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===Mefarek===
#Mefarek is a [[Toldah]] of Dosh. <ref>Rashi [[Shabbat]] 73b and Rambam ([[Shabbat]] 8:7 and 21:12) write that Mefarek is a [[Toldah]] of Dosh. <br />
One major difference between Mefareik and its Av is that Dosh is the removal of ochel from p’soles, something unwanted, which is not the case with squeezing juice from fruit. In order to maintain the comparison, the squeezing of the juice must be viewed as squeezing liquid from food. Therefore, the Gemara (144b) rules that squeezing juice directly into food (not drink) is permitted since then it is viewed as removing food from food and is not similar to Dosh where the extract is different than what it is removed from.<br />The Mishna Brurah (Sha’ar Ha’tziun Siman 320, no. 23) quotes a machlokes Rishonim regarding squeezing into a plate with the intention of subsequently pouring it into food. The Chazon Ish (O”C 55:6) rules that it is only permitted if it is direct and such is the opinion of Shmiras Shabbos k’Hilchisa (chap. 5, seif 5). See, however, Biur Halacha 320:1 s.v. muter </ref>
#Mefarek includes [[squeezing]] juice from fruit ([[Sechitah]]) or liquid from a cloth. <ref>Rambam ([[Shabbat]] 8:10 and 21:12) writes that [[squeezing]] fruit ([[Sechitah]]) is a violation of Mefarek. 39 Melachos (Dosh note 113) quotes Tosfot Ketubot 6a s.v. Hay who holds that [[squeezing]] a liquid from a cloth is also considered Mefarek. </ref>
==Removing peas Peas from a podPod==
#One may not remove peas from an inedible edible pod on [[Shabbat]]normally, however, if the pod is inedible one may only remove the peas a little at a time in an abnormal fashion. <ref>Mishna Brurah 319:21, 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 325) , Torat Hamelachot 5:9 v. 2 p. 78 </ref>#Peeling fruits (such as oranges or bananas) or vegetables (such as onions or cucumbers) is not considered a violation of Dosh. Nonetheless one should be careful of the conditions of [[Borer]] such as only peeling it right before eating and not using a peeler (but one may use a knife or one's hands). <ref>Rama end of 321, Chaye Adam 14:1, 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 323-4) </ref>#One may not the husk from an ear of corn on [[Shabbat]]. <ref>39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 327-8) writes that according to some opinions it's forbidden. However, Halachos of [[Shabbat]] (Rabbi Eider, chap 8, pg 95) writes that it's forbidden (and bases it on the Maharsham 320:83).</ref>
==Removing Shell of Nuts==#One may remove the shell of nuts==(pecans, brazil nuts, filberts, peanuts) on [[Shabbat]].<ref>39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 324-5), Chazon Ovadia Shabbat v. 4, p. 101 </ref>#One may not remove the outer hull (a thick pulpy layer) of an almond or walnut on [[Shabbat]], however, one may remove the inner hard wood-like shell.<ref>39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 325-6) </ref>#There is a question of removing the outer thin peel of a garlic bulb on [[Shabbat]] however most poskim permit and certainly it's permitted to remove the peel around the individual cloves.<ref>39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 326) </ref>
#One may remove the shell of nuts (pecans, brazil nuts, filberts, peanuts) on [[Shabbat]]. <ref>39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 324-5)==Squeezing a Fruit==
Chazon Ovadia Shabbat Vol 4, Pg 101 #It is forbidden to squeeze a fruit in order to extract its liquid if one squeezes the fruit into a liquid or empty vessel. The prohibition is violated whether it is done by hand or with a utensil.</ref>#One may not remove the outer hull Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 5:1,2. [[Squeezing]] a liquid out of a solid ([[Sechita]]) is Mefarek which is a thick pulpy layer) [[Toldah]] of the Melacha of an almond or walnut on [[ShabbatDash]] (Iglei Tal, [[Dash]]#8, Mishna Brurah 320:1). *Shulchan Aruch O.C. 320:1 writes that it's forbidden to squeeze olives and grapes and the juice which flows from them on their own is also forbidden for consumption. However, howeverberries and pomegranates even though they are forbidden to be squeezed the juices from them that flow on their own are permissible if the fruit was meant to be eaten and not be squeezed for the juice. Lastly, one all other fruits may remove be squeezed. The Rama 320:1 explains that in places where it's normal to squeeze certain fruits for their juices it is also forbidden to squeeze those fruits just like berries and pomegranates; in other words, the Rama 320:1 holds that a fruit's usage is based location. Mishna Brurah 320:5 explains that [[squeezing]] berries and pomegranates is forbidden rabbinically because some people squeeze them for the juice like grapes and olives. However, all other fruit in the inner hard wood-days of Shulchan Aruch weren't squeezed for juice and were eaten. That's why it is permissible to squeeze such fruits because the fruit if considered like shella solid and extracting one solid from another is permissible.