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{{GoodDone}}[[ImageFile:MoonMoon_phases.jpggif|rightthumb|200pxPhases of the moon]]Upon seeing During the beginning of the lunar month the moon at is situated between the earth and the sun, thus causing the beginning illuminated side of the moon to face away from the earth. A few days into the new month , the moon makes it's appearance gradually until it reaches it's fullness, when it then wanes again. Our Sages instituted that upon seeing the moon at it's first stages after renewal one says is to recite a blessing called '''Birkat HaLevana Halevana''' (for Hebrew: ברכת הלבנה, tran. ''Blessing of The Moon)'', or '''Kiddush Levana''' (Hebrew: ''קידוש לבנה'', trans. ''Sanctification of the details and text see belowMoon). What's the significance of '<ref>Some Ashkenazic greats termed this Bracha? blessing "Kiddush Halevana, see for instance Maharil (Rosh Chodesh, Siman 9) and Rama 426:2. Rabbi Yosef Qafih (The Gemara Sanhedrin 42a says Guide for the Perplexed, 2:5 fn. 15) however, writes that saying the name "Birkat HaLavana Halevana" is more correct as that is what is like greeting found in all earlier sources. See Hegyonei Haparsha Shemot (p. 132) who documents that the Shechina. Beiur Halacha Or Zaruah (456), Shibolei Haleket (167) and Tur (426) all use the title B''irkat Halevana'', as opposed to the Eshkol (Birchot Hodah 23:2 explains 3) and Maharil (Rosh Chodesh) who termed it K''iddush Levana''. In explaining the term this latter term, he cites the To'ameha Chaim (37) who brings that Midrash Rabba (Shemos Rabba 15) states that by seeing God gave the Jewish people the moon fulfill its mission consistently we recognize Hashem’s might and control over nature. He adds as his betrothal gift, with that to emphasize he explains that we only pray to Hashem this term highlights the relationship between God and the moon Jewish people which is comparable to an Halachic marriage, ''[[kiddushin]]''. </ref>  This monthly ritual is just performed outdoors at night in the first half of the month, in which this blessing along with a tool by which we can recognize Hashem’s strength we say Aleinu afterwardsseries of additional prayers are recited for the new moon.  The source of this blessing appears in the Talmud (Sanhedrin 42a) where the sages equate one who blesses the new moon on its proper time to one who greets the Divine Presence.<ref>Sanhedrin 42a. See note Divrei Yatziv (Orach Chaim 278) for more about the significance of a discussion as to why this Brachablessing is only first introduced here.) </ref> Why did Chazal choose to make The commentators explain that by reciting this Bracha on blessing of the new moon specifically? Aruch HaShulchan , one in essence recalls that it is God who created the universe, and this realization in turn is tantamount to experiencing the Divine Presence.<ref>Levush (426:2 1) explains that since this blessing was specifically designated to the moon over other stars or planets because it is the moon that is closest to Earth we are able us on earth, easily enabling us to constantly recognize Hashem’s God's control over nature easilythe universe. Aruch Hashulchan 426:2 also cites this reason. C.f. Sefer Hachinuch 403 for a similar idea. AlsoAlternatively, Hegyonei Haparsha (Shemot p. 133) quotes To'ameha Chayim (Rosh Chodesh n. 8) that the moon is compared awarded this blessing as an appeasement for it's minimization by God at the beginning of creation (See Rashi Beresheet 1:16). </ref> Another aspect of this ritual is in order for us to Bnei Yisrael; just as internalize a significant lesson that emerges when comparing the history of the moon doesn’t have any Nation of its own light, so too Bnei Yisrael are only sustained through Hashem Israel and his Torah; the cycle of the moon: just as the moon gets smaller is "reborn" after a period of its decrease and biggerextinction, so too Bnei Yisrael are always renewed, our nations decline will end and its light will once again radiate in full vibrancy. This ritual in effect instills in our hearts this much-needed message of hope. <ref>Rama 426 citing Rabbeinu Bahya (Parashas Vayeshev) </ref>
==Basics==
# One is obligated to make the bracha of [[Kiddish]] Levana which begins Baruch Atta Hashem... Asher BeMaamaro Bara Shechakim. <ref> Shulchan Aruch 426:1 </ref> The bracha is made while standing.<ref>Gemara Sanhedrin 42a, Rama 426:1</ref>
# The bracha is made immediately upon seeing the moon and during the bracha and afterwards some say that one shouldn't look at the moon.<ref>Mishna Brurah 425:13 citing the Magen Avraham</ref>
# For the Ashkenazic text [https://docs.google.com/viewer?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.tefila.org%2Fimages%2Fstories%2Fbirkon%2Flevana-e1.pdf click here (from Tefilah.org)]. For the Sephardic text [https://docs.google.com/viewer?url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.tefila.org%2Fimages%2Fstories%2Fbirkon%2Flevana-s1.pdf click here (from Tefilah.org)].
