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[[File:200px-Tzitzis_Shot.jpg|thumb|right|''The tzitzit of one corner of a Tallit'' ]]
==The Obligation=====Source of for the Requirement===#There is a positive Torah commandment to place Tzitzit strands on each corner of a four cornered garment that one wears.<ref>Bamidbar 15:38; Devarim 22:12, Rambam Sefer Hamitzvot mitzvat aseh 14.</ref> This obligation extends to any garment with ''at least'' four corners, for instance, a five or six cornered garment.<ref>Aruch HaShulchan 10:1 </ref> On such garments with more than four corners, one should only attach Tzitzit to four of the corners.<ref>Aruch HaShulchan 10:2 </ref> The corners chosen should be the corners that are the farthest away from each other.<ref>Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 10:1</ref> However, bedieved, one may make a bracha on the Tzitzit, even if they were not placed at the farthest corners of the garment.<ref>Mishna Brurah 10:5</ref>#Technically, there is no obligation to wear a four cornered garment in the first place.<ref>Rambam Hilchot Tzitzit 3:11; Tur Orach Chaim 24:1; Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 24:1</ref> Nevertheless, it is certainly proper and correct to observe this important mitzvah by wearing Tzitzit all day.<ref>Rambam Hilchot Tzitzit 3:11; Tur 24:1; Shulchan Aruch 24:1; Rav Ovadya Yosef in Yechave Daat 4:2. See Mordechai (Menachot no. 945) writes that a person should endeavor to obligate oneself in the mitzvah of tzitzit just like Moshe longed to enter Israel in order to fulfill the mitzvot there (see Gemara Sotah 14a). </ref> Additionally, the accepted minhag is to wear Tzitzit and one should not break from this minhag.<ref>Rav Moshe Feinstein in Iggrot Moshe 4:4 </ref>
===People Obligated in Tzitzit=======Adults====#There is a positive Torah commandment The obligation applies to place Tzitzit strands on each corner of a four cornered garment that one wearsall Jewish men age 13 and older. <ref>Bamidbar 15Mishna Brurah 17:38; Devarim 22:12, Rambam Sefer Hamitzvot mitzvat aseh 14.10</ref> This obligation extends to any garment with at least 4 corners, for instance# A blind man is equally obligated, and should recite a 5 or 6 cornered garmentbracha. <ref>Shulchan Aruch HaShulchan 10Orach Chaim 17:1 </ref> On such garments with more than 4 corners, one should only attach It would be best for him to first feel and check the validity of his Tzitzit or ask someone else to four of the cornersconfirm it for him. <ref>Aruch HaShulchan 10Mishna Brurah 17:2 1</ref> The corners chosen should be the corners that # Women are the farthest away from each otherexempt, as wearing Tzitzit is a positive time bound mitzvah. <ref>Rabbi Shimon in Gemara Menachot 43a; Shulchan Aruch 1017:1 </ref> However2. The Rema (ad loc.) comments even though women are exempt, bedievedif they want, one they may rely upon the opinion of Tosfot (Kiddushin 31a) who would allow a woman to wear and make a bracha on the Tzitzit. The Rema continues however, that women still should not do so, even if they were since it would appear arrogant and further that Tzitzit is not placed at the farthest corners of the garmenta personal obligation anyway. <ref>The Mishna Brurah 10(17:5 </ref>#Technically) elaborates that although women may rely on Tosfot for [[Lulav]] and [[Sukkah]], there is no obligation to Tzitzit are different since even men are not required from the Torah except if they wear a four cornered garment in the first place.<ref>Rambam Hilchot Wearing Tzitzit 3:11; Tur 24:1; Shulchan Aruch 24:1</ref> Neverthelesshas both a personal as well as an impersonal aspect of obligation to it, it which makes the obligation one which allows for leniencies. It is certainly proper and correct a personal obligation in the sense that only if one wears the garment does one need to observe this important mitzvah by wearing attach Tzitzit all dayand not just when one owns a garment.<ref>Rambam Hilchot Tzitzit 3:11; Tur 24:1; Shulchan Aruch 24:1; Rav Ovadya Yosef in Yechave Daat 4:2. See Mordechai (Menchot no. 945) writes that It is not a person should endeavor personal obligation, since it is not required of one to obligate oneself in the mitzvah of tzitzit go out and buy a four cornered garment just like Moshe longed to enter Israel in order to fulfill perform the mitzvot there (see Gemara Sotah 14a)mitzvah. </ref> AdditionallyTherefore, the accepted minhag is since men do not really have to wear Tzitzit and one every day, women certainly should not break from this minhagdo so, it appearing arrogant if they do. Lastly, there is a possible concern of violating Beged Ish as Targum Yonatan Ben Uziel raises on Devarim 22:5. <ref>Rav Moshe Feinstein in Igres Moshe 4The Levush (17:4 2) and Ben Ish Chai (Lech Lecha 3) use similar logic.</ref>
==People Obligated in Tzitzit==Children===={{Tallit Katan for Children}}
#====Should a Man who isn't Married Wear a Tallit?====<p class="indent">The obligation applies Sephardic custom is to all Jewish men wear a Tallit Gadol from the age 13 and olderof [[chinuch]] in mitzvot.<ref>Mishna Kaf Hachaim 8:12, Chacham Ovadia Yosef (Yechave Daat 4:2), Chacham Yitzchak Yosef (Yalkut Yosef 17:4 and Dinei Chinuch Katan pg. 29). Halacha Brurah 17:103 says that this age begins once the child can participate in the prayers in the shul. Ohr Litzion (Chelek 2, 2:7) says that the age is around 5.</ref>#A blind man Chacham Ovadia adds that this is equally obligated, and should recite true even for a brachaboy studying in an Ashkenazi yeshiva.<ref>Shulchan Aruch 17Rav Eliyahu Bakshi-Doron (Binyan Av Chelek 2, OC 7:1) agrees. see further [[Davening_with_a_Minyan_That_Uses_a_Different_Nusach#Tallit|Davening with a Minyan That Uses a DIfferent Nusach - Tallit]]</ref> It would </p><p class="indent">However, the minhag for most Ashkenazim seems to be best for him not to wear one until one gets married unless one goes up to first feel and check the validity of his Tzitzit Torah or ask someone else to confirm it for himleads [[prayers]].<ref>Mishna Brurah Ketzot Hashulchan 7:7, Eliya Rabba 17:13</ref>#Women are exempt, as wearing Tzitzit is a positive time bound mitzvah.Some acharonim<ref>Rabbi Shimon in Gemara Menachot 43a; Shulchan Aruch 17Tashbetz Katan 464, Sefer Hamanhig Chelek 2:2Hilchot Nisuin pg. The Rema (ad loc.) comments even though women are exempt539, if they want, they may rely upon and Maharil Hilchot Ishut 10</ref> quote a midrash which learns from the opinion juxtaposition of Tosfot on Kiddushin 31a who would allow a woman to wear גדילים תעשה לך and make a bracha on Tzitzit. The Rema continues howeverכי יקח איש אשה (Devarim 22:12-13), that women still a man should not do so, since it would appear as arrogant and further that Tzitzit is not wear a personal obligation anywayTallit until he gets married. The Mishna Brurah (17<ref>Tzitz Eliezer 20:5) elaborates 8 notes that although women may rely on Tosfot for [[Lulav]] and [[Sukkah]], Tzitzit are different since even men are not required from the Torah except if they wear a four cornered garment. Wearing Tzitzit has both a personal as well as an impersonal aspect of obligation to it, which makes the obligation one which allows for leniencies. It is a personal obligation in the sense Maharil only meant that only if before getting married one wears the garment does one need to attach Tzitzit and not just when one owns wear a garment. It is not a personal obligationTallit Gadol, since it is not required of but certainly one to go out and buy should still wear a four cornered garment just to perform the mitzvahTallit Katan (i.e. Therefore, since men do not really have to wear Tzitzit every day, women certainly should not do so, it appearing arrogant if they do. Lastly, there is a possible concern of violating Beged Ish as Targum Yonatan Ben Uziel raises on Devarim 22:5. The Levush (17:2) and Ben Ish Chai (Lech Lecha 3) use similar logic.</ref>#A KatanPiskei Teshuvot 8:10 writes that this minhag spread to several countries in Europe including Lithuania and Poland, or minor child who is less than 13 years old, should wear Tzitzit while in other Ashkenaz communities of Western Europe and make a bracha in Hungary it did not catch on it, once he reaches the age of [[chinuch]] . Later acharonim<ref>The Shulchan Aruch (Mishna Brurah 17:10 and Shiyarei Knesset Ha-gadol 17:3) does not specify an exact age2, rather the idea is once a child knows how to properly wear the Tzitzit so that two strings are behind him and two cited in front (Rema Ba'er Heiteiv 17:3) 4, before him</ref>.#The proper age of [[chinuch]] for questioned these earlier acharonim and simply do not understand why someone who is not married would not fulfill this mitzvah from the mitzvah Torah of wearing Tzitzit is nine years old. <ref>Kitzur Shulchan Aruch Rav Y.D. Soloveitchik (quoted in Mipninei Harav pg. 22) says that in the absence of Rav Rephael Baruch Toledano, siman 9a minhag otherwise, the proper time correct minhag is for Tzitzit and who is obligated, seif 2 an unmarried boy to wear a Tallit Gadol</refp>
