#The Mitzvah of removing Challah<ref>The Mitzvah of Challah is counted as one of the 613 mitzvot by the Rambam (Sefer HaMitzvot Asin #133) and Sefer HaChinuch (385).</ref> is only Biblical in [[Israel]] and when majority<ref>Derech Emunah Bikkurim 5:28 writes that you don't actually need all of the Jews and a majority is enough. He proves it from the Ritva Ketubot 25a and claims that this is the opinion of other rishonim. See however, [https://www.toraland.org.il/%D7%9E%D7%90%D7%9E%D7%A8%D7%99%D7%9D/%D7%94%D7%9E%D7%A6%D7%95%D7%95%D7%AA-%D7%94%D7%AA%D7%9C%D7%95%D7%99%D7%95%D7%AA-%D7%91%D7%90%D7%A8%D7%A5/%D7%A9%D7%9E%D7%99%D7%98%D7%94/%D7%9E%D7%97%D7%A9%D7%91%D7%AA-%D7%94%D7%A9%D7%9E%D7%99%D7%98%D7%94/%D7%A8%D7%95%D7%91-%D7%99%D7%94%D7%95%D7%93%D7%99-%D7%94%D7%A2%D7%95%D7%9C%D7%9D-%D7%91%D7%90%D7%A8%D7%A5-%D7%99%D7%A9%D7%A8%D7%90%D7%9C/#_ftn44 Rav Yehuda Amichai] section 8 who argues that the Rambam means all the Jews need to reside in Israel for the mitzvah to be Biblical.</ref> of Bnei Yisrael reside in [[Israel]]. There is nonetheless a Rabbinic Mitzvah of Challah outside [[Israel]] and in [[Israel]] when Bnei Yisrael does not reside there. <ref>Rambam (Bikkurim 5:5-6) writes that The Mitzvah of removing Challah is only Biblical in [[Israel]] and when all of Bnei Yisrael reside in [[Israel]]. There is nonetheless a Rabbinic Mitzvah of Challah outside [[Israel]] and in [[Israel]] when Bnei Yisrael do not reside there.</ref>
#It must be stressed that the Mitzvah of Challah applies to all types of dough, not just "Challah Bread"; even dough for baking pastries can be obligated in Challah <ref>R. Shechter, http://www.yutorah.org/lectures/lecture.cfm/802895/Rabbi_Hershel_Schachter/Inyonei_Challah </ref>.
==Conditions for Being Obligated in Challah==
#Any dough made from the 5 grains is obligated in the Mitzvah of Challah. <ref>Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 35:1</ref>
#If the dough or a part of the dough is going to be baked one should separate Challah with a Bracha, however, if all of it is going to be cooked or fried one should separate Challah without a Bracha.<ref>Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 35:6</ref>
#If the dough is kneaded with eggs or fruit juice, there is some doubt as to whether one needs to separate Challah; therefore, one should knead into the dough some liquid that is considered a "משקה" [e.g. water, milk, bee's honey, wine, oil], and then one can separate Challah with a Beracha <ref>Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 35:7 </ref>.