*Therefore, the Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata (chap 5 note 4) writes that nowadays that it is common to squeeze all fruits for their juice it is forbidden to squeeze any fruit on [[Shabbat]]. <ref>On the other hand, 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 325-6328) lists certain fruits which are rabbinically prohibited to squeeze including oranges, lemons, grapefruits, apples, pineapples, cherries, strawberries, peaches, plums, pomegranates, and tomatoes. Similarly, Yalkut Yosef ([[Shabbat]], vol 3, 343 and 491) delineates certain fruits which are squeezed for the juices in some places such as grapes, olives, berries, pomegranates, apples, grapefruits, pears, mangoes, tangerines, and pineapples would be forbidden to squeeze on [[Shabbat]], however, fruits which are not squeezed anywhere such as quince or watermelon one be squeezed on [[Shabbat]]. Yalkut Yosef (pg 344) adds that even when it is permissible to squeeze a fruit, it may only be done by hand and not with a juicer (tool) .</ref>#There is One may not squeeze a fruit into an empty vessel with intent to put solid food in afterwards.<ref>Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 5:5. The Mishna Brurah (Sha’ar Ha’tziun Siman 320, no. 23) quotes a dispute amongst the Rishonim regarding squeezing into a question plate with the intention of removing subsequently pouring it into food. The Chazon Ish (O”C 55:6) rules that it is only permitted if it is directly onto food and such is the outer thin peel opinion of a garlic bulb on [[Shemirat Shabbat]] Kehilchata (chap. 5, seif 5). See, however most poskim permit and certainly it', Biur Halacha 320:1 s .v. muter. </ref>#It’s permitted to remove squeeze a fruit with one’s hand onto a solid food if either the food absorbs the liquid or the liquid is meant to improve the peel around flavor of the individual clovesfood. <ref>Gemara Shabbat 144b, Shulchan Aruch O.C. 505:1, Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 5:3,7, 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 326345) , Chazon Ovadia Shabbat Vol. 4, Pg 137-138 </ref>
==Squeezing a fruit=Liquids That Oozed out on Their Own===
#It Juice that oozed out of a fruit by itself, if the fruit was meant to be eaten, it is forbidden permitted to squeeze a drink that juice, however, if the fruit in order was meant to extract be squeezed for its liquid if one squeezes juice the fruit into a liquid or empty vessel. The prohibition juice that came out on its own is violated whether it is done by hand or with a utensilforbidden. <ref>Shulchan Aruch O.C. 320:1, Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 5:111.See Chazon Ovadia Shabbat Vol. 4,2. [[Squeezing]] a liquid who permits the drinking of juice that came out of on its own only for fruits with a solid derabanan sechita prohibition ([[Sechita]]and those fruits are designated for eating) . </ref>#For example, if someone cut watermelon or grapefruit to eat it and juice oozed out it is Mefarek which permitted to drink the juice.<ref>Shemirat Shabbat Kehilchata 5:11-12</ref> The same is true of someone cutting fruit to prepare it for a [[Toldah]] of fruit salad that the Melacha of [[Dash]] (Iglei Tal, [[Dash]] #8, Mishna Brurah 320juice is permitted.<ref>Orchot Shabbat 4:1). 22</ref>
*Shulchan Aruch 320:1 writes that it's forbidden to squeeze olives and grapes and the juice which flows from them on their own is also forbidden for consumption. However, berries and pomegranates even though they are forbidden to be squeezed the juices from them that flow on their own are permissible if the fruit was meant to be eaten and not be squeezed for the juice. Lastly, all other fruits may be squeezed. The Rama 320:1 explains that in places where it's normal to squeeze certain fruits for their juices it is also forbidden to squeeze those fruits just like berries and pomegranates; in other words, the Rama 320:1 holds that ===Squeezing a fruit's usage is based location. Mishna Brurah 320:5 explains that [[squeezing]] berries and pomegranates is forbidden rabbinically because some people squeeze them for the juice like grapes and olives. However, all other fruit in the days of Shulchan Aruch weren't squeezed for juice and were eaten. That's why it is permissible to squeeze such fruits because the fruit if considered like a solid and extracting one solid from another is permissible.*Therefore, the Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata (chap 5 note 4) writes that nowadays that it is common to squeeze all fruits for their juice it is forbidden to squeeze any fruit on [[Shabbat]]. On the other hand, 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 2, pg 328) lists certain fruits which are rabbinically prohibited to squeeze including oranges, lemons, grapefruits, apples, pineapples, cherries, strawberries, peaches, plums, pomegranates, and tomatoes. Similarly, Yalkut Yosef ([[Shabbat]], vol 3, 343 and 491) delineates certain fruits which are squeezed for the juices in some places such as grapes, olives, berries, pomegranates, apples, grapefruits, pears, mangoes, tangerines, and pineapples would be forbidden to squeeze on [[Shabbat]], however, fruits which are not squeezed anywhere such as quince or watermelon one be squeezed on [[Shabbat]]. Yalkut Yosef (pg 344) adds that even when it is permissible to squeeze a fruit, it may only be done by hand and not with a juicer (tool).