===Should Bochrim Wear a Tallit?===<p class="indent">The Sephardic custom is to wear a Tallit Gadol from the age of [[chinuch]] in mitzvot.<ref>Kaf Hachaim 8:12, Chacham Ovadia Yosef (Yechave Daat 4:2), Chacham Yitzchak Yosef (Yalkut Yosef 17:4). Or Litzion (Chelek 2, 3:7) says that the age is around 5.</ref> Chacham Ovadia adds that this is true even for a boy studying in an Ashkenazi yeshiva.<ref>Rav Eliyahu Bakshi-Doron (Binyan Av Chelek 2, OC 7:1) agrees</ref></p><p class="indent">However, the minhag for most Ashkenazim seems to be not to wear one until one gets married unless one goes up to the Torah or leads [[prayers]]. Some achronim<ref>Tashbetz Katan 464, Sefer Hamanhig Chelek 2: Hilchot Nisuin pg. 539, and Maharil Hilchot Ishut 10</ref> quote a midrash which learns from the juxtaposition of גדילים תעשה לך and כי יקח איש אשה (Devarim 22:12-13), that a man should not wear a Tallit until he gets married.<ref>Tzitz Eliezer 20:8 notes that the Maharil only meant that before getting married one does not wear a Tallit Gadol, but certainly one should still wear a Tallit Katan (i.e. Tzitzit).</ref> Piskei Teshuvot 8:10 writes that this minhag spread to several countries in Europe including Lithuania and Poland, while in other Ashkenaz communities it did not catch on. Later achronim<ref>Mishna Brurah 17:10 and Shiyarei Knesset Ha-gadol 17:2, cited in Ba'er Heiteiv 17:4, before him</ref> questioned these earlier achronim and simply do not understand why someone who is not married would not fulfill this mitzvah from the Torah of wearing Tzitzit. Rav Y.D. Soloveitchik (quoted in Mipninei Harav pg. 22) says that in the absence of a minhag otherwise, the correct minhag is for an unmarried boy to wear a Tallit Gadol</p> ==Time Requirements===
#The earliest time to say a bracha on Tzitzit is from the time period that there is enough natural light to be able to distinguish between the white and blue strands within a clump of Tzitzit.<ref>Shulchan Aruch 18:3</ref> This time period is also known as the time when one is able to recognize an acquaintance from a distance of 4 cubits. Both descriptions are equivalent and commonly referred to as [http://halachipedia.com/index.php?title=Reference_of_Measurements_in_Halacha#MeSheyakir Misheyakir]. There is a wide range of opinions on precisely what time [http://halachipedia.com/index.php?title=Reference_of_Measurements_in_Halacha#MeSheyakir Misheyakir] occurs on a perfect day.<ref>Meaning that there is exactly 12 daylight hours and every seasonal hour consists of 60 minutes.</ref> In Jerusalem it is considered to be 35 minutes before sunrise,<ref>Rav Moshe Feinstein in Le-Torah ve-Hora'ah Vol. 3:7</ref> 60 minutes before sunrise,<ref>Rav Tukaczinsky in Eretz Yisrael 1:4</ref> and 66 minutes before sunrise.<ref>Rav Ovadya Yosef in Yechave Daat 2:8</ref> The various opinions would then have to be extrapolated according to the region of the world and time of year.<ref>There are two factors at work here: First, the processes of daybreak and nightfall occur faster at places near the equator than places further away from the equator. Second, the speed of these processes are also affected by the seasons. A common solution would be to use seasonal minutes. In order to calculate a seasonal hour, one would need to add up all the daytime minutes and then divide by 12 to get the number of minutes that are in each seasonal hour. For instance, if there were 11 hours of daylight, each seasonal hour would consist of 55 minutes(11x60:12=55min). To further complicate matters, there are two ways of counting the daytime minutes: The Magen Avraham counts from dawn until nightfall with the emergence of 3 stars, whereas the Gra counts from sunrise to sunset. Another means for calculation, which has only recently been implemented, is to compare the level of brightness by using the relative position of the sun. For instance, it has been determined that 60 minutes before sunrise on a perfect day in Jerusalem the sun is 12.9 degrees below the horizon. Therefore, if one wanted to find the equivalent time anywhere in the world during any season, one would simply need to determine at what time the sun will be 12.9 degrees below the horizon in that locale on that day and that would be the extrapolated Meshiyakir.</ref> Thus, according to the commonly accepted opinion that Meshiyakir is between 50 and 60 minutes before sunrise in Jerusalem - In New York, depending on the time of the year, it could be anywhere from 56-73 minutes before sunrise.<ref>MyZmanim.com. These figures are determined using MyZmanim’s earliest published position of 11.5 degrees below the horizon. Unfortunately, MyZmanim.com only offers calculations based upon 10.2 degrees, 11 degrees, and 11.5 degrees but not 12.9 degrees. It is unfortunate because 12.9 degrees correlates to Rav Tukaczinsky’s 60 minutes before sunrise which, although being a very lenient position, is also well collaborated and accepted.</ref>
#If one took off one’s Tzitzit (Tallit Katan) at night, it is permissible to put it back on at night, however, it is not necessary to put it back on. <ref>Rav Moshe Feinstein in Igrot Moshe YD 2:137. Though see the Taz 581:2 who seems to disagree because of a concern of putting oneself in a situation of Safek [[Brachot]] Lehakel.</ref>
===Garment Requirements=======Material Requirements====
#Sephardim generally follow the opinion of the Shulchan Aruch<ref>Shulchan Aruch 9:1. This is based on the opinion of Rav Nachman in Gemara Menachot 39b. The Rif (Tzitzit 14a) and Rambam Hilchot Tzitzit 3:2, and Sefer Hamitzvot Aseh 14 all rule in accordance with Rav Nachman. </ref> who holds that only garments made of wool or linen have a Torah obligation to have Tzitzit strings. Accordingly, all other materials only require Tzitzit on a rabbinic level. As such, it is preferable for one to wear a wool or linen garment. If one finds it uncomfortable to wear wool Tzitzit, one may wear Tzitzit made from other materials. <ref>Rav Ben Zion Abba Shaul in Ohr LeZion 91:1OC:3 and 2:2:3; Rav Ovadya Yosef in Yalkut Yosef 9:1</ref>
#Ashkenazim hold like the Rama who holds that all materials are included in the Torah obligation.<ref>This is based on the opinion of Rava in Gemara Menachot 39b that all materials are able to be used to fulfill one's Torah obligation. Tosfot 39b s.v. VeRav cites the opinion of Rashi and Rabbeinu Tam in favor of Rava. </ref> Nevertheless, some maintain that one still should wear wool and linen garments in order to satisfy all opinions. <ref>Mishna Brurah 9:5. In Halichot Shlomo 3:25, Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach is cited as saying that one should try to be strict even in the summertime. </ref> On the other hand, many poskim are lenient in the case when wearing wool would cause any discomfort, especially in the heat. <ref>Rav Moshe Feinstein in Igrot Moshe 2:1; Similarly, The Vilna Gaon (Maaseh Rav Birchot HaShachar, 17) ,the Chazon Ish (Shoneh Halachot 9:1), and the Steipler Gaon (Orchot Rabbeinu Volume 1 page 18) wore non-wool garments for their Tzitzit. In Teshuvot Vihanhagot 1:18 Rav Moshe Sternbuch cites several reasons that one should be strict and said one cannot learn anything from the rabbis that wore non-wool garments because they had their own reasons. </ref>
#Although the Shulchan Aruch includes linen as a biblically mandated material, he also cites<ref>9:6; Also Kaf HaChaim 9:16. This opinion stems from Rabbeinu Tam in Gemara [[Shabbat]] 25b</ref> an opinion that we should not use it. He concludes that although the halacha is not like this opinion, it is preferable to avoid the argument and only use wool. However, if one only has a linen garment for one's Tzitzit, they may be used with a bracha.<ref>Rema and Mishna Brurah ad loc. This opinion comes from Teshuvot HaRosh 2:8</ref>
#Leather garments are exempt from the obligation of Tzitzit, even on a rabbinic level.<ref>Gemara Menachot 40b. Shulchan Aruch 10:4. See Iggerot Moshe Orach Chaim 2:1 and Or LeTzion 2:2:3 in the biurim who things one should still put on Tzitzit without a beracha.</ref>
#Along the same lines, some poskim equate leather with synthetic materials, such as polyester (usually used for mesh Tzitzit), nylon, and rayon, and maintain that they are also exempt from Tzitzit.<ref>Rav Moshe Feinstein in Igres Moshe 2:1</ref> Others differentiate between woven synthetic materials, which should be treated like cotton, and non woven synthetic materials, which should be treated like leather.<ref>Rav Tzvi [[Pesach]] Frank in Har Tzvi 1, 9</ref> Therefore, it is best not to use synthetic materials for the mitzvah, but if one does one should refrain from making a bracha on it.<ref>Tzitz Eliezer 12:3; Ohr LeZion 2:3</ref>
#Tzitzit strings may not be made from stolen material. <ref>Shulchan Aruch, OC, 11:6 </ref> However, the Rama says that if one turned stolen wool into strings it is permissible to use them bedieved. <ref>Rama on Shulchan Aruch, OC, 11:6 </ref> Everyone agrees that one may not make a bracha on a Tallit made with such Tzitzit. <ref>Halacha Brurah, 11:25 </ref>
#For a discussion of using [[Techelet]] (blue) strings as Tzitzit see the [[Techelet]] page.