==When it should be said==# According to Ashkenazim, one may say Since this blessing involves greeting the Bracha 3 days after the moladDivine Presence, however according to Sephardimit is most proper, in general one should wait until 7 days after the molad. For this halachawhen possible, days are counted by 24 hour periodsfor it to be recited while standing. <Refref> Gemara Sanhedrin 42a, Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 426:4 writes that one shouldn’t say Birkat Halevana until 7 days have passed from the molad based on the Shaarei Orah. However, the Bach 426 rules like the Rabbenu Yonah who says The Gemara relates that one may say it after 3 days. Taz 426:3, Magen Avraham 426:13, Aruch HaShulchan 426:13, and Mishna Brurah 426:20 agree with the Bach. Sh”t Yabia Omer 6:38(1) rules like Shulchan Aruch but adds that if Motzei [[Shabbat]] is a few hours less than 7 days one may say it Mereimar and Mar Zutra in their later years would be supported by their attendants in places where majority of the month is cloudy one may say it after 3 daysorder to recite this blessing while standing. Mishna Brurah 426:17 clarifies that for this halacha days are counted as 24 hour periods and not from sunset to sunsetSee Rashi there. </ref> It’s proper to wait until Motzei [[Shabbat]] When not feasible (Saturday night) to say Birkat HaLevanaeg. <Ref>Masechet Sofrim 19:10 (in some versions 20:1a elderly or sick person) writes that one should say Birkat HaLevana specifically on Motzei [[Shabbat]]. However, Rabbenu Yonah ([[Brachot]] 21a) quotes some who say this, rejects it, and concludes that one can say it anytime after 3 daysblessing may be recited in a sitting position. Bet <ref>Ya'alkut Yosef 426:2 writes that probably Rabbenu Yonah didn’t have this girsa in Maasechet Sofrim. S”A 426:2 rules that one should say Birkat HaLevana on Motzei [[Shabbat]]. However, the Biur HaGra 426:2 cites the Gemara Yevamot 39a which says that we don’t delay performing [[Mitzvot]]. The Mishna Brurah 426:20 rules that it’s proper to wait until Motzei [[Shabbat]] but there is what to rely on to say it earlier and in the winter and rainy months those who are zealous to say it early are praiseworthy. Rama 426:2 writes that if Motzei [[Shabbat]] is the 11th night from the molad one doesn’t have to wait until Motzei [[Shabbat]] because it’s possible it will be cloudy the following 4 nights. 11</ref># During the month of TishreiIt is also preferable, when possible, [[Kiddish]] Levana isn't said prior to [[Yom Kippur]]. Rather it should that this blessing not be said right after [[Yom Kippur]].<ref> Rama 426:2. The Beiur Halacha (sham d"h v'lo kodem)recited indoors but, however, does quote the opinion of the Levush that by Yom Kippurrather, as opposed to Tisha B'Avoutdoors under open skies, kiddush levana SHOULD be said BEFORE Yom Kippur as even one merit (one mitzvah) may tip is the scales towards the positive during this period of judgement. He notes that this seems way to be the opinion of the Beis Meir as well </ref># During the month go greet someone of Av, most have the minhag not to say [[Kiddush Levana]] prior to [[Tisha BeAv]]prominent stature.