#The Mitzvah of Challah applies to the owner of the Challah who is baking the dough, whether that is a man or a woman. However, the woman has preference over a man in fulfilling this Mitzvah as it is particularly relevant for women.<ref>Mishna ([[Shabbat]] 2:6), Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 35:8, Yalkut Yosef YD 328:12</ref>
#The dough of a non-Jew is exempt from the mitzvah of hafrashas challah, even if the Jews bakes it into bread. <ref>Shulchan Aruch YD 330:1 </ref>
==Amount of Dough Necessary==
#According to Ashkenazim, some say that the Minhag is to remove Challah with a Bracha when making a dough that is 5 pounds (2.27 kg) or more and remove Challah without a Bracha when making dough that is 3 pounds (1.35 kg) or more. <ref>Shulchan Aruch YD 324:1 and Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 35:1 write that the amount necessary in order to be obligated in Challah is 43.2 [[KeBaytzim]] of flour.[http://www.yutorah.org/lectures/lecture.cfm/777708/Rabbi_Hershel_Schachter/Parsha_Shiur_-_Shelach_5772 Rabbi Hershel Schachter on yutorah.org] (Shiur on Parshat Shalach, min 50) quotes Rav Eliyahu Yosef Henkin ([http://www.hebrewbooks.org/pdfpager.aspx?req=2274&st=&pgnum=139 Edut LeYisrael page 138]) who says to remove Challah with a Bracha if the dough is 5 pounds or more and without a Bracha if the dough is 3 pounds or more.</ref> Others say that the Minhag of Yerushalyim is to take Challah off without a Bracha if the dough is 2.65 pounds (1200 grams) or more and to remove Challah with a Bracha if the dough is 3.67 pounds (1666 grams) or more. <ref>Halichot Shlomo (Moadim vol 2 pg 338 note 54) writes that this was the Minhag in Rav Shlomo Zalman’s house and that of Yerushalyim. </ref>
#According to Sephardim, one should take off Challah with a Bracha when making a dough with 3.44 pounds (1560 grams) or more of flour and it is a pious practice to remove Challah without a Bracha when making a dough with 2.65 pounds (1200 grams) or more of flour.<ref>Yalkut Yosef YD 324:6</ref> However, some say that one should only remove Challah with a Bracha for dough that is 5.29 pounds (2400 grams) and without a Bracha for dough that is 3.67 pounds (1666 grams).<ref>Rav Modechai Eliyahu (comments on Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 35:2</ref>
#It is forbidden to intentionally make less than the shiur challah, the minimum amount of dough which would obligate one to separate Challah.<ref>Rambam Bikkurim 6:15, Shulchan Aruch Y.D. 324:14, Yalkut Yosef YD 324:7. Shulchan Aruch Y.D. 324:14 writes that it is forbidden to make Challah less than the requisite amount to remove Challah in order to absolve oneself of the Mitzvah. The Gra 324:23 points out that this is based on Yerushalmi Challah 3:1 and Pesachim 48b.</ref> The poskim explain that this only applies if one wants to bake a large amount and is intentionally baking it in two parts separately in order to exempt oneself from the mitzvah of Challah, however, there's nothing wrong with baking a small amount if that's all one wants to bake now.<ref>Shach 324:25 and Taz 324:17 write that someone who only has a small piece of dough is nonetheless allowed to bake it and doesn't have to worry about this prohibition since one's intention isn't absolve oneself from the mitzvah. Aruch Hashulchan 324:41 explains further that the entire prohibition is only for someone who wants to bake a shiur challah and intentionally absolves himself from the mitzvah by baking it in halves. Mishna Halachot 8:228 and 19:112 echoes this sentiment explicitly that there's nothing wrong at all with someone who only wants to bake a small amount less than the shiur Challah.</ref>
==Procedure of Removing Challah==
#The text of the Bracha upon removing Challah is "ברוך אתה ה, ' אלוקינו מלך העולם אשר קדשנו במצוותיו וצונו להפריש חלה". <ref>Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 35:1</ref>
#After reciting the above Bracha one should remove a [[Kezayit]] of dough and burn it. The Minhag is to burn the piece of dough in the same oven that the bread is baking.<ref>Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 35:1</ref>
#Sephardim in the diaspora can remove Challah and give it to a child Kohen who never saw a keri or an adult who went to mikveh and isn't a Niddah, Zava, Tumat Keri, or Zav.<ref>Shulchan Aruch Y.D. 322:5 based on Bechorot 27a</ref> Even Sephardim could burn the challah in the diapsora.<ref>[http://www.dailyhalacha.com/m/halacha.aspx?id=3017 Rabbi Mansour on dailyhalacha.com]</ref>
==Forgot to Remove Challah==
#If one forgot to remove Challah Erev [[Shabbos]]: if you are outside of [[Israel]], you leave over a slice, and separate Challah from it after [[Shabbos]]. This slice must be slightly bigger than the Shi'ur Challah. <ref>Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 35:9 </ref>.
#This is a real problem if this happens Erev [[Shabbos]] [[Erev Pesach]] <ref>Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 35:9 </ref>.