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==With what stoves and how are they heated?==
# Fires fueled with olive peals, wood chips, or charcoal need to be Garuf and Katum in order to leave something not cooked upon it. <Ref> The Mishna 36b and S”A differentiate between a Kirah heated by stubble and straw which don’t make coals (that can later be stoked) and a Kirah heated by olive peals, wood chips that make coals. Mishna Brurah 253:4 in name of the Kol includes charcoal in the second category of fuels. </ref>
# There’s a dispute whether our stoves nowadays fueled by oil also have the issue of Shehiya or not. Because of the old Minhag to be lenient one has what to rely on to leave food on a gas fire if the food is cooked [[Machal Ben Dursai]] and the food is meant to be eaten the Shabbat day and not that night. <Ref> Our stove nowadays fueled with gas or oil which don’t leave over coals seemingly shouldn’t be included in the laws of Shehiya. However some argue that since the flame that can be raised there is what to make it’s forbidden because of the Gezerah just like a Gezirahfire fueled with wood chips. Sh”t Panim Meirot 1:84 says a portable stovetop which has with a real flame and that flame which can be raised by manipulation is forbidden because of the Gezerah just like a fire fueled with wood chips. Sh”t Maharshamm Maharsham 3:165, Sh”t AMrei Amrei Yosher 2:171, Sh”t Maharam Brisk 2:76, Sh”t Esei HaLevanon O”C 11, Sh”t Shoel VeNishal 1:36, Sh”t Vayomer Boaz 18, and Sh”t Divrei Chizkiya 1:2 pg 12 quoting Mahari Sharim , and Shaarei Teshuva 254 (D”H Mipneh) concur. Similarly, Second source to forbid: Bear Yitzchak (Introduction to Kodshim) writes that he asked the Goan MeBrisk about leaving a container of water by an oil stove and he was answered that it’s totally forbidden as by the hot water container mentioned in Yerushalmi (Shabbat 3:3e), that forbids it since the walls of the container remain hot. Bear Yitzchak continues that Rav Zonenfeld asked Rav Yacov Elishor why he didn’t protest the Minhag some Sephardim had to leave a container of water by an oil stove and was answered that he doesn’t didn’t have the power to protest this bad Minhag. On Those who don’t apply the other hand, Chazon Ovadyah (Shabbat Gezerah to a modern stove: 1 pg 49) rejects the proof from the Yerushlami based on Ritva (Shabbbat 41a). Sh”t Maharshag 2:50 argues that since Chazal didn’t make a Gezerah about the case of a flame fueled by oil we shouldn’t make a Gezerah. Chazon Ovadyah (Shabbat 1 pg 48) quotes Yadei Chaim pg 200 who explains that even if something is very similar to a modern example we can’t extend the Gezerot of Chazal like the Rishonim were able to, thus modern day stoves such be permissible. Sh”t Tzitz Eliezer 2:7 (quoting Rav Tzvi Peasch Frank) based on a Yerushalmi (Shevit 2:4) that we can’t add to Gezerot concurs. 2) Sh”t Igrot Moshe O”C 1:93 distinguishes between stoking the coals for which the Rabbis made a Gezerah and adding more fuel which the rabbis didn’t make a Gezerah, and so a oil stove isn’t an issue of stoking coals and the issue of increasing the fire is permitted. This idea is applied elsewhere in Sh”t Yacheve Daat 6:20. 3) Additionally, Gedolei Tzion 9:11 (quoted by Sh”t Tzitz Eliezer 7:16(3) and Sh”t Yachave Daat 6:20) and Sh”t Kochavei Yitzchak 3:37(4) say that the Gezerah only applies to coals which constantly flicker and get close to going out, but an oil stove where the fire is constant there shouldn’t be a Gezerah. Sh”t Tzitz Eliezer 7:15(3) writes that even the Chazon Ish (Sefer Moed Siman 37) who forbids a modern stove by Chazarah didn’t even entertain the idea of forbidding it for Shehiyah. Rejection of the second source: On the other hand, Chazon Ovadyah (Shabbat 1 pg 49) rejects the proof from the Yerushlami based on Ritva (Shabbbat 41a; I searched and was unable to find this Ritva, but found it that quote in the Chiddushei Ran), who explains that water that’s totally cooked is even allowed to be left on a Kirah or a Tanur but the problem of a water container is that it was made of metal pieces and if the water evaporates one may come to add more water in fear that the fire will make the container fall apart. So writes Maginei Shlomo (Shabbat 41a) in name of Rashi. Chazon Ovadyah concludes that had Rav Yacov Elishor seen the Ritva and Poskim who permit he would have rejoiced to defend the Minhag! Sh”t Tzitz Eliezer 7:15(1) (quoting Sh”t Maharsham 3:165) also rejects the proof from the Yerushalmi because we don’t pasken like the Yerushalmi since it’s not mentioned in the Bavli. </ref> ==Covering the fire==# One is permitted to leave food on a fire if there is a tray or metal sheet to cover the fire. Some adds that it’s preferable to also cover the knobs. <Ref> Magan Avraham 253:31 permits Shehiya in modern day ovens because the fire is covered based on S”A 253:3 permits leaving on the fire if there’s an empty vessel separating between the fire and the food. This leniency is sourced in the Maharil (Minhagei Maharil pg 36; see 318:15), Agudah, and Tashbetz 27 in name of Maharam MeRotenberg. Eliyah Rabba 253:31, Tosefet Shabbat 253:40, Shulchan Aruch HaRav 253:26, Mishna Brurah 253:81, and Chazon Ovadyah (Shabbat 1 pg 50). Chazon Ovadyah extends this to a stove and so one can cover the stove flame with a metal sheet based on Rashba and Ramban (Shabbat 36b) that partial covering of a fire is sufficient. Sh”t Zera Emet O”C 26, Sh”t Maharam Brisk 2:76, Sh”t Tefilah LeMoshe 1:37, Shem Chadash (on Yereyim 1 pg 58), Kaf Hachaim 253:11, Sh”t Maharshag 2:50, Sh”t Divrei Chizkiyah 1:2 in name of Mahari Shari, Sh”t Yashkil Avdi O”C 3:10(2), and Sh”t Ohel Yosef Parid 10 concur. Sh”t Igrot Moshe O”C 1:93 and Sh”t Tzitz Eliezer 7:17(3) adds that besides covering the flame it’s preferable to cover the knobs also. However Chazon Ish 37:9 argues on the Mishna Brurah from Rashi (Shabbat 37a D”H Gaba; quoted by Tur) who requires a covering over an empty space. Thus, a covering on our modern stove would still be forbidden. Chazon Ovadyah (pg 51), Sh”t Shevet Levi O”C 91, Toldot Zev (Shabbat 2 pg 192) argue on the Chazon Ish that Rashi is referring to a cooking on Shabbat in a way that’s unusual and so it would need to be a covering over an empty space but by Shehiya one only needs a reminder not to stoke the coals. See Bach 253:14 D”H VeDavka and Sh”t Maharam Shik O”C 117 who also make this distinction. </ref>  
==Sources==
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