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Text replacement - "Shemirat Shabbat" to "Shemirat Shabbat"
===Bibical prohibition===
#The Melacha of Koshair is the binding two pliable items by intertwining them such as through a firm knot or twining threads into rope. <ref>Mishna Brurah 317:34 quoting the Rambam, Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 51:52 </ref>
#A knot that’s forbidden on a Torah level is one that is both (1) professional and (2) is meant to be permanent. <ref>Shulchan Aruch (317:1) in the opinion of the Rambam and Rif </ref>
===Tightening===
#Any knot which is forbidden to tie is also forbidden to tighten. <ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 15:50 (in new editions 15:53), Kesot HaShulchan (Siman 123, at the end of note 4), Sh"t Az Nidabru 3:22, Sh"t Bear Moshe 6:3. [http://www.hebrewbooks.org/pdfpager.aspx?req=7724&st=&pgnum=56 Kesot HaShulchan (v. 5 p. 56)] explains that in his opinion a loose knot isn't a knot on a Torah level and tightening it is creating a knot. Additionallyת according to some opinions bringing the two knots that were very much separated together even though they remain loose is also considered creating a knot. See there for his discussion. </ref>
#For example, one may not tighten the double knot of the [[tzitzit]] or [[Tallit]] if it became loose. <ref>39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 3, pg 799) </ref>
#According to Ashkenazim, it is permissible to tie one's shoelaces with a bow on top of a single knot (initial winding) only if it is meant to be untied within 24 hours. According to Sephardim, it is permissible as long as it is meant to be untied within 7 days. <ref>*Rambam 10:5, Tur, and S”A 317:5 rule like Chachamim on [[Shabbat]] 113a who hold that [[tying]] a bow is permitted. Bet Yosef 317:5 quotes the Mordechai, who forbids [[tying]] a bow on top of a single knot. However, Darkei Moshe 317:3 quotes the Agur who says that the minhag is lenient to tie a bow on top of a single knot.
*Magen Avraham 317:15, Taz 317:7, Eliyah Rabba 317:13, Mishna Brurah 317:29, and Kaf HaChaim 317:59 rule like the Agur but explain that it must be untied within 24 hours so that it is not considered a permanent knot. The Aruch HaShulchan 317:25, however, rules like the Mordechai. Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 80:45, Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 15:53 (in new edition 15:56), and the [[Shabbos]] Home (Rabbi Simcha Cohen, vol 1, chap 13, pg 207) concur with the Mishna Brurah.
*Birkei Yosef 317:2 argues that the Agur was lenient even if the bow-knot is permanent. Yalkut Yosef ([[Shabbat]], vol 2, p. 562) agrees.</ref> However, if one doesn't usually untie it within 24 hours (and manages to slip one's foot in and out) it would be forbidden to tie one's shoes on [[Shabbat]]. <ref>39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 3, pg 798) </ref>According to Sephardim it is permissible even if it isn't meant to be untied within 24 hours, yet it's preferable to make sure to untie it within 7 days. <ref>Yalkut Yosef (317:11), Rav Ovadyah in Kol Sinai (Koshair #5). See previous two footnotes.</ref>
#Someone doing the wrapping of an Ashkenaz Sefer Torah (Gelilah) and has to tie a sash around the Torah, it's preferable to just wrap the sash around the Torah and tuck in the end, however, if that's not possible then some are lenient to tie a bow on top of a single knot <ref>Sh"t Tzitz Eliezer 7:29, Shalmat Chaim 185, Beir Moshe 6:55. </ref> while others are strict unless one is planning on [[untying]] it within 24 hours. <ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 15:53 (in new editions 15:56) is strict unless one is planning to untie it within 24 hours, however, in the footnote (15:188) he quotes Rav Shlomo Zalman who said that the minhag is to be lenient.</ref>#Many authorities hold that it is permissible to tie a necktie on [[Shabbat]] if one usually unties it within 24 hours. However, if one doesn't usually untie it within 24 hours, some say that if one intends to untie it within 24 hours it is permitted, while others write that one should tie it from before [[Shabbat]] and put it on and take it off by just tightening and loosening the side which goes around the neck, however, one shouldn't untie it on [[Shabbat]]. <ref>*[[Image:Ties.gif|200px|right]] For diagrams of the different ways to make a tie, click on the image to the right. Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 15:58 quotes Rav Shlomo Zalman as permitting [[tying]] a necktie on [[Shabbat]] if it is “not tied as a knot” (to be explained) and meant to be undone in 24 hours because it is like a bow on top of a single knot. He adds that if one doesn't usually untie it within 24 hours, one should tie it before [[Shabbat]] and put it on and take it off by tightening and loosening it. The English translation of Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata explains “not tied as a knot” as a tie which would become undone if the narrow end is pulled out. The new edition of Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 15:62, however, writes that it is permitted to tie a necktie on [[Shabbat]] if one usually unties it within 24 hours and does not have any other stipulations.