<ref> Rama 426Shiltei Ha'giborim (Berachos 189:23), 551:8Bach Orach Chaim 426 and Teshuvos HaBach (no. 80)</ref> Some say that it shouldn't Preferably one should also not be said right after [[Tisha BeAv]], but in the next few dayspositioned beneath a roof or overhang. <ref> Rama Orach Chaim 426:2, Mishna 4 with Mishnah Brurah (426:21) and Ya'alkut Yosef (426:1026). Orchos Rabbenu (v. 1 p. However178) however, brings from the Chazon Ish Matzliach footnote 3 on the Mishna Brura says that the minhag is most places this optimal condition is only to say refrain from it on Motzaei Tisha B'av<br />* Halichot Shlomo ([[Tefillah]] ch. 15s recital in indoor structures, n. 22) records Rav Shlomo Zalman's minhag to recite [[Kiddush Levana]] after 3 full days even during the months of Tishrei and Av. See Aruch Hashulchan 551:22 and Maaseh Rav 159. </ref># One may say Birkat HaLevana until 15 days after the moladbut, howeveronce outside, on the 16th day one should say it without [[Shem UMalchut]]. Some say that one may only say it until 14¾ days after recite the moladblessing under an overhang. <Ref> Shulchan Aruch 426:3 rules like the opinion of Nehardai in Gemara Sanhedrin 41b who say that one has 15 complete daysSee Responsa Yaskil Avdi (vol. Chazon Ovadia Chanuka p8 no. 349 agrees unlike the opinion of the Rav Poalim38) and Ya'alkut Yosef (Shabbat vol. However5, the Rama 426:3 writes that one may only say pg. 332) for a discussion regarding it up to half of 29 days, 12 hours, and 793 chalakim. Beiur Halacha 's.v. VeLo writes that if one is in such recital under a situation where half of 29 days, 12 hourstree branch, 793 chalakim passed and 15 days have not, there is what to rely on to say the Bracha. Beiur Halacha adds that if it’s the 16th day one should say Mishnah Berura Dirshu (42) regarding it without [[Shem UMalchut]]. Sh”t Yabia Omer 6:38 agrees with the Beiur Halacha that on the 16th day one should say it without [[Shem UMalchut]]'s recital under an umbrella. </ref> A chart of When not feasible, this recommended condition may be waived, provided the time of moon's illumination is visible indoors to the upcoming molads is printed here reciter (see note for calculationeg. through a window or door). <ref>Rambam Bach Orach Chaim 426 with Mishnah Berurah ([[Kiddush]] HaChodesh 6426:321) writes that from . </ref>#It is proper to be clothed with dignity while reciting this blessing, as one Molad (would dress before greeting someone of prominent stature. Some have the astronomical time when the new moon can be seen) custom to another is 29 dayswear special Shabbat garments, 12 hours, and 793 chelakim even while reciting this blessing during an ordinary weekday. <ref>Tractate Sofrim (and there's 1080 chelakim in an hour20)makes reference to the importance of being well dressed during this ritual. The Rambam 6See Hagaos Maimoniyos (Hilchos Berachos 10:8 also writes 16) who relates that his teacher Rabbi Meir of Rothenburg had the time with which to begin custom to calculate the Molads from wear Shabbos clothes before the beginning recital of creation is this blessing, even if he preformed it during the 2nd day, 5 hoursweekday. Pri Chadash Orach Chaim 426:???? brings this, and 204 chelakim. To calculate suggests that we at the Molad of [[Rosh Chodesh]] Tishrei 5773, first let us calculate the number very least be meticulous of months which passed from creation and then add wearing the appropriate time for each monthspecial Shabbos hat. Although there are 12 months in a regular year because there are See Mishnah Berurah (426:7 leap years in a 19 year cycle) however, there is an average of 12.3684 lunar months a year. By Tishrei 5773, 5772 complete years have passed, meaning who observed that 71390 complete months have passed since creation. The chelakim for the molad of Tishrei 5773 should be 1034 (i.e. 204 + (71390 * 793) modulo 1080) which widespread custom is equal to 57 minutes and 8 chelakim. Making similar calculations leads no longer to conclude that the Molad for Tishrei 5773 is 1am (ibe careful in this latter stringency.eSee also Ya'alkut Yosef Shabbat vol. 5+12*71390+(204+71930*793-1034)/1080) mod 24 starting from 6pm) Sunday (i, pg.e. 2+1*71390+(909103-37879)/24 mod 