</ref> One may not squeeze a fruit into an empty vessel with intent to put solid food in afterwards. <ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 5:5. The Mishna Brurah (Sha’ar Ha’tziun Siman 320, no. 23) quotes a machlokes Rishonim regarding squeezing into a plate with the intention of subsequently pouring it into food. The Chazon Ish (O”C 55:6) rules that it is only permitted if it is directly onto food and such is the opinion of Shmiras Shabbos k’Hilchiso (chap. 5, seif 5). See, however, Biur Halacha 320:1 s.v. muter </ref>#It’s permitted to squeeze a fruit with one’s hand onto a solid food if either the food absorbs the liquid or the liquid is meant to improve the flavor of the food. <ref>Gemara Shabbat 144b, Shulchan Aruch 505:1, Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 5:3,7, 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 345)Chazon Ovadia Shabbat Vol. 4, Pg 137-138 </ref>Lemon===
===Liquids #It is permitted to squeeze a lemon on sugar even if one’s intent is to put the sugar in a liquid afterwards, however, there are authorities who are strict on this issue.<ref>Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 5:5,6, 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 346). Although the Shulchan Aruch O.C. 320:6 states that one may squeeze a lemon on [[Shabbat]], the Mishna Brurah 320:22 explains that the reason for the leniency doesn't apply today. Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 80:12 writes that oozed it is forbidden to squeeze lemons to make lemonade.</ref> According to Sephardim one can squeeze a lemon even into an empty cup, however, it is proper to be strict to do it into the sugar.<ref>Shulchan Aruch O.C. 320:6, Yalkut Yosef (Shabbat v. 3 Dosh Sechitat Limon n. 1)</ref>#It’s permissible to cut a slice of lemon and put it into a drink even though the juice will seep out on their own===.<ref>Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 5:2. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata’s source is the Kalkelet Shabbat (Dosh) who cites the Taz 320:7 for this halacha. It seems that the primary reason for the leniency is that the juice being squeezed out isn’t intentional. </ref> Note that if the drink is hot tea its only permissible if it is made in a Kli Shelishi (see [[Bishul]]). One may gently stir the tea but one may not press the lemon against the wall of the cup. Additionally, one should cut the lemon directly over the tea.<ref>39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 340) </ref>
#Juice that oozed (by itself) ===Squeezing out of fruit, which is specifically designated to be eaten, is permitted to drink. <ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 5:11See Chazon Ovadia Shabbat Vol. 4, who permits the drinking of juice that came out on its own only for fruits with a derabanan sechita prohibition (and those fruits are designated for eating) </ref>Excess Liquid===
===Squeezing a lemon=== #It is permitted to squeeze a lemon on sugar even if one’s intent is to put the sugar in a liquid afterwards, however, there are authorities who are strict on this issue.<ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 5:5,6, 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 346). Although the Shulchan Aruch 320:6 states that one may squeeze a lemon on [[Shabbat]], the Mishna Brurah 320:22 explains that the reason for the leniency doesn't apply today. Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 80:12 writes that it is forbidden to squeeze lemons to make lemonade.</ref> According to Sephardim one can squeeze a lemon even into an empty cup, however, it is proper to be strict to do it into the sugar.<ref>Shulchan Aruch O.C. 320:6, Yalkut Yosef (Shabbat v. 3 Dosh Sechitat Limon n. 1)</ref>#It’s permissible to cut a slice of lemon and put it into a drink even though the juice will seep out. <ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 5:2. Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata’s source is the Kalkelet Shabbat (Dosh) who cites the Taz 320:7 for this halacha. It seems that the primary reason for the leniency is that the juice being squeezed out isn’t intentional. </ref> Note that if the drink is hot tea its only permissible if it is made in a Kli Shelishi (see [[Bishul]]). One may gently stir the tea but one may not press the lemon against the wall of the cup. Additionally, one should cut the lemon directly over the tea. <ref>39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 340) </ref> ===Squeezing out excess liquid=== #It’s permitted to squeeze out excess liquid in a food to improve it’s taste if it’s done immediately prior to eating. For example it’s permitted to squeeze a pickled cucumber to remove some of it’s vinegar if one is going to eat the pickle right away. <ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 5:8, 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 341), Yalkut Yosef ([[Shabbat]] vol 3 pg 350) </ref>
#One may squeeze out latkes from excess vegetable oil if ones intention is to get rid of the oil and it is done right before eating.<ref>39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 342) </ref>
#It's commendable to refrain from [[squeezing]] a piece of meat, fish, or chicken to get rid of excess gravy if the gravy contains water or wine.<ref>39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 342) </ref>