*Yalkut Yosef (vol 2, p. 562), however, writes that for Sephardim, it’s permitted to tie a necktie if it is going to be untied within a week.
*Rav Moshe Feinstein (cited by 39 Melachos, footnote #42), Rabbi Eliezer Waldenburg (cited by [[Shabbat]] VeHilchoteha p. 221), Menuchat Ahava (vol 3, 14:13), and Or Letzion 2:47:21 permit [[tying]] a necktie and don’t specify which type.
==Single knot==
#It is forbidden to tie a single knot with one string onto itself. <ref>Rama (317:1) quoting the Hagahot Alfasi, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 80:45, Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata (in the new edition 15:52) </ref>##In situations where it's common to tie a double knot such as the last knot of a [[tzitzit]] fringe one may tie a single knot. <ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata (in the new edition 15:53) </ref>
#It is permitted to tie a single knot in two strands of string even if it is tight and meant never to be undone. <ref>S”A HaRav 317:1, Yalkut Yosef (317:11, [[Shabbat]], vol 2, pg 562), The [[Shabbos]] Home (Rabbi Simcha Cohen, vol 1, chap 13, pg 207) </ref>
#It is permitted to tie a single knot and then tuck in the ends of the string so that it doesn’t come out only if it is meant to be undone within 24 hours. <ref>The [[Shabbos]] Home (Rabbi Simcha Cohen, vol 1, chap 13, pg 207-8) </ref>
#One may not add a second knot on top of a preexisting single knot,<ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata (in the new edition 15:53), Chazon Ovadia [[Shabbat]] Part 5 page 68 also says it's worthwhile to be stringent. </ref> nor may one add a third knot onto a double knot in order to tighten it. <ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata (in the new edition 15:53), 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 3, pg 799). </ref>
==Double knots==
#According to Ashkenazim, a tight double knot is considered like a professional knot and may not be tied. The Sephardic custom, however, is to be lenient if one intends to untie it within 7 days, yet, one who is strict will be blessed. <ref>*Shiltei Giborim 41b writes that a double knot might be a professional knot because it is a strong knot. Thus, Rama 317:1 forbids [[tying]] a double knot even if it is not meant to last. Many Ashkenazic authorities, including Kitzur S”A 80:45, Mishna Brurah 317:14, Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 15:52 and The 39 Melachos (vol 3, p. 792) agree, while the Aruch HaShulchan 317:10 disagrees.
*However, the Chida in Birkei Yosef 317:1 writes that in his locale, almost no one was strict for this Rama. Ben Ish Chai in Rav Pe’alim 2:44 explains that the Chida meant that the minhag is incorrect but that one need not protest. Thus, Ben Ish Chai (Ki Teitzei #2) forbids [[tying]] a double knot. Yalkut Yosef 317:8 argues that the Chida meant that Sephardim consider a double knot to be a non-professional knot and it may be tied if it is not meant to last. This is also the conclusion in Chazon Ovadia Part 5 page 57 that in time of need one may be lenient.