====Size Requirements== #There are various opinions<ref>This range emanates from the gemara Menachot 40b, where it is dictated that the garment needs to be the size for it to be able to cover the head and majority of a minor. There are different interpretations as to how old the minor is to whom the gemara is referring: The [[Chinuch]] (Shelach: 386) and Bach (16) say the reference is to a 6 or 7 year old, the Tur (16) says 9 years old, and the Radbaz (6, 2:106) explains it to be a 5 year old. There is additionally ambiguity as to whether the majority requirement means that the garment needs to cover the head and then in addition a majority of the child’s body (Radbaz) or if it only needs to cover in total the majority of the child; head included ([[Chinuch]]). Meaning, the question between the Radbaz and Chinuch is whether it would be sufficient if it could cover the child’s head and another 30% to 40% of the rest of it's body, or whether it needs to be able to cover the head and an additional 51% of their body</ref> as to how big the garment needs to be to qualify as a halachically bona fide garment, in order to be able to make a bracha without needing to worry about the possibility of it being a bracha levatala (a bracha said in vein or wasted): 1 [[amah]] by 1 [[amah]]<ref>Pri HaAretz 1; Beit David 8; Shalmei Tzibur 26b; Pri Ha’Adoma 23a; Nachal Eshkol pg. 102:4 ; Ha’Elef Lecha Shelomo 1:4.</ref> 1.5 [[amot]] by 1 [[amah]]<ref>Chazon Ish 3:31; Rav Pe’alim 2:6; Mishna Brurah 16:4;</ref> 1.5 [[amot]] by 1.5 [[amot]]<ref>Lev Chaim 1:99; </ref> 2 [[amot]] by 1 [[amah]]<ref>Siddur of Rabbi Schneur Zalman, the author of Shulchan Aruch HaRav and The Tanya. Similarly, the Gra, without specific numbers, was very strict in this regard and required the garment extend down to one’s knees. Also, the Chazon Ish 3:31 concludes that it is best to follow this size requirement. Likewise, the Mishna Brurah (8:17, 16:4) suggests this size to avoid difference of opinions.</ref>==
#There are various opinions<ref>This range emanates from the Gemara (Menachot 40b), where it is dictated that the garment needs to be the size for it to be able to cover the head and majority of a minor. There are different interpretations as to how old the minor to whom the gemara is referring is: The [[Chinuch]] (Shelach: 386) and Bach (Orach Chaim 16) say the reference is to a 6 or 7 year old, the Tur (Orach Chaim 16) says 9 years old, and the Radbaz (6, 2:106) explains it to be a 5 year old. There is additional ambiguity as to whether the majority requirement means that the garment needs to cover the head and then in addition a majority of the child’s body (Radbaz) or if it only needs to cover in total the majority of the child, head included ([[Chinuch]]). Meaning, the question between the Radbaz and Chinuch is whether it would be sufficient if it could cover the child’s head and another 30% to 40% of the rest of his body, or whether it needs to be able to cover the head and an additional 51% of his body</ref> as to how big the garment needs to be to qualify as a halachically bona fide garment, in order to be able to recite a bracha without needing to worry about the possibility of it being a bracha levatala (a bracha said in vein or wasted):##1 [[amah]] by 1 [[amah]]<ref>Pri HaAretz 1; Beit David 8; Shalmei Tzibur 26b; Pri Ha’Adama 23a; Nachal Eshkol pg. 102:4 ; Ha’Elef Lecha Shelomo 1:4.</ref>##1.5 [[amot]] by 1 [[amah]]<ref>Chazon Ish Orach Chaim 3:31; Rav Pe’alim 2:6; Mishna Brurah 16:4;</ref>##1.5 [[amot]] by 1.5 [[amot]]<ref>Lev Chaim 1:99; </ref>##2 [[amot]] by 1 [[amah]]<ref>Siddur of Rabbi Schneur Zalman, the author of Shulchan Aruch HaRav and The Tanya. Similarly, the Gra, without specific numbers, was very strict in this regard and required the garment extend down to one’s knees. Also, the Chazon Ish Orach Chaim 3:31 concludes that it is best to follow this size requirement. Likewise, the Mishna Brurah (8:17, 16:4) suggests this size to avoid difference of opinions.</ref>##There is also an opinion that there is no size requirement at all.<ref>Aruch HaShulchan Orach Chaim 16:5</ref>
#Additionally, there are two different opinions for the conversion of one [[amah]], or 6 [[Tefachim]] (fists), to modern [[measurements]]: Rav Chaim Na’eh holds it is 48 cm or 18.9 inches make up an [[amah]], while the Chazon Ish holds it is 57.7 cm or 22.7 inches.
*He offers two explanations disproving the Mishna Brurah's approach. First, if we take the Mishna Brurah’s understanding to its logical extreme, we cannot count any minute hole (there being many since the garment is woven) making it more difficult to reach the proper size requirements. Additionally, he says if every minute hole does not count, then it should be considered an interruption. Once we consider the holes interruptions, there is no unified area with the proper required measure. The Eshel Avraham (16 s.v. Odot) agrees and infers this from the simple language of the poskim who gave measurement without specifying this distinction.</ref> does.
#Halacha Le'Maaseh:
##Sephardim: One has fulfilled the mitzvah BUT cannot make a bracha on it when wearing Tzitzit measuring 1.5 [[amot]] by 1 [[amah]]. It would be preferable if this shiur did not include a neck hole, but if it does and it is difficult to find Tzitzit that size or they are uncomfortable to wear, one may rely on the opinions that say the neck hole is included. In this case, one should make a bracha on a Tallit Gadol and patur (exempt) the Tallit Katan by doing so. In order to make a bracha on a Tallit Katan, it should measure 2 [[amot]] (37.8") by 1 [[amah]] (18.9")<ref>Yalkut Yosef 16:1, Halacha Brurah 1, 16:1; and See “Tzel Heharim” by R’ Hertzel Hillel Yitzhak, pp. 8-11. See Or LeTzion (1 Orach Chaim 7, 2:2:6).</ref>.
