Jump to navigation Jump to search
No change in size ,  19:51, 2 August 2020
==Who Is Exempt?==
#Women are exempt from Birchot Kriyat Shema.<ref>Magen Avraham 70:1 writes that women are exempt from Birchot Kriyat Shema since it is a time-bound mitzvah. Bear Heitev 70:1, Shulchan Aruch HaRav 70:1, Mishna Brurah 70:2, Kaf HaChaim 70:1, and Halacha Brurah 70:2 agree. Halacha Brurah (Birur Halacha 70:2) writes that this should be dependant on a dispute in the rishonim whether there is an exemption of [[Mitzvah Ashe Aseh SheZman Grama]] on Derabbanans [This is the general dispute between Tosfot (Brachot 20b D”H Tefillah, Pesachim 108b s.v. Af, Megillah 24 s.v. Mi) who writes that women are exempt from Derabban time bound mitzvot and Rashi (quoted by Tosfot Brachot 20b) who holds that women are obligated in Derabbanan time bound mitzvot.] </ref>
#Ashkenazi women can voluntarily say Birchot Kriyat Shema, while Sephardi women may not make any bracha that they are not obligated to make.<ref>Even though the Pri Megadim (Ashel Avraham 296:11) writes that brachot which do not entail any action can not be made voluntarily including Birchot Kriyat Shema, the Yeshuot Yacov 422:6 argues that any bracha that is made in preparation for a mitzvah may be made voluntarily, but brachot that are the complete mitzvah in themselves, such as [[Havdalah]], may not be made . The Shulchan Aruch HaRav 70:1, Mishna Brurah 70:2, and Aruch HaShulchan 70:1 rule that Ashkenazic women are permitted to voluntarily say Birchot Kriyat Shema. Concerning Sephardim, the Sh”t Or Letzion 2:5 pg 55 writes that since Birchot Kriyat Shema are praise, women are permitted to volunteer to say them, while Sh”t Yabia Omer 8:8 and Sh”t Otzrot Yosef 4:3 argue that brachot may not be made voluntarily even in such cases. Halacha Brurah (Birur Halacha 70:3) explains that for Sephardim there is a triple safek to permit women to make the bracha: 1) perhaps women are obligated in Derabbanan time bound mitzvot (like Rashi and not Tosfot Brachot 20b), 2) perhaps women may volunteer a non-action bracha that they are exempt from (like the Yeshuot Yacov and not Pri Megadim) and 3) perhaps on a bracha that is not of the form Vetzivanu women may voluntarily make the bracha (like Rosh (Kedushin 31a) and not Rabbenu Tam). Nonetheless, Halacha Brurah concludes that the second and third Safek are really one Safek (as in Sh”t Yabia Omer 2:6:9) and on a double Safek we still say [[Safek Brachot LeHakel]]. </ref>
#According to Ashkenazim, some say there is an obligation to say the brachot after shema (Emet Veyatsiv, Emet VeEmunah, Haskivenu) because of the mitzvah to remember Egypt. However, according to Sephardim it is not an obligation to say any of these Birchot Kriyat Shema.<ref>However, the Magen Avraham 70:1 writes that women are obligated to say the bracha of Emet VeYatziv since the obligation of remembering leaving Egypt is a mitzvah that is not time-bound. The Solet Belulah 70:1, Shulchan Aruch HaRav 70:1, Siddur Bet Ovad ([[Kriyat Shema]] [[Arvit]] 1-2), and Mishna Brurah 70:2 agree with the Magen Avraham. However, the Sh”t Shagat Aryeh 12 writes that women are exempt from the mitzvah of remembering leaving Egypt since it is a time bound mitzvah since the mitzvah of the day is different from the nighttime mitzvah. The Nezirut Shimshon 67, Limudei Hashem 142, and Aruch HaShulchan 70 agree with the Shagat Aryeh. Sh”t Shevet HaLevi 6:12 writes that according to Ashkenazim since there are those who say that it is an obligation and even if it is not an obligation it can be said voluntarily (as Rama 589:6 writes), there is nothing to loose by saying the bracha. However, Sephardim hold that if a person is exempt from a bracha one may not make the bracha voluntarily (as Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 589:6 writes). Therefore, Sh”t Yabia Omer O”C 2:20, Halacha Brurah 70:2 and Sh”t Shevet HaLevi 6:12 hold that Sephardic women are not obligated in saying the bracha (at least there is a doubt) and so it should not be said voluntarily. </ref>

Navigation menu