7318). The other months can then be calculated from that starting point by either adding or subtracting the interval for each month (1 day, 12 hours, 793 chelakim. To confirm these calculations, one can check the [http://www.chabad.org/library/article_cdo/aid/216238/jewish/Molad-Times.htm Chabad.org page of Molad times]. </ref>: {|class="wikitable"|Chodesh Tishrei|Sunday September 13, 2015|5:07PM + 9 chalakim|-|Chodesh Cheshvan|Tuesday October 13, 2015|5:51AM + 10 chalakim|}# The strict halacha allows saying birkat halevana on Shabbat and Yom TovSince this ritual involves such great allusion the ultimate convalesce of our nation, but since the kabbalists recommend against it one shouldn't do it unless one is running out of time customary to say itbreak into frolic dance after its completion. <ref>The Rashba Meiri Sanhedrin 42a, Darchei Moshe Orach Chaim 426, Rama Orach Chaim 426:2 further analogizes this ritual in effect to a ceremony of ultimate matrimony between God and the Nation of Israel. (Teshuvot Vehanhagot (responsa 41:48203) quotes someone Rabbi Betzalel Stern who said that it is forbidden to say birkat halevana on Friday night since it is like travelling points out of the techum above ten tefachim. The Rashba doesn't understand that opinion. He argues that there this is no techum above ten tefachim and also it is greeting Hashem and not the moon; therefore, it isn't at all like travelling out of only place we find the techum and is permissible to be recited on ShabbatRama interestingly recommending dancing. The Mishna Brurah 426:12 rules that it is permissible to say kiddush levana on Shabbat and Yom Tov if it is necessary. In the ) See Shaar Hatziyun (Orach Chaim 426:12 he adds a reason ) explains that everyone can agree with; since it we do not recite this blessing on Friday night because this ritual is a mitzvah filled accustomed to be coupled with happiness a person might come to dance and it dancing, which is forbidden to dance on ShabbatShabbos.</ref>
==Where it should be saidWhen It Should Be Said==# Preferably, kiddush levana should be said outside. However, if one is not feeling well or it is dirty outside (to the extent that he would not be able to make a bracha in that place) he can say it inside. <ref> Mishnah Brurah 426:21 </ref># In a situation where he needs to say it inside it is best to open the window or door, but if this too is not possible (e.g. the person finds it too cold) he may say it inside without even opening the window or door (taking into account he is sure that the light he sees is from the moon). <ref> Shaar Hatziyun 426:25 </ref># Although it seems that the custom of many is to make sure to say kiddush levana not standing under anything but the sky, according to the strict halacha it seems that one is permitted to say kiddush levana standing under a tree or a roof, as long as he exited the building. <ref> Rama 426:4 writes that "we do not sanctify the moon under a roof." The Mishnah Brurah 426:21 explains that since sanctifying the moon is like greeting the presence of the Shechinah (Sanhedrin 42a), it is not honorable to stand under a roof, rather we exit from under the roof to the street just like we would to greet a flesh and blood king. However, both the Chazon Ish (Orchot Rabbenu v. 1 p. 178) and Rav Chaim Kanievsky (Ishei Yisrael 40:15) say that the main idea is to leave one's house or shul, but once one has done that he can certainly say kiddush levana under a tree or overhang. </ref>{{MoladVar}}