##Ashkenazim: In order to follow the Mishna Brurah, one should wear Tzitzit that are 1.5 [[amot]] (in length) by 0.5 [[amah]] (in width) not including the neck hole. <ref>Mishna Brurah 8:17, 16:4 </ref> Accordingly, one can wear Tzitzit that are 32 by 16 inches not including the neck hole. <ref>Rabbi Neustadt, author of [[Daily Halacha]] Discussions, writes that using Rav Moshe's (Sh"t Igrot Moshe 1:136) standard of measuring the [[amah]] which is 21.3 inches per [[amah]] one ends up with 32 inches by 16 inches. http://www.torah.org/advanced/weekly-halacha/5765/pekudei.html. Rabbi Willing is lenient to allow 26 inches in length ([http://www.yutorah.org/lectures/lecture.cfm/729840/Rabbi_Zvi_Sobolofsky/Hilchas_Tzitzis_Part_2_(definition_of_a_cornder,_size_of_beget,_straps,_brecha_on_borrowed_tzitzis) Rabbi Sobolofsky] (min 14) in name of Rabbi Willig) </ref>
#The garment with four corners needs to be open at least a majority of the way up. <ref>Shulchan Aruch 10:7 </ref> If there is a button less than half way up but the majority is still open, it is still obligated in Tzitzit. <ref>Halacha Brurah 10:20 </ref>
====Shoulder Straps and Sleeves====
#The cloth going over one's shoulders may not be thin strips but rather must be at least as wide as 3 [[Etzba’ot]]. <ref>Mishna Brurah 16:1 and 16:4 writes that the cloth that goes over one's shoulders may not be thin strips but rather should be wide enough to be recognizable as clothing. The Eshel Avraham and Kaf HaChaim 16:4 hold that it should be at least 3 [[Etzba’ot]] wide. </ref>#It is better not to have sleeves on Tzitzit. <ref>Mishna Brurah 16:4 </ref>
====Color Requirements====
#Some say that the strings of the Tallit should be the same color as the Tallit itself and the Sephardic custom is to hold so.<ref>Ben Ish Chai Noach Halacha 11 </ref> However, Ashkenazim do not have this custom and wear white strings on their Tallit in all cases. <ref>Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 9:5 and the Rama </ref>
==Garment Requiremnts==Corners====
#In order for a garment to be obligated to have Tzitzit, the corners must be square and may not be round. <ref>Shulchan Aruch, OC, 10:9. [https://www.sefaria.org/Ben_Ish_Hai%2C_Halachot_1st_Year%2C_Noach.7.1?lang=bi Ben Ish Chai, Halachot 1st Year, Noach 7]</ref>
# Corners with velcro openings to remove the tzitzit before washing are problematic and should be avoided.<ref>Or Letzion 2:2:5</ref>
 
====Examples====
=====T-Shirt Tzitzit=====
 
#It is preferable not to wear the tzitzit on one’s body itself,<ref>Rivevot Efraim 4:15:1 writes that it is disgraceful tot he mitzvah of tzitzit to werit on one’s body directly as an undershirt, rather one should wear on top of an undershirt. Sh"t Teshuvot Vehanhagot 1:25 says if you wear them specifically as an undershirt to stop the sweat from wetting your shirt then he is unsure if it would even be obligated in Tzitzit, so one should try to refrain from doing so. Piskei Teshuvot 8:22 fnt. 196 makes a similar point.</ref> but some poskim believe it is permitted to do so.<ref>Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach (Halichot Shlomo 3:11) holds that wearing tzitzit on one’s body isn’t disgraceful to the mitzvah. Also, Halacha Brurah 8:33 quotes his father, Rav Ovadia Yosef, as holding that there is no concern of wearing a tzitzit on one’s body and it isn’t considered disgraceful to the mitzvah. He explains that it isn’t an issue of being a undershirt since one put it on primarily for tzitzit and secondarily it also is an undershirt. [http://www.hebrewbooks.org/pdfpager.aspx?req=19979&pgnum=47 Or Letzion 2:2:4] agrees. </ref>
#It is critical that the sides for the tzitzit be split majority of the way and not closed like a regular undershirt. Otherwise the garment isn't obligated in tzitzit. When determining the size of the hole the armhole is considered as though it was closed.<ref>[http://www.hebrewbooks.org/pdfpager.aspx?req=19979&pgnum=47 Or Letzion 2:2:4]</ref>
=====Other Garments=====
#A scarf is exempt from Tzitzit. <ref>Shulchan Aruch 10:11 , Halacha Brurah 10:22. One reason that it is exempt is that a scarf is usually worn with all of the corners in the front of one's body. </ref>#Towels are exempt from Tzitzit. <ref>Beiur Halacha 10: s.v. "soder" </ref>
#For several reasons, an apron that one wears during a haircut doesn't need tzitzit<ref>Halacha Berura vol. 1 pg. 376 </ref>
#If one wears more than one four-cornered garment they are all obligated in Tzitzit but the bracha is only recited on the first one that one puts on. However, if one recited the bracha and only had in mind to wear one four-cornered garment and then changed one's mind and put on another one, one has to recite a new bracha. <ref>Shulchan Aruch 8:12 </ref>
#One should not make a bracha on a garment that is open only half way on it's sides. <ref>Halacha Brurah 10:16 </ref>
==Tying Tzitzit=====How to Tie Tzitzit===
#Tzitzit without techelet is tied in four sections with a double knot before and after each section. Between each section one white string is wound around the others. In the first section it is wound 7 times, the next 8 times, then 11 and 13. Altogether there are 5 double-knots and 39 windings.<ref>Shulchan Aruch OC 11:14. Tosfot Menachot 39a s.v. lo writes that we don't have between 7 and 13 sections as does the Rambam because today we don't have techelet. Alternatively, we have between 7 and 13 windings for each section. Mishna Brurah 11:70 explains that the windings add up to 39 which is the gematria of Hashem EchedEchad. Tosfot explains that there are 5 knots between Tzitzit is gematria 600, and together with the 8 strings and 5 knots it represents 613, since Tzitzit is equivalent to all the mitzvot.</ref>#Other opinions of different numbers per section exist as well.<ref>R. Tavger, Kelil Techelet. Such other opinions exist including: Hida 10-5-6-5, Lekach Tov 7-7-7-7, and HaMaspik L’Ovdei Hashem which has 7 chulyot (segments) of 3 winds (like Rambam). More found on Petil Techelet's tying question [https://www.tekhelet.com/tzitzit-tying-questions-2/ page]. [https://www.sefaria.org/Mishnah_Berurah.11.70 Mishna Berurah 11:70], Rabbi Shlomo Malkho says that you use 10-5-6-5 as the number of winds per section to represent the letters of Hashem's name. Some have the practice of using 7-8-11-13 for their tallit gadol and 10-5-6-5 for their tallit kattan, according to Magen Avot (Orach Chaim 11:14).</ref># Ashkenazim wind the string around regularly, but Sephardim use a "Chinese staircase," which keeps the string from unraveling.<ref>Magen Avot (Orach Chaim 11:14 fn. 14) cannot pin down a source for this custom.</ref>
#For tying methods including techelet visit the [[Techelet#Tying_Methodology|Techelet]] page.
===Tying Requirements=======Who?====#Lechatchilla Some say that ideally, we are machmir and strict to follow the opinion of Rabbeinu Tam <ref>Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 14a14:1</ref> for that boys beneath the age of 13 and women should not to tie Tzitzit for a man whose obligation it is to wear them. Though in principle women and minors are kosher for making kosher Tzitzit, Rabbeinu Tam holds that only the gavra person who is obligated in the mitzvah should create the object of the mitzvah. Boys beneath the age of 13 may tie Tzitzit for another boy under the age of 13, since their mitzvah is merely one of [[chinuch]]. <ref>Rabbi Hershel Schachter in Bikvei HaTzoan (p. 10)</ref>====When?====#One may tie the Tzitzit strings onto the Tzitzit garment at night, even though one will not recite the bracha until putting them on the next morning. <ref>ShShu"t Yabia Omer OC 8:3 </ref> ==Shehecheyanu== #If one buys a new Tallit, a [[Shehecheyanu]] is recited. <ref>Shulchan Aruch 22:1, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch of Rav Rephael Baruch Toledano, siman 9, the proper time for Tzitzit and who is obligated, seif 5 </ref> There is a split between Ashkenazi poskim as to whether to say the bracha prior<ref>Baer Heitev 22:2 </ref> to putting on the Tallit or after<ref>Mishna Brurah 22:3 </ref>, Sephardim should say it after. <ref>Birkei Yosef 22:2. </ref>#The bracha may be recited as long as someone is still wearing it for their first time. <ref>Halacha Brurah 22:7, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch of Rav Rephael Baruch Toledano, siman 9, the proper time for Tzitzit and who is obligated, seif 5 </ref>#One should recite the bracha on a new Tallit Katan if it brings one joy. <ref>Ben Ish Chai Bereishit Halacha 7. </ref>#If one places new strings on an old garment a [[Shehecheyanu]] is not recited. <ref>Mishna Brurah 22:2, Kaf Hachayim 22:3 </ref>#One who wears a Tallit that has been worn before, even if this is his first time fulfilling the mitzvah does not recite a [[Shehecheyanu]]. <ref>Sh"t Yechave Daat 2:31 </ref>#[[Shehecheyanu]] should not be recited if one acquired a new Tallit Katan. <ref>Kitzur Shulchan Aruch of Rav Rephael Baruch Toledano, siman 9, the proper time for Tzitzit and who is obligated, seif 6 </ref> ==Borrowed Tallit== #If one borrows a Tallit directly from its owner in order to fulfill the mitzvah of wearing a Tallit, one may recite the bracha, because we assume that the owner gave it as a present on condition that it is returned. It is however better to avoid this situation. Additionally, if the Tallit is donated to the shul, one may borrow it and make a bracha on it.<ref>Ben Ish Chai Lech Lecha Halacha 5 </ref>#For the halachot regarding borrowing a tallit, see [[Details_About_the_Tefillin_Boxes_and_Straps#Borrowing_Tallit_or_Tefillin|Borrowing Tallit or Tefillin]] ==If One Wears Multiple Pairs of Tzitzit== #If one wears multiple pairs of Tzitzit, one can make one bracha on all of them by having in mind to include all pairs in that single bracha. One should be sure to not make a hefsek between putting on the different pairs of Tzitzit. <ref>Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chaim, 8:12 </ref>