===Sucking on a fruitFruit===
#One may suck on any fruit with one's mouth while holding it in one's hand except for grapes. However, one shouldn’t squeeze the fruit with one’s hand.<ref>Rama 320:1 quotes two opinions whether it is permitted to suck juice directly from grapes. The reason for the lenient view is that it isn't considered a normal way to squeeze fruit by sucking on it with one's mouth. Mishna Brurah 320:12, Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 5:10, and 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 339) are strict for grapes. Yalkut Yosef ([[Shabbat]] vol 3 pg 248) and Halichot Olam (vol 4 pg 106) permit even regarding grapes but add that it's a proper practice to refrain. </ref> Certainly though one could put the entire grape in one's mouth, suck out the juice and then spit out the part one doesn't want to eat.<ref>Mishna Brurah 320:12, Yalkut Yosef 320:10</ref>
#It’s permitted to dip bread in a soup or other dip and then suck off the liquid, but it’s preferable to eat a little of the bread with it.<ref>Shemirat Shabbat KeHilchata 5:9 </ref>
===Cutting a grapefruit Grapefruit or watermelonWatermelon===
#It’s permitted to cut a grapefruit (or watermelon) even if liquids will ooze out as long as one doesn’t intend specifically to drink the juices rather to eat the fruit and that one doesn’t intentionally doesn’t squeeze the fruit. <ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 5:12, Yalkut Yosef ([[Shabbat]], vol 3, pg 345), 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 340), [http://www.dailyhalacha.com/displayRead.asp?readID=2278 Rabbi Mansour] on Dailyhalacha.com </ref>#One may scrape out grapefruit with a spoon to eat the pulp (the flesh of the fruit) attached to the peel, however, it's forbidden to press the spoon against the pulp in order to extract juices. <ref>39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 341), [http://www.dailyhalacha.com/displayRead.asp?readID=2278 Rabbi Mansour] on Dailyhalacha.com. Yalkut Yosef (Shabbat v. 3 320:9) writes that it is permitted to use a spoon to eat a cut grapefruit on Shabbat since one doesn't intend to drink the juice and usually one eats the juice together with the fruit or pulp.</ref>
===Squeezing grapesGrapes===
#It is permitted to squeeze grapes onto food, but it is forbidden to squeeze grapes into an empty dish even if it is for flavor. <ref>Shulchan Aruch O.C. 320:4 </ref>#However, if one is stringent and does not even squeeze fruits onto food, he shall be blessed. <ref>Mishnah Brurah 320:17 </ref>#It’s preferable not to squeeze grapes even onto solid foods that will absorb the liquid or be improved. <ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 5:4 </ref>#One shouldn’t suck on grapes while holding them in one’s hand, rather one should put the entire grape in one’s mouth, eat (or suck on it) , and then take out what’s left. <ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 5:10 </ref>#It is forbidden to drink juice that oozed out of grapes by itself. <ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 5:11 </ref>
==Squeezing a liquid out of a cloth==
#It is forbidden to squeeze any liquid out of any cloth on [[Shabbat]]. <ref>Shulchan Aruch 320:12, 18, 39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 347) </ref>
#If wine spilled on a tablecloth one may not wring out the cloth. If some of the liquid didn't get absorbed one may scoop it off with a spoon if one is careful not to spread the colored wine over a wider area (which is an issue of [[Tzoveya]].) <ref>39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 348) </ref>
#A wet washcloth or rag is not [[Muktzeh]] and may be moved if one is careful not to grip it tightly. <ref>39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 354) </ref>
==Using a Sponge or Brush on Shabbat==
#One shouldn't use a dry sponge to wipe up a spill unless the sponge has a handle or vinyl back.<ref>39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 349) </ref>
#One may not use a wet brush to scrub if the brush's fibers are soft and dense. However, if the fibers are stiff, sparse, and made out of synthetic material one may use that brush for scrubbing. Similarly, a plastic mesh or wire mesh may be used for scrubbing only if the fibers are thin and the netting is widely spaced. However, one may not use a mesh if the fibers are closely packed; for example, one may not use a steel wool pad. To determine whether the fibers are considered dense or sparse one should conduct the following test before [[Shabbat]]: Immerse it in water and upon removing it if the water drains out immediately the fibers are considered widely spaced, however, if water stays absorbed it is considered densely spaced.<ref>39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 349-50) </ref>
#A wet sponge is [[Muktzeh]] Machmat Issur and may only be moved if the space it is occupying is needed. When moving a wet sponge one should do so gently so as not to squeeze out any liquid. However, a dry sponge or a wet sponge which has a handle or vinyl backing aren't [[muktzeh]] and may be moved for any necessary purpose. <ref>39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 354) </ref>Regarding using a brush to clean a baby bottle see [[Infants_on_Shabbat#Baby_Bottles]].