#According to Ashkenazim, one may recite the Bracha three days after the molad; however, according to Sephardim, in general, one should wait until seven days after the molad.<ref>Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 426:4 writes that one shouldn’t recite Birkat Halevana until seven days have passed from the molad based on the Shaarei Orah. However, the Bach on Orach Chaim 426 rules like the Rabbenu Yonah who says that one may say it after three days. Taz, Orach Chaim 426:3, Magen Avraham 426:13, Aruch HaShulchan, Orach Chaim 426:13, and Mishna Brurah 426:20 agree with the Bach. Sh”t Yabia Omer 6:38(1) rules like Shulchan Aruch but adds that if Motzei [[Shabbat]] is a few hours less than seven days one may say it and in places where majority of the month is cloudy one may say it after three days.</ref> In this context, days are counted as 24 hour periods.<ref>Mishna Brurah 426:17 clarifies that for this halacha days are counted as 24 hour periods and not from sunset to sunset.</ref> It’s proper to wait until Motzei [[Shabbat]] (Saturday night) to recite Birkat Halevana.<ref>Masechet Sofrim 19:10 (in some versions 20:1) writes that one should say Birkat Halevana specifically on Motzei [[Shabbat]]. However, Rabbenu Yonah ([[Brachot]] 21a) quotes some who say this, rejects it, and concludes that one can say it anytime after three days. Bet Yosef Orach Chaim 426:2 writes that probably Rabbenu Yonah didn’t have this girsa in Maasechet Sofrim. Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chaim 426:2 rules that one should recite Birkat Halevana on Motzei [[Shabbat]]; however, the Biur HaGra, Orach Chaim 426:2 cites the Gemara Yevamot 39a which says that we don’t delay performing [[Mitzvot]]. The Mishna Brurah 426:20 rules that it’s proper to wait until Motzei [[Shabbat]], but there is what to rely on to say it earlier. Additionally, in the winter and rainy months, those who are zealous to say it early are praiseworthy. Rama Orach Chaim 426:2 writes that if Motzei [[Shabbat]] is the eleventh night from the molad, one doesn’t have to wait until Motzei [[Shabbat]], because it’s possible it will be cloudy the following four nights.</ref>#During the month of Tishrei, Birkat Halevana isn't recited prior to [[Yom Kippur]]; rather it should be said right after [[Yom Kippur]].<ref>Rama, Orach Chaim 426:2. The Beiur Halacha (s.v. sham d"h v'lo kodem), however, does quote the opinion of the Levush that by Yom Kippur, as opposed to Tisha B'Av, Birkat Halevana ''should'' be said ''before'' Yom Kippur as even one merit (one mitzvah) may tip the scales towards the positive during this period of judgement. He notes that this seems to be the opinion of the Beis Meir as well.</ref>#During the month of Av, most have the minhag not to say [[Kiddush Levana]] prior to [[Tisha BeAv]].<ref>Rama, Orach Chaim 426:2, 551:8</ref> Some say that it shouldn't be said right after [[Tisha BeAv]], but in the next few days.<ref>Rama, Orach Chaim 426:2, Mishna Brurah 426:10. However, Ish Matzliach footnote 3 ad loc. says that the Minhag in most places is to recite it on Motzaei Tisha B'av<br /> *Halichot Shlomo (Tefillah ch. 15, n. 22) records Rav Shlomo Zalman's minhag to recite [[Kiddush Levana]] after three full days even during the months of Tishrei and Av. See Aruch Hashulchan Orach Chaim 551:22 and Maaseh Rav 159.</ref>#One may recite Birkat Halevana until 15 days after the molad, however, on the 16th day one should recite it without [[Shem UMalchut]]. Some say that one may only say it until 14¾ days after the molad.