==Maintenance=====Checking the Tzitzit===
#One should check one's Tzitzit (the strings from the edge until the knots and the strings after the knots) daily before making a bracha on them. <ref>Rambam Hilchot Tzitzit 1:8. Shulchan Aruch 8:9 writes clearly that one must check one's Tzitzit before making the bracha so that one does not make a bracha levatala in case the Tzitzit were ripped. Mishna Brurah 8:21 adds that there is also a need to check the strings close to the Tallit before the knots. Yalkut Yosef (Hilchot Tzitzit pg 80) writes that the minhag is to be lenient as this halacha is only a midat chasidut. One may rely on the fact that the Tzitzit were kosher the last time they were worn, though it is good to check anyway in order not to run the risk of making a bracha levatalla, Yalkut Yosef does not consider it an obligation. </ref>
#One who is travelling and not able to repair one's tzitzit is not required to check them.<ref>[https://www.sefaria.org/Ben_Ish_Hai%2C_Halachot_1st_Year%2C_Bereshit.3.1?lang=bi Ben Ish Chai, Halachot 1st Year, Bereishit 3]</ref>
===If the Strings Ripped===
[[Image:TzitzitEnd.png|right|200px]]
#The amount that is needed to tie a bow [[Reference of Measurements in Halacha#Kdei Aniva|kdei aniva]] is considered by some to be 4 cm. <ref>Rav Mordechai Eliyahu (comments to Kitzur 9:13) writes that kdei anivah is 4 cm. Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 9:13 writes that it is supposed to be 4 agudlin.</ref>
#If the strings are completely ripped after all of the knots but the strings in the knots section are longer than kdei anivah then in an extenuating circumstance one can use those tzitzit. However, one should not recite a bracha on such tzitzit.<ref>Shulchan Aruch 12:3 writes that the opinion of Rashi is that the kdei anivah is measured from the end of the knots and Tosfot and Rosh hold that it is measured from the beginning of the knots. The halacha is that in an extenuating circumstance one can follow Tosfot but the minhag is like Rashi. Yalkut Yosef OC 12:2 agrees. Mishna Brurah 12:13 writes that in an extenuating circumstance it is kosher but one may not recite a bracha upon them.</ref>
# If a strings ripped completely it is permitted to tie the two parts together and then retie the strings from scratch. Similarly, one can retie a part of a string to itself as long as the tzitzit is still valid. However, one may not tie the two strings together if they are invalid and by retying them that would validate them.<ref>Taz 12:3, Magen Avraham 15:1, Aruch Hashulchan 12:12, Mishna Brurah 12:7</ref>
===If the Garments Ripped===
#A tear along the width or breadth of the garment if a majority of that width or breadth is intact it is considered valid. When measuring the width and breadth the neckhole isn't included. If a majority is torn the garment is invalid and it shouldn't be fixed until the tzitzit strings are untied.<ref>Piskei Teshuvot 15:4 writes that the Shulchan Aruch Harav 15:10 that as long as there is kdei maforet, approximately 3 etzbaot, connected the tear doesn't invalidate the garment, and the garment is considered whole. However, the Artzot Hachaim 15:3 disagrees. Really we need the majority of the garment to be connected in order for it to be connected. Therefore, he concludes a tear along the width or breadth of the garment if a majority of that width or breadth is intact it is considered valid. When measuring the width and breadth the neckhole isn't included. A tear starting with the neckhole should likewise be measured by majority of the width and the neckhole itself doesn't count to the measure. </ref>
#A tear starting with the neckhole should likewise be measured by majority of the width and the neckhole itself doesn't count to the measure.<ref>Piskei Teshuvot 15:4</ref>
===Laws that Disqualify Tzitzit===
#If the strings of one's Tzitzit tear but an amount of [[Reference of Measurements in Halacha#Kdei Aniva|kdei aniva]] (meaning, enough to tie a knot) is still remaining then the Tzitzit are considered kosher and one may make a bracha on them. However, it is ideal to fix the Tzitzit. <ref>Halacha Brurah 12:1 </ref>
#The Shulchan Aruch brings two opinions regarding where the starting point of [[Reference of Measurements in Halacha#Kdei Aniva|kdei aniva]] needs to be. Rashi maintains that it is from the last double knot while the Ri maintains that it is from the first double knot. The mainstream custom is to hold like Rashi but one may rely on the opinion of the Ri. The Mishna Brurah and the Halacha Brurah disagree regarding reliance upon the opinion of the Ri. The Mishna Brurah says that one may not make a bracha on these Tzitzit and one may not wear them outside on Shabbat in a place without an eruv. On the contrary, Halacha Brurah says that one may make a bracha on these Tzitzit and one may wear them outside on Shabbat in a place without an eruv. <ref>Shulchan Aruch, OC, 12:3; Mishna Brurah 12:13; Halacha Brurah 12:8 </ref>
==Tuck In or Out=====Strings=== #Some Ashkenazim have the minhag to tuck their strings in and some leave them out. <ref>Mishna Brurah 8:26 was strongly against those who wear their Tzitzit in and says that by doing so you are disgracing mitzvot. He adds that if you received a gift from the king you would surely wear it outside to show it off to others. He also says that tucking them out fulfills the pasuk of "u'ritem oto". This is the psak of Shulchan Aruch Harav 8:18, and the Magen Avraham 8:13 based on the Tosafot [[Brachot]] 18a which allows for tucking them in on a dead person because they do no longer have to fulfill "u'ritem oto" if they cannot see. Magen Avraham says this implies that they should normally be out. He says to at least leave them tucked out for the time that it takes to walk four [[amot]]. Aruch HaShulchan OC 8:17, 23:2 mentions that in many communities in eastern Europe they would tuck the strings in and he says that this was an incorrect practice. In Nefesh HaRav page 105 Rabbi Herschel Schachter says that some have the minhag to tuck the strings into their pockets or wrap it around the belt and this was the minhag of Rav Chaim Soloveitchik. Tzitz Eliezer 8:3 says that whatever you do is fine. </ref> The Sephardi minhag is to wear them tucked in. <ref>Sh"t Yechave Daat 2:1, Sh"t Yaskil Avdi 5:3 and 8:2, Rabbi Shalom Messas in Shemesh U'Magen OC 2:74. Rav Ovadia in Yechave Daat 2:1 quotes opinions that if a Sephardi wears them out he is disrespecting the earlier Sephardi poskim. Rav Yaakov Hillel writes in Gevurat HaAri page 137 that the strings should be revealed based on the Arizal (Shaar Hakavanot 7c and Olat Tamid 39a). See Vayashov HaYam vol. 1 Siman 3 at length</ref> A Sephardic boy can wear his Tzitzit out if it will help him with his yirat shamayim or if he is in an Ashkenazi yeshiva and feels uncomfortable being the only one with his Tzitzit tucked in. <ref>Sh"t Otzrot Yosef 1:27, Sh"t Or Litzion 2:2:2, see [http://halachayomit.co.il/en/default.aspx?HalachaID=4667 Wearing One’s Tzitzit Out (HalachYomit.co.il)]</ref>#At a cemetery one must tuck in one's strings. <ref>Shulchan Aruch 23:1, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch of Rav Rephael Baruch Toledano, siman 9, laws of Tzitzit in a cemetary, seif 1 </ref> ==Symbolism of Tzitzit== #The five knots of the Tzitzit represent the 5 books of the Torah. <ref>Kitzur Shulchan Aruch of Rav Rephael Baruch Toledano, siman 9, proper behavior while wearing Tzitzit, seif 1 </ref> ==Washing the Tzitzit and its Garment===
#One should make sure one's Tzitzit stay clean and wash them often so that they remain white in color. <ref>Kitzur Shulchan Aruch of Rav Rephael Baruch Toledano, siman 9, proper behavior while wearing Tzitzit, seif 1 </ref>
#One may insert the strings of the Tzitzit into pockets, which are then closed for their protection while they are being laundered. <ref>Sh"t Rivivot Ephraim 1:23:5 </ref>
===Sanctity of the Tzitzit===
