbat Kehilchata 5:11-12</ref> The same is true of someone cutting fruit to prepare it for a fruit salad that the juice is permitted.<ref>Orchot Shabbat 4:22</ref>
===Squeezing a lemonLemon===
#It is permitted to squeeze a lemon on sugar even if one’s intent is to put the sugar in a liquid afterwards, however, there are authorities who are strict on this issue.<ref>Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 5:5,6, 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 346). Although the Shulchan Aruch O.C. 320:6 states that one may squeeze a lemon on [[Shabbat]], the Mishna Brurah 320:22 explains that the reason for the leniency doesn't apply today. Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 80:12 writes that it is forbidden to squeeze lemons to make lemonade.</ref> According to Sephardim one can squeeze a lemon even into an empty cup, however, it is proper to be strict to do it into the sugar.<ref>Shulchan Aruch O.C. 320:6, Yalkut Yosef (Shabbat v. 3 Dosh Sechitat Limon n. 1)</ref>
#It’s permissible to cut a slice of lemon and put it into a drink even though the juice will seep out.<ref>Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 5:2. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata’s source is the Kalkelet Shabbat (Dosh) who cites the Taz 320:7 for this halacha. It seems that the primary reason for the leniency is that the juice being squeezed out isn’t intentional. </ref> Note that if the drink is hot tea its only permissible if it is made in a Kli Shelishi (see [[Bishul]]). One may gently stir the tea but one may not press the lemon against the wall of the cup. Additionally, one should cut the lemon directly over the tea.<ref>39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 340) </ref>
===Squeezing out excess liquidExcess Liquid===
#It’s permitted to squeeze out excess liquid in a food to improve it’s taste if it’s done immediately prior to eating. For example it’s permitted to squeeze a pickled cucumber to remove some of it’s vinegar if one is going to eat the pickle right away.<ref>Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 5:8, 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 341), Yalkut Yosef ([[Shabbat]] vol 3 pg 350) </ref>
#It's commendable to refrain from [[squeezing]] a piece of meat, fish, or chicken to get rid of excess gravy if the gravy contains water or wine.<ref>39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 342) </ref>
===Sucking on a fruitFruit===
#One may suck on any fruit with one's mouth while holding it in one's hand except for grapes. However, one shouldn’t squeeze the fruit with one’s hand.<ref>Rama 320:1 quotes two opinions whether it is permitted to suck juice directly from grapes. The reason for the lenient view is that it isn't considered a normal way to squeeze fruit by sucking on it with one's mouth. Mishna Brurah 320:12, Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 5:10, and 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 339) are strict for grapes. Yalkut Yosef ([[Shabbat]] vol 3 pg 248) and Halichot Olam (vol 4 pg 106) permit even regarding grapes but add that it's a proper practice to refrain. </ref> Certainly though one could put the entire grape in one's mouth, suck out the juice and then spit out the part one doesn't want to eat.<ref>Mishna Brurah 320:12, Yalkut Yosef 320:10</ref>
#It’s permitted to dip bread in a soup or other dip and then suck off the liquid, but it’s preferable to eat a little of the bread with it.<ref>Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 5:9 </ref>
===Cutting a grapefruit Grapefruit or watermelonWatermelon===
#It’s permitted to cut a grapefruit (or watermelon) even if liquids will ooze out as long as one doesn’t intend specifically to drink the juices rather to eat the fruit and that one doesn’t intentionally doesn’t squeeze the fruit.<ref>Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 5:12, Yalkut Yosef ([[Shabbat]], vol 3, pg 345), 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 340), [http://www.dailyhalacha.com/displayRead.asp?readID=2278 Rabbi Mansour] on Dailyhalacha.com </ref>
#One may scrape out grapefruit with a spoon to eat the pulp (the flesh of the fruit) attached to the peel, however, it's forbidden to press the spoon against the pulp in order to extract juices.<ref>39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 341), [http://www.dailyhalacha.com/displayRead.asp?readID=2278 Rabbi Mansour] on Dailyhalacha.com. Yalkut Yosef (Shabbat v. 3 320:9) writes that it is permitted to use a spoon to eat a cut grapefruit on Shabbat since one doesn't intend to drink the juice and usually one eats the juice together with the fruit or pulp.</ref>
===Squeezing grapesGrapes===
#It is permitted to squeeze grapes onto food, but it is forbidden to squeeze grapes into an empty dish even if it is for flavor.<ref>Shulchan Aruch O.C. 320:4 </ref>
#However, if one is stringent and does not even squeeze fruits onto food, he shall be blessed.<ref>Mishnah Brurah 320:17 </ref>
#It’s preferable not to squeeze grapes even onto solid foods that will absorb the liquid or be improved.<ref>Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 5:4 </ref>
#One shouldn’t suck on grapes while holding them in one’s hand, rather one should put the entire grape in one’s mouth, eat (or suck on it) , and then take out what’s left.<ref>Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 5:10 </ref>
#It is forbidden to drink juice that oozed out of grapes by itself.<ref>Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 5:11 </ref>
#One may not dry one's hair with a towel by pressing the towel to the wet hair. Instead one should touch the towel lightly to the hair.<ref>Ben Ish Chai (Pekudei II n. 8) writes that one could pat dry the hair with a towel but not press. This is also the conclusion of [https://www.yeshiva.org.il/ask/91086]. See Piskei Teshuvot 326:12 with all the opinions. Mishna Brurah (Biur Halacha 326:8) emphasizes that when going to the mikveh one should be careful not to violate sechita implies the same.</ref>
#One may tightly wrap a towel on one's hair to absorb the liquid because the liquid is absorbed immediately and becomes useless.<ref>39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 371)</ref>
#Some permit drying one's beard or other hair on Shabbat.<ref>Igrot Moshe 1:133, Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach cited in Shemirat Shabbat Kehilchata ch. 14 fnt. 66</ref>
==Drying with a Towel==

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