<ref>Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 426:3 rules like the opinion of Nehardai in Gemara Sanhedrin 41b who say that one has 15 complete days. Chazon Ovadia, Chanuka p. 349 agrees, unlike the opinion of the Rav Pe'alim. However, the Rama Orach Chaim 426:3 writes that one may only say it up to half of 29 days, 12 hours, and 793 chalakim. Beiur Halacha s.v. VeLo writes that if one is in such a situation where half of 29 days, 12 hours, 793 chalakim passed and 15 days have not, there is what to rely on to say the Bracha. Beiur Halacha adds that if it’s the 16th day one should say it without [[Shem UMalchut]]. Sh”t Yabia Omer 6:38 agrees with the Beiur Halacha that on the 16th day one should say it without [[Shem UMalchut]]. </ref> A chart of the time of the upcoming molads is printed here (see note for calculation)<ref>Rambam ([[Kiddush]] HaChodesh 6:3) writes that from one Molad (the astronomical time when the new moon can be seen) to another is 29 days, 12 hours, and 793 chelakim (and there's 1080 chelakim in an hour). The Rambam 6:8 also writes that the time with which to begin to calculate the Molads from the beginning of creation is the 2nd day, 5 hours, and 204 chelakim. To calculate the Molad of [[Rosh Chodesh]] Tishrei 5773, first let us calculate the number of months which passed from creation and then add the appropriate time for each month. Although there are 12 months in a regular year because there are 7 leap years in a 19 year cycle, there is an average of 12.3684 lunar months a year. By Tishrei 5773, 5772 complete years have passed, meaning that 71390 complete months have passed since creation. The chelakim for the molad of Tishrei 5773 should be 1034 (i.e. 204 + (71390 * 793) modulo 1080) which is equal to 57 minutes and 8 chelakim. Making similar calculations leads to conclude that the Molad for Tishrei 5773 is 1am (i.e. 5+12*71390+(204+71930*793-1034)/1080) mod 24 starting from 6pm) Sunday (i.e. 2+1*71390+(909103-37879)/24 mod 7). The other months can then be calculated from that starting point by either adding or subtracting the interval for each month (1 day, 12 hours, 793 chelakim. To confirm these calculations, one can check the [http://www.chabad.org/library/article_cdo/aid/216238/jewish/Molad-Times.htm Chabad.org page of Molad times]. For more explanation of Molad calculation and how the calendar works, see David Pahmer, ''Chesbon Zeman Kiddush Levana'' (Ohr HaMizrach 51 1-2, pp. 120, Tishrei 5766) and [https://www.yutorah.org/lectures/lecture.cfm/896300/rabbi-david-pahmer/kiddush-hachodesh/ Kiddush HaChodesh] on YUTorah.</ref>:#The strict halacha allows reciting Birkat Halevana on [[Shabbat]] and [[Yom Tov]], but, since the Kabbalists recommend against it, one shouldn't do it unless one is running out of time to recite the Beracha.<ref>The Rashba (responsa 4:48) quotes someone who said that it is forbidden to say Birkat Halevana on Friday night, since it is like travelling out of the [[Techum]] above ten tefachim. The Rashba doesn't understand that opinion and disagrees. He argues that there is no [[Techum]] above ten tefachim, and, also, it is greeting Hashem and not the moon. Therefore, it isn't at all like travelling out of the [[Techum]] and is permissible to be recited on [[Shabbat]]. The Mishna Brurah 426:12 rules that it is permissible to say Kiddush Levana on [[Shabbat]] and [[Yom Tov]] if it is necessary. In the Shaar Hatziyun 426:12 he adds a reason that everyone can agree with. Since it is a mitzvah filled with happiness, a person might come to dance, which is forbidden on [[Shabbat]].