#One may remove strings from one pair of Tzitzit in order to be put onto another pair of Tzitzit, however, one may not remove the strings from a pair of Tzitzit if they are not going to be used. <ref>Tosfot ([[Shabbat]] 22a s.v. 22a), Shulchan Aruch 15:1</ref>
#If Tzitzit fringes broke, it is permissible to throw them into the garbage because Tzitzit do not have intrinsic holiness. <ref>Shulchan Aruch 21:1 </ref>
#As long as the Tzitzit fringes are still attached, it is prohibited to use them for one's own benefit. <ref>Shulchan Aruch 21:1 </ref>
#One should not take off their tzitzit when playing ball.<ref>Rav Binyamin Zilber (Shut Az Nidbaru 2:55) says it is disgraceful to the tzitzit to take them off to play a game.</ref> # Tzitzit strings which are too long shouldn't be cut with a metal blade.<ref>Mishna Brurah 11:61</ref>  ==Symbolism of Tzitzit== #The five knots of the Tzitzit represent the 5 books of the Torah. <ref>Kitzur Shulchan Aruch of Rav Rephael Baruch Toledano, siman 9, proper behavior while wearing Tzitzit, seif 1 </ref>  ==Tallit Katan==# A tallit katan (tzitzit) should be put on like a tallit gadol by wrapping it around one's head and reciting "Lhitatef Btzitzit". The minhag, however, is not to do so but rather simply to put on the tallit katan and recite "Al Mitzvat Tzitzit".<ref>Piskei Teshuvot 8:11 based on Shulchan Aruch 8:3</ref> See [[#Text of Bracha]] for more about the bracha. ===Tuck In or Out=======Strings====#Some Ashkenazim have the minhag to tuck their strings in and some leave them out.<ref>Mishna Brurah 8:26 was strongly against those who wear their Tzitzit in and says that by doing so you are disgracing mitzvot. He adds that if you received a gift from the king you would surely wear it outside to show it off to others. He also says that tucking them out fulfills the pasuk of "u'ritem oto". This is the psak of Shulchan Aruch Harav 8:18 and the Magen Avraham 8:13 based on the Tosafot [[Brachot]] 18a which allows for tucking them in on a dead person because they do no longer have to fulfill "u'ritem oto" if they cannot be seen. Magen Avraham says this implies that they should normally be out and to at least leave them untucked for the time that it takes to walk four [[amot]]. Aruch HaShulchan OC 8:17, 23:2 mentions that in many communities in eastern Europe they would tuck the strings in and he says that this was an incorrect practice. In Nefesh HaRav page 105 Rabbi Hershel Schachter says that some have the minhag to tuck the strings into their pockets or wrap it around the belt and this was the minhag of Rav Chaim Soloveitchik. Tzitz Eliezer 8:3 says that whatever you do is fine. Rav Sraya Deblitsky is quoted as reporting that in pre-Mishna Berurah Europe, even Ashkenazim commonly kept their Tzitzit tucked in.</ref># The tradition in all Sephardic land for generations has been to wear them tucked in.<ref>Sh"t Yaskil Avdi 5:3 and 8:2, Sh"t Yechave Daat 2:1, Ohr LeTzion 2:2:2, Yabia Omer (vol. 9 Orach Chaim 18:18), Rabbi Shalom Messas in Shemesh U'Magen OC 2:74, Nahagu Ha'am (Tzitzit, 4), Yalkut Yosef (Orach Chaim 8:42-44), Magen Avot (Orach Chaim 8:11). Rav Ovadia and Rav Ben Tzion Abba Shaul report from Rav Ezra Attiah that if a Sephardi wears them out he is disrespecting the earlier Sephardi poskim.<br>On the other hand, Rav Yaakov Hillel writes (Vayashov HaYam 1:3, Gevurat HaAri page 137) that the strings should be revealed based on the Arizal (Shaar Hakavanot 7c and Olat Tamid 39a). See Yalkut Yosef (Orach Chaim 8 fn. 42 s.v. vezeh shanim).</ref> # A Sephardic boy can wear his Tzitzit out if it will help him with his yirat shamayim in a spiritually threatening context or if he is in an Ashkenazi yeshiva and the administration will not let him stand out in this way. Married Avrechim should not, however, deviate from Sephardic practice.<ref>Sh"t Ohr Litzion 2:2:2, Yalkut Yosef (Orach Chaim 8:45-48; Dinei Chinuch Katan pg. 33), Sh"t Otzrot Yosef 1:27. See [http://halachayomit.co.il/en/default.aspx?HalachaID=4667 Wearing One’s Tzitzit Out (HalachaYomit.co.il)]</ref>{{Tzitzit in a Cemetery}} ====Garment====#The Tzitzit (Tallit Katan) should not be worn on top of one's outer garments.<ref>Shulchan Aruch O.C. 8:11 writes that the tzitzit should be worn on top of one's garments because they should be seen in fulfill of the pasuk "וראיתם אותו" (Bamidbar 15:39). Mishna Brurah 8:25 cites the Arizal, however, who says that it should be worn under one's outer garments.</ref>#Regarding wearing the garment on one's skin or on top of an undershirt see [[#T-Shirt Tzitzit]]. ===If One Wears Multiple Pairs of Tzitzit=== #If one wears multiple pairs of Tzitzit, one can make one bracha on all of them by having in mind to include all pairs in that single bracha. One should be sure to not make a hefsek between putting on the different pairs of Tzitzit. <ref>Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chaim, 8:12 </ref>
==Tallit Gadol==
===How to Put on the Tallit===
[[Image:Atifa0.png|thumb|Step 1: Holding It Unfolded and Reciting Bracha]]
#One should unfold the Tallit before making the bracha so that there will not be any interruption between the bracha and wrapping onself in the garment.<ref>Kaf Hachayim 206:4 </ref> If one made an interruption before placing the Tallit on one's head, one should recite a new bracha, but if the interruption occurred only after placing it on one's head one does not recite a new bracha.<ref>Kaf Hachayim 8:39. He adds that if one hears [[kaddish]], [[kedusha]], or anything else that one would be required to answer to, one is permitted to do so. </ref>
 
===How the Head is Wrapped===
[[Image:Atifa1.png|thumb|right|Step 2: Wrapping One's Head Acc to Mishna Brurah]]
#The practice is that immediately after reciting the bracha while holding the tallit in one's hand,<ref> Kaf Hachaim 8:3 quotes the Eliya Rabba 8:2 who holds that it should be put on quickly, recite the bracha, and then adjust the tallit as we do for Tefillin. Otherwise he is concerned that it isn't considered ''Over Lasiyatan''. However, the Shagat Aryeh 32 holds that the bracha is recited while the tallit is in one's hands. Chida in Mazchik Bracha 8:1, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 9:8, Kaf Hachaim 8:3, and Mishna Brurah 8:2 agree with the Shagat Aryeh.</ref> the tallit should be wrapped around one's head, left there for the time it takes to walk 4 [[amot]], and then drape it down over one's shoulders and have it cover one's placed over body with two strings in front and two in back. Other variant practices can be found in the footnote.<ref>
* The Tur O.C. 8:2 cites a dispute between the Geonim and the Baal Haitur whether it is necessary to wrap one's head in one's Tallit or not. The Geonim hold that it is necessary since the text of the bracha is Li'hitatef Btzitzit and with respect to Avelut, Shmuel (Moed Katan 24a) defines Atifa as wrapping one's head. The Baal Haitur distinguishes between Avelut whether a formal head wrapping is necessary and Tzitzit where it is all about how it is normally worn.
* What is the halacha? Shulchan Aruch O.C. 8:2 rules like the Baal Haitur as does the Taz 8:2, Nachalat Tzvi 8:2, Maamar Mordechai 8:2, Olot Tamid 8:2, and Ateret Tzvi 8:2. Magen Avraham 8:2, however, cites the Arizal who thinks that we are concerned for the Baal Haitur and therefore, one should first put it on one's head for a short period of time, the time it takes to walk 4 [[amot]], and then drape it over one's body. Magen Giborim (Elef Hamagen 8:4), Ben Ish Chai Shana Rishona Beresheet n. 5, and Mishna Brurah 8:4 agree with the Arizal.
* The Kaf Hachaim 8:3 cites the Shalmei Tzibbur p. 32 who argues to take this concern one step further. Ideally a person should recite the bracha, put it on one's entire body, then wrap one's head in it, and finally put it again over one's shoulders and body. The reason is that although it is commendable to be concerned for the Geonim, it shouldn't be an interruption between the bracha and the actual fulfillment of the mitzvah. The Ben Ish Chai Shana Rishona Beresheet n. 5 thinks that this is in disagreement with the Arizal's practice and should be discouraged. Kaf Hachaim himself concludes in support of the Shalmei Tzibbur.</ref>