*The Magen Avraham 317:4 (according to the Pri Megadim and Levushei Sarad, unlike the Machasit HaShekel) writes that the only issue with the double knot is that it might be a professional knot because it is tight. If, however, one were to tie a loose double knot, it would be permitted. Similarly, Kaf HaChaim 317:23 explains that the Chida was only lenient if it is a loose double knot. Menuchat Ahava (vol 3, 14:5) agrees for a different reason. Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 15:55 rules that it is permitted to tie a loose double knot if it is meant to come undone within one day. He clarifies that loose means that it is able to become undone by itself. The [[Shabbos]] Home (vol 1, p. 207) agrees.</ref>#It is permitted to tie a loose double knot if it’s usually not meant to last 24 hours and this time specifically it's also not meant to last 24 hours. <ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 15:52 (in new edition 15:55), The [[Shabbos]] Home (Rabbi Simcha Cohen, vol 1, chap 13, pg 208) </ref> For example, it’s permissible to tie a double knot for a belt (gartel) or sash (tichel) if it’s going to be untied in 24 hours since it’s not meant to be tight. <ref>Shaarei Teshuva (317:1), Tzitz Eliezer 16:10, Menuchat Ahava 14:5, 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 3, pg 793) </ref>#If unintentionally one pulled the bow-knot of the shoelaces and it became a double knot, one may untie it. <ref>Mishnat Halachot 3:38, Rav Ovadyah in Kol Sinai (Koshair 3:5), Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 15:56 (in new editions 15:60) </ref>
#One can untie a double knot that is made on a candy bag given out at shul for a simcha. <ref>Toldot Yitzchak O”C 2:11 </ref>
#One may tie a bandage on a wound with a loose double knot if it is meant to be untied within 24 hours. If it is meant to last for more than 24 hours but less than 7 days, one should use a adhesive bandage or a bow knot, however, if that isn't possible then it's permissible. <ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata (in new editions 15:55) </ref>#One may tie a head covering with a loose double knot as long as one usually unties it everyday. However, if one usually removes it within [[untying]] the knot then it's forbidden to tie it even if this time one's intent is to untie within 24 hours. <ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata (in new editions 15:55) </ref>
==Wrapping a string==
==Twist ties and Cable ties==
#Some authorities forbid using wire twist ties to close bags unless one plans to undo it within 24 hours. <ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 14:9 and (15 note 166, in the new edition note 174) quoting Rav Shlomo Zalman </ref> However, others permit. <ref>39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, Melechat Koshair note 54) quoting Rav Moshe Feinstein </ref> It is praiseworthy to avoid using them if they will remain undone for more than 24 hours. <ref>39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 3, pg 800) </ref>
#Some poskim permit using plastic cables ties since it is not a knot, but simply tightening. <ref>Chazon Ovadia [[Shabbat]] Part 5 page 75 </ref>
==Fixing clothing==
#Socks or gloves that are tied together should be detached before [[Shabbat]], but if one forgot one may untie it because they are only tied in the first place until they are going to be used. If one cannot untie them, he may rip the string, but should make sure to destroy the string. <ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] Kahilchata 15:67 in name of Rav Shlomo Zalman Aurbach, Az Nidberu 1:58. </ref>#One can take out the pins put into shirts in packaging to keep it from wrinkling. <ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] Kahilchata 15:64 in name of Rav Shlomo Zalman Aurbach, Bier Moshe 1:22. </ref>
#It’s totally permitted to thread new laces into shoes to replace old laces but it’s not permitted if the shoe was never laced. <ref>Rav Ovadya Yosef in the Haskama of Netiv Mitzvot, Mayim Chaim Meshash O”C 1:147, Bier Moshe 2:20(2),6:59, Tefilah LeMoshe 1:58. </ref>

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