</ref> ==Looking at the moonMoon== # One should look at the moon prior to saying reciting the Bracha. Some hold that one should only look at the moon once and not look at it again, whereas others are lenient to allow looking at it anytime during [[the Seder]] of Birkat HaLevana Halevana except during the Bracha itself. <Refref>* Shulchan Aruch , Orach Chaim 426:2 writes that one should look at the moon prior to making the Bracha. Magen Avraham 426:8 quotes the Shlah who says that one should only look once and then it’s forbidden to look again (for Kabbalistic reasons). Shaarei Knesset HaGedolah 426:5 quotes the Sefer Charedim that one may only look at the moon at the time of the Bracha. [HoweverOn the other hand, the Sefer Charedim 45:5 actually writes that one may not look at the moon just like one may not look at a rainbow (and doesn’t mention anything about the Bracha). Thus, the Birur Halacha (Rabbi Yechiel Zilber, vol 5, pg 121) explains that the Sefer Charedim probably agrees with the Shlah.] * HoweverMorever, Shaarei Knesset HaGedolah writes that the minhag is look at the moon during the entire Seder , and it’s his point supported by the language of Maasechet Sofrim quoted by the Tur and S”AShulchan Aruch. Birur Halacha (vol 5, pg 122) writes that if one is looking at the moon in order to recognize Hashem’s wonders then it’s permissible. * Mishna Brurah 426:13 quotes these three opinions and doesn’t give a ruling. The Aruch HaShulchan , Orach Chaim 426:5 writes that the minhag is like the Shlah. Chida in Yosef Ometz 474 and Moreh Etzbah 6:186, Chesed Alafim 426:4, Kaf HaChaim Palagi 35:4, The Ben Ish Chai (II Vayikra(2) 23), Kaf HaChaim Palagi 35:4, Kaf HaChaim Sofer Orach Chaim 426:34, Mekor Chaim 426:2, Chesed Alafim 426:4, Yosef Ometz 474, Chida in Moreh Etzbah 6:186, Birkat Eitan (Birkat Levana Halevana pg 207), Yalkut Yosef (Birkat Levana Halevana pg 146), and Ateret Paz (Birkat Levana Halevana pg 65) agree. </ref># If one made recited Birkat HaLevana Halevana without looking at the moon but said it as part of the with a tzibbur, one fulfills their his obligation bedievedafter the fact. <ref> Birkat Eitan (Birkat Levana Halevana pg 200), Sefer [[Kiddish]] Levana (2 note 20) in name of Rav Elyashiv, Halichot Shlomo 15:13, Even Yisrael 426:1, Sh"t Shevet HaLevi Y"D 5:125(4) </ref> ==Explanation of the Text== #The text of this blessing, as it appears in the Talmud, reads: Blessed are you God.. Who with his utterance created the heavens.. Who renews the months, etc.<ref>Sanhedrin 42a, Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 426:1 </ref> In this blessing, we express our recognition of God's awesome power over the universe. As such, one should be vigilant to recite this blessing with full intent, devotion, and elation.<ref>Moreh Ba'ezbah 187, Ben Ish Chai (vol. 1, Vayikra 26)</ref> It is customary to also recite additional appropriate texts and passages, the "Shalom Aleichem" greeting <ref>Levush (Orach Chaim 426) explains that this greeting is included after the recital of this blessing, for after having greeted the Divine Presence, we then joyously bless one another. [http://www.hebrewbooks.org/pdfpager.aspx?req=1911&pgnum=105 Rav Yosef Meshash in Mayim Chayim 92] adds another reason. We are asking for Shalom for Klal Yisrael, between the parts of Hashem's name, and that the moon should return to its original completeness.</ref> and, for Ashkenazim, the "Aleinu" prayer<ref>Mishnah Berurah 426. We recite this prayer after our greeting of the moon, to declare that this ritual is not to be interpreted as idolatrous heavenly worship, God forbid. </ref>.#The verse "Just as I dance toward you but cannot touch you, so may none of my enemies be able to touch me for evil" and many that follow in the text are repeated three times in order to give emphasis to these special messages. Upon the recital of this verse, one is to rise on his toes as if in a dance.<ref>Masechet Soferim (19). Dover Shalom (Kiddush Levana) explains that this symbolic exertion to touch the moon is a form of prayer: "Just as we cannot touch the moon, may the exertions of our enemies against us be with no avail". Some write that this rise should specially be of three times, See Yalkut Yosef (426).