## The above is the practice of the Arizal. There is a dispute in the rishonim whether the head must be wrapped in the tallit or the tallit be worn normally over one's entire body for the bracha and mitzvah. The minority opinion holds that one must wrap one's head in the tallit and the majority opinion is that it should be worn normally. The Arizal made a compromise. First, the head is wrapped to be stringent for the opinion that holds that wrapping oneself in the tallit for the bracha requires wrapping one's head. Afterwards, the tallit is worn normally since that is the majority opinion and halacha of how the tallit is to be worn for the bracha and to fulfill the mitzvah.<ref>Magen Avraham 8:2, Magen Giborim (Elef Hamagen 8:4), Ben Ish Chai Shana Rishona Beresheet n. 5, and Mishna Brurah 8:4</ref> This is the recommended practice for Middle Eastern Jews such as Syrians and Iraqis.<Ref>[https://itorah.com/lecture/audio/rabbi-eli-mansour/sisit-how-to-properly-put-on-a-tallit-gadol/3112/6 Rabbi Mansour on (Daily Halacha 7/19/2016)] writes both the opinion of the Ben Ish Chai and Kaf Hachaim here are valid, however, he concluded in accordance with the Ben Ish Chai as was the practice of Chacham Ovadia. Orchot Maran 2:4 substantiates the point about Rav Ovadia Yosef's practice.</ref>
## There is alternative option that some Sephardim practice which is to be stringent for both opinions as well. First, the tallit is placed over the entire body in order to immediately fulfill the opinion of the majority opinion and halacha and only afterwards is it wrapped around one's head. Finally, it is again draped over the shoulders to be worn normally.<ref>Kaf Hachaim 8:3 citing and agreeing with the Shalmei Tzibbur p. 32</ref> Some Morrocans have this practice.<ref>Ateret Avot v. 1 2:9 writes that this is the preferred practice and no one should tell those who have the practice like the Shalmei Tzibbur that they should have to follow the Ben Ish Chai in this matter.<br/br>
Rav Mordechai Lebhar (Magen Avot, Orach Chaim 8:3) argues that the Ben Ish Chai's view should not be taught as mainstream Halacha and only those who traditionally follow the Ben Ish Chai should be instructed to don their Tallit the way he prescribes. He notes how the Ben Ish Chai's read of Sha'ar HaKavannot is not convincing, Rav Rephael Baruch Toledano would protest those who followed the Ben Ish Chai on this, and, one should keep some of the tallit wrapped around his shoulders when rolling it from his body up to his head.</ref>
## Another option is simply to recite the bracha and wear the tallit normally over one's shoulders without wrapping one's head at all.<ref>Shulchan Aruch O.C. 8:2 rules like the Baal Haitur as does the Taz 8:2, Nachalat Tzvi 8:2, Maamar Mordechai 8:2, Olot Tamid 8:2, and Ateret Tzvi 8:2.</ref> This is the Tunisian practice.<ref>Ateret Avot v. 1 p. 34 citing Aley Hadas 1:26 and Shulchan Aruch Hamekusar 8:17</ref>
 
===Throwing the Strings Over One's Shoulder===
[[Image:Atifa2.png|thumb|left|Step 2*: Wrapping One's Head Acc to Ben Ish Chai]]
# While wrapping one's head in the Tallit the practice is to take the tzitzit strings and throw them over one's left shoulder.<ref>Bear Heitiv 8:3, Mishna Brurah 8:4. Nonetheless, in the Shaar Hatziyun 8:11 he takes issue with the Bear Heitiv and asks that seemingly there should always be two strings in from and two in back as Magen Avraham 8:4 insists. Kaf Hachaim 8:7 indeed quotes a large dispute about this point whether when wrapping one's head all the strings should be thrown over one's left shoulder or the two rights should be thrown over one's shoulder and the left two strings should be left in front of one's body. He concludes with the Ben Ish Chai Shana Rishona Beresheet n. 5 that ideally one should do both. First have the two strings of the right side thrown to the back over one's left shoulder, wait the time it takes to walk 4 amot, and then throw the additional 2 strings of the left side over one's left shoulder and wait the time it takes 4 amot.</ref>
# The alternative practice is to first throw the right 2 strings over one's left shoulder while leaving the left 2 strings in front of one's body. The strings are left in that position for the time it takes to talk 4 [[amot]]. Then the left 2 strings are throw over the left shoulder as well and left there for the time it takes to walk 4 [[amot]].<ref>Ben Ish Chai Shana Rishona Beresheet n. 5. Rav Dovid Yosef in Orchot Maran 2:4 writes that such was the practice of Rav Ovadia Yosef to wrap his head and leave two strings in front and two in back like the Ben Ish Chai.</ref>
 
===How the Tallit is Worn===
[[Image:Atifa3.png|thumb|Step 3: Wearing the Tallit with a Hood over the Head]]
#One should wear the Tallit with two corners in front and two in the back so that one is surrounded by mitzvot.<ref>Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chaim, 8:4 </ref>
#Among Ashkenazim, there is a practice of pious people to wear the Tallit over their heads like a hood (see picture), however, an unmarried Ashkenazi shouldn't do so. Sephardim recommend it for kabbalistic reasons. Even if it is covering one's head the Tefillin Shel Rosh should be exposed.<ref>Magen Avraham 8:3 citing the Arizal</ref> Others hold that it isn't necessary to do so.<ref>Rav Dovid Yosef in Orchot Maran 2:4 records Rav Ovadia Yosef's practice was not to cover his head with the tallit because it bothered him since it would sometimes fall off his head. Later in life, however, he did cover his head with his tallit when he prayed. In the footnote he explains that strictly speaking it isn't necessary to cover one's head, however, it is a proper practice for Kabbalistic reasons. See [[Davening with a Minyan That Uses a Different Nusach#Tallit|Davening with a Minyan That Uses a Different Nusach > Tallit]] regarding what a Sephardi should do when praying with Ashkenazim.</ref> Moroccans have the practice not to cover their heads with the tallit like a hood.<ref>Magen Avot (Orach Chaim 8:3) and Ateret Avot v. 1 2:11 write that the Moroccan custom was not to cover one's head with the tallit out of a concern of [[yuhara]], appearing disingenuously pious, as it was only the practice of ordained Talmidei Chachamim. Note how in Morocco, many did not wear a Tallit Gadol or even a Tallit Kattan. Nowadays, it's not yuhara anymore, so anybody can cover his head with the tallit.</ref>
 
===Wearing the Tallit like a Scarf===
#One doesn't fulfill the mitzvah by wearing the Tallit as a scarf with two strings on one shoulder and two on the other.<ref>Ateret Zekanim 8:2 writes that someone who wears a Tallit with two strings hanging off to one side and two to the other side doesn't fulfill his mitzvah at all since it isn't a normal way to wear the Tallit. He cites this from the Masat Binyamin 48. Magen Avraham 8:2, Ateret Tzvi 8:2, Bear Heitev 8:3, and Mishna Brurah 8:3 agree.</ref>
 
===Reciting Pesukim after Putting on the Tallit===
# If one follows the general practice of the Arizal, Ben Ish Chai, and Mishna Brurah to wrap one's head before draping it over one's shoulders and body, then one shouldn't recite the customary pesukim until after one drapes it over one's shoulder and body.<ref>[https://itorah.com/lecture/audio/rabbi-eli-mansour/sisit-how-to-properly-put-on-a-tallit-gadol/3112/6 Rabbi Mansour on (Daily Halacha 7/19/2016)]</ref>
# Moroccans have the custom to recite the pesukim of Tehillim 36:8-11 as follows:<ref>[https://he.wikisource.org/wiki/%D7%91%D7%99%D7%90%D7%95%D7%A8:%D7%AA%D7%94%D7%9C%D7%99%D7%9D_%D7%9C%D7%95#%D7%99%D7%90 Wikitext]</ref> מַה יָּקָר חַסְדְּךָ אֱלֹהִים, וּבְנֵי אָדָם בְּצֵל כְּנָפֶיךָ יֶחֱסָיוּן. יִרְוְיֻן מִדֶּשֶׁן בֵּיתֶךָ, וְנַחַל עֲדָנֶיךָ תַשְׁקֵם. כִּי עִמְּךָ מְקוֹר חַיִּים, בְּאוֹרְךָ נִרְאֶה אוֹר. מְשֹׁךְ חַסְדְּךָ לְיֹדְעֶיךָ, וְצִדְקָתְךָ לְיִשְׁרֵי לֵב.<ref>Magen Avot (Orach Chaim 8:3), Ateret Avot 2:10</ref>
 
===Standing===
#The bracha and the wrapping of the Tallit Gadol should be done standing up.<ref>Shulchan Aruch O.C. 8:1, Mishna Brurah 8:2, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch Yalkut Yosef 8:16</ref> One who recites the bracha or wrapping while sitting has fulfilled his obligation.<ref>Mishna Brurah 8:2, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch Yalkut Yosef 8:17 </ref> If one is weak or sick one can recite the bracha and wrap oneself in it while seated.<ref>Halacha Brurah 8:3 </ref>