==Squeezing Water Out of One's Hair==
#It is forbidden to squeeze water out of one's hair on [[Shabbat]].<ref>Mishna Brurah 326:25. See Yabia Omer 4:30:19 who proves that the Rashba and other rishonim hold that there's no rabbinic prohibition to squeeze hair. However, he does not conclude in accordance with those rishonim; instead he follows the Rambam and Shulchan Aruch that it is rabbinically forbidden.</ref> Similarly, one shouldn't shampoo one's hair on [[shabbat]].<ref>39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 371)</ref>
#One may wet one's hair if one does not squeeze it out. <ref>39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 371)</ref>#One should not shake one's head vigorously in order to remove the absorbed water. <ref>39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 372)</ref>
#One may not dry one's hair with a towel by pressing the towel to the wet hair. Instead one should touch the towel lightly to the hair.<ref>Ben Ish Chai (Pekudei II n. 8) writes that one could pat dry the hair with a towel but not press. This is also the conclusion of [https://www.yeshiva.org.il/ask/91086]. See Piskei Teshuvot 326:12 with all the opinions. Mishna Brurah (Biur Halacha 326:8) emphasizes that when going to the mikveh one should be careful not to violate sechita implies the same.</ref>
#One may tightly wrap a towel on one's hair to absorb the liquid because the liquid is absorbed immediately and becomes useless.<ref>39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 371)</ref>
#Some permit drying one's beard or other hair on Shabbat.<ref>Igrot Moshe 1:133, Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach cited in Shemirat Shabbat Kehilchata ch. 14 fnt. 66</ref>
==Drying with a Towel==
==Cleaning a counter or table==
#One may use a rag or towel to wipe up a spill if the rag or towel is able to soak up the entire spill without needing to wring it out. One may also use many rags at the same time if together they can absorb the spill. <ref>39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 350-1) </ref>#One may not wipe a surface such as a counter or table top with a wet cloth. However, if a counter is sticky one may sprinkle water on the surface and then wipe it clean with a dry rag but it's preferable to used a paper napkin.<ref>39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 351) </ref> When necessary one wipe a surface very gently using a saturated rag or wet wet napkin. <ref>39 Melachos (vol 2, pg 355) </ref>
==Baby Wipes==
==Milking an Animal==
#It is forbidden to milk an animal on [[Shabbat]], as this is a violation of mifarek, which falls under the melacha of Dosh. <ref>Yalkut Yosef [[Shabbat]] vol. 2 pg. 110. see there for discussion if this is a torah violation or rabbinic </ref>#It is permissible to tell a non-Jew to milk an animal for you on [[Shabbat]] because if you don't it will cause the animal pain, but the milk is considered [[muktzeh]] for the day. <ref>Yalkut Yosef vol 2. pg. 110, Sh"t Yabea Omer 9:30 </ref> If a non-Jew is not available one should let the milk go to waste so that the violation is only dirabanan which would be allowed to save the animal from the pain, and one should try to do it with a shinui. <ref>Yalkut Yosef [[Shabbat]] vol 2. pg. 111 </ref> This leniency to allow a Jew to do it, only applies if there are no baby animals who can milk the adults. <ref>Yalkut Yosef [[Shabbat]] vol. 2 pg. 112 </ref>
==Brushing Teeth==

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