#The minhag for Sephardim is to start wearing a Tallit Gadol from the age of [[chinuch]] in mitzvot. <ref>Kaf Hachayim 8:12, Yechave Daat 4:36. Halacha Brurah 17:3 says that this age begins once the child can participate in the [[prayers]] in the shul. </ref> The minhag for most Ashkenazim is not to wear one until one gets married. <ref>Keztot Hashulchan 7:7, Eliya Rabba 17:3, Tashbetz Katan 462 based on a Maharil in Hilchot Nisuin. </ref> However in Western-European communities the minhag is to wear it after the child's bar mitzvah. <ref>The Piskei Teshuvot 8:10 writes that the minhag of not wearing a Tallit before [[marriage]] spread in Eastern Europe including Lithuania and Poland, however, in Western Europe, specifically Hungry, the minhag was not widely accepted. See Mishna Brurah 17:10 who questions the Maharil simply because he does not understand why someone who is not yet married should not fulfill the mitzvah of Tzitzit.</ref>##A Sephardic boy studying in an Ashkenazi yeshiva should continue his minhag of wearing a Tallit Gadol. <ref>Yechave Daat 4:36 </ref>#One should unfold the Tallit before making the bracha so that there will not be any interruption between the bracha and wrapping onself in the garment. <ref>Kaf Hachayim 206:4 </ref> If one made an interruption before placing the Tallit on one's head, one should recite a new bracha, but if the interruption occured only after placing it on one's head one does not recite a new bracha. <ref>Kaf Hachayim 8:39. He adds that if one hears [[kaddish]], [[kedusha]], or anything else that one would be required to answer to, one is permitted to do so. </ref>#The bracha should be recited before wrapping oneself in the Tallit Gadol, but if one forgot one may recite it as long as it is still on one. <ref>Shulchan Aruch 8:10 </ref>#One should not write a pasuk or the bracha on one's Tallit Gadol <ref>Shulchan Aruch YD 283:4. [http://www.hebrewbooks.org/pdfpager.aspx?req=23523&st=&pgnum=32 Rambam Sh"t Pe'er Hador 7] writes that it is a sin to embroder a pasuk on a talit and if one does it should be torn and put in geniza. He gives three reasons: 1) When Should It is forbidden to write a pasuk without writing the whole parsha. 2) Since it is permitted to bring a tallit into a bathroom or use it to cover something dirty you might use this tallit but since it has a pasuk on it it is forbidden. 3) It isn't the minhag. Furthermore, it is an inappropriate use of Ketav Ashurit.</ref>, but one may keep the Tallit if one got one that had the bracha or pasuk on it, but should be more careful with it. <ref>Kaf Hachayim 24:24 </ref>#The bracha and the wrapping of the Tallit Gadol should be done standing up. <ref>Shulchan Aruch 8:1 </ref> If one is weak or sick one can recite the bracha and wrap oneself in it while seated. <ref>Halacha Brurah 8:3 </ref>#If one said the bracha "all mitzvat Tzitzit" on the Tallit Gadol instead of "lihitaatef biTzitzit" one has nevertheless fulfilled one's obligation. The same would be true if one recited "lihitaatef biTzitzit" on the Tallit Katan. <ref>Kaf Hachayim 8:21, although the Minhag Sepharad is not to recite a bracha on the Tallit Katan but rather to exempt it with the bracha on the Tallit Gadol, Ben Ish Chai Bereishit halacha 2. </ref>#If one removes one's Tallit and plans on putting it back on within half an hour, one does not recite a new bracha when putting it back on. <ref>Sh"t Yabia Omer 8:2, Kaf Hachayim 8:52, 56. </ref>#If one's Tallit Gadol fell off and to the floor, one does not recite a new bracha when putting it back on. <ref>Sh"t Yabia Omer YD 3:17:11, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch of Rav Rephael Baruch Toledano, siman 10, laws of the donning of [[Tefillin]], seif 22 </ref>Be Removed===#The Tallit Gadol should be removed after the [[Tefillin]]. <ref>Kitzur Shulchan Aruch of Rav Rephael Baruch Toledano, siman 10, laws of the donning of [[Tefillin]], seif 40. </ref>#One should wear the Tallit with two corners in front and two in the back so that one is surrounded by mitzvot. <ref>Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chaim, 8:4 </ref>
==Text of =Embroidering Pesukim on the Tallit===#One should not write a pasuk or the Brachabracha on one's Tallit Gadol<ref>Shulchan Aruch YD 283:4. [http://www.hebrewbooks.org/pdfpager.aspx?req=23523&st=&pgnum=32 Rambam Sh"t Pe'er Hador 7] writes that it is a sin to embroider a pasuk on a talit and if one does it should be torn and put in [[geniza]]. He gives three reasons: 1) It is forbidden to write a pasuk without writing the whole parsha. 2) Since it is permitted to bring a tallit into a bathroom or use it to cover something dirty you might use this tallit but since it has a pasuk on it it is forbidden. 3) It isn't the [[minhag]]. Furthermore, it is an inappropriate use of Ketav Ashurit.</ref>, but one may keep the Tallit if one got one that had the [[bracha]] or pasuk on it, but should be more careful with it.<ref>Kaf Hachayim 24:24 </ref>
===The Bracha=======Text of the Bracha====#The bracha for a Tallit Gadol is ''"LeHitatef BeTzitzit"''. <ref>Shulchan Aruch 8:6 writes that for a Tzitzit one can say LeHitatef BeTzitzit, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch Yalkut Yosef 8:13 </ref> If one mistakenly recited ''"al mitzvat tzitzit "'' on tallit gadol he has nevertheless fulfilled his obligation.<ref>Kaf Hachayim 8:21, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch Yalkut Yosef 8:14 </ref>#For a pair of Tzitzit, according to Ashkenazim, the bracha is "Al Mitzvat Tzitzit", while according to Sephardim, if one puts on the Tzitzit regularly the bracha is "Al Mitzvat Tzitzit", but if one wraps one's head with the Tzitzit, one should make "LeHitatef BeTzitzit".<ref>Shulchan Aruch 8:6 writes that for Tzitzit one can say "LeHitatef BeTzitzit". Rama argues that for Tzitzit one should say "Al Mitzvat Tzitzit". Ben Ish Chai (Beresheet #6) and Kaf HaChaim 8:27 write that if one puts on the Tzitzit regularly the bracha is "Al Mitzvat Tzitzit", but if one wraps one's head with the Tzitzit, one should make "LeHitatef BeTzitzit". Ben Ish Chai Bereishit halacha 2 notes that the Sephardi minhag is not to recite the bracha upon tzitzit and instead exempt it with the bracha upon the tallit.</ref>
#The text of the bracha of "LeHitatef BeTzitzit" is: '''ברוך אתה ה' אלוקינו מלך העולם אשר קדשנו במצותיו וצונו להתעטף בציצת''' - Baruch Atta Hashem Elokeinu Melech HaOlam Asher Kideshanu BeMitzvotav VeTziyvanu LeHitatef BeTzitzit.
#The text of the bracha of "Al Mitzvat Tzitzit" is: '''ברוך אתה ה' אלוקינו מלך העולם אשר קדשנו במצותיו וצונו על מצות ציצת''' - Baruch Atta Hashem Elokeinu Melech HaOlam Asher Kideshanu BeMitzvotav VeTziyvanu Al Mitzvat Tzitzit.
#One should recite the beracha while standing, <ref>Kitzur Shulchan Aruch Yalkut Yosef 8:16 </ref> but one who does so while sitting has fulfilled his obligation. <ref>Kitzur Shulchan Aruch Yalkut Yosef 8:17 </ref>
====If One Forgot to Make the Bracha Before Putting It On====#The bracha should be recited before wrapping oneself in the Tallit Gadol, but if one forgot one may recite it as long as it is still on one.<ref>Shulchan Aruch O.C. 8:10 </ref>  ====When Putting It Back On Needs a Bracha====#If one removes one's Tallit and plans on putting it back on within half an hour, one does not recite a new bracha when putting it back on.<ref>Sh"t Yabia Omer 8:2, Kaf Hachayim 8:52, 56. </ref>#If one's Tallit Gadol fell off and to the floor, one does not recite a new bracha when putting it back on. <ref>Sh"t Yabia Omer YD 3:17:11, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch of Rav Rephael Baruch Toledano, siman 10, laws of the donning of [[Tefillin]], seif 22 </ref> ====Borrowed Tallit==== #If one borrows a Tallit directly from its owner in order to fulfill the mitzvah of wearing a Tallit, one may recite the bracha, because we assume that the owner gave it as a present on condition that it is returned. It is however better to avoid this situation. Additionally, if the Tallit is donated to the shul, one may borrow it and make a bracha on it.<ref>Ben Ish Chai Lech Lecha Halacha 5 </ref>#For the halachot regarding borrowing a tallit, see [[Details_About_the_Tefillin_Boxes_and_Straps#Borrowing_Tallit_or_Tefillin|Borrowing Tallit or Tefillin]] ====Laws regarding the Bracha on Tzitzit====
#One should recite the bracha just before putting on the Tzitzit.<ref>Shulchan Aruch 8:1</ref>
#If one removes one's Tallit and had in mind to put it back on then one is not obligated in making a new bracha when one puts it back on. <ref>Kaf Hachaim, 8:52, which contradicts Shulchan Aruch, OC, 8:14 </ref>
#If one wore one's Tallit during the night, one must take it off, recite a new bracha on it, and then put it back on once it is daytime. <ref>Shulchan Aruch, OC, 8:16 </ref>
 
===Shehecheyanu===
 
#If one buys a new Tallit, a [[Shehecheyanu]] is recited. <ref>Shulchan Aruch 22:1, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch of Rav Rephael Baruch Toledano, siman 9, the proper time for Tzitzit and who is obligated, seif 5 </ref> There is a split between Ashkenazi poskim as to whether to say the bracha prior<ref>Baer Heitev 22:2 </ref> to putting on the Tallit or after<ref>Mishna Brurah 22:3 </ref>, Sephardim should say it after. <ref>Birkei Yosef 22:2. </ref>
#The bracha may be recited as long as someone is still wearing it for their first time. <ref>Halacha Brurah 22:7, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch of Rav Rephael Baruch Toledano, siman 9, the proper time for Tzitzit and who is obligated, seif 5 </ref>
#One should recite the bracha on a new Tallit Katan if it brings one joy. <ref>Ben Ish Chai Bereishit Halacha 7. </ref>
#If one places new strings on an old garment a [[Shehecheyanu]] is not recited. <ref>Mishna Brurah 22:2, Kaf Hachayim 22:3 </ref>
#One who wears a Tallit that has been worn before, even if this is his first time fulfilling the mitzvah does not recite a [[Shehecheyanu]]. <ref>Sh"t Yechave Daat 2:31 </ref>
#[[Shehecheyanu]] should not be recited if one acquired a new Tallit Katan. <ref>Kitzur Shulchan Aruch of Rav Rephael Baruch Toledano, siman 9, the proper time for Tzitzit and who is obligated, seif 6 </ref>
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