</ref>#After mankind's first successful Lunar surface landing in July 20, 1969, there were those who felt that this last mentioned verse should now read:"Just as I dance toward you but '''do not''' touch you", most however argued, explaining that, to us here at earth, the moon is classified as 'unable to be touched'.<ref>Israeli Armed Forces’ Chief Chaplain General Rabbi Shlomo Goren's change in the IDF Siddur (pg. 464) also based on text of Masechet Soferim. See, however, Derech Sicha (pg. 629), where Rabbi Chaim Kanievsky explains that even nowadays the moon is deemed 'unable to be touched'. Yalkut Yosef (426:17) writes similarly. </ref>#Some have written that praying "May I be saved from toothaches" after the recital of this last verse "none of my enemies be able to touch me for evil" is auspicious for being saved from toothaches.<ref>Ta'amei Haminhagim (Inyanei Rosh Chodesh) from the Radziner Rebbe. Some versions of the Ya'avetz's Siddur have this addition as well, in brackets, though. Rabbi Chaim Kanievsky in Derech Sicha (p. 144) concurred with the efficacy of this benevolent charm, as well. He relates that his father, Rabbi Ya'akov Yisrael Kanievsky would recite these additional words also on behalf of others who were suffering from toothaches. See also Yalkut Yosef (Shabbat vol. 5, pg. 329).</ref>#As was mentioned above, the phases of the moon are equated to the Davidic dynasty, where we are confident that our nation's "diminished" power will soon end and its light will soon illuminate to fullness. It is therefore the custom to recite the verse "David, King of Israel, is alive and enduring".<ref>Rama Orach Chaim 426 </ref> Some communities then follow the recital of this verse with the recital of the word "Amen", three times. One should take care to pause between each [[Amen]] <ref>*Yerushalmi ([[Megillah]] 4:10) teaches that one may not say [[Amen]] [[Amen]] just as the Sages prohibited the recital of "[[Shema]] [[Shema]]". See Ohel Moed ([[Kriyat Shema]] 1:7) who cites this Yerushalmi and rules accordingly. The Beis Yosef (Orach Chaim 61) however challenges this ruling of the Ohel Moed and questions it with many verses which actually contain the words [[Amen]] one after the other. (See Mor U'ketzia (61) where the Yaavetz proves that this Yershalmi actually is against a Bavli which permits such a recital.)*Pri Chadash (Orach Chaim 61:12) refutes the Beis Yosef's proof: he suggests that those verses are indeed only to be said on condition that pause between the two [[Amen]] words. Kaf Hachaim (Orach Chaim 61:43) and Yabia Omer 10:5 therefore rule that while the recital of Birkat Halevana, a pause should be made between the three "Amen" words.</ref> unless his recital is in private, in which case one is not obligated to pause.<ref>Korban HaEdah (Megillah 4:10) </ref>
==Saying Amen Amen==
# When saying [[Amen]] [[Amen]] [[Amen]] in Birkat HaLevana one should make sure to pause between each [[Amen]] unless one is saying it in private in which case one doesn’t need to pause. <Ref>
* Yerushalmi ([[Megillah]] 4:10) says that one shouldn’t say [[Amen]] [[Amen]] just like one shouldn’t say [[Shema]] [[Shema]]. This is quoted by the Ohel Moed ([[Kriyat Shema]] 1:7). Bet Yosef 61 writes that he doesn’t know what the source of the Ohel Moed is and challenges this because there are pesukim with the words [[Amen]] VeAmen.
* Pri [[Chadash]] 61:12 answers that in the pesukim it’s permitted if one pauses between the two words [[Amen]]. Korban HaEdah ([[Megillah]] 4:10) writes that in a congregation it’s forbidden but the pesukim were said in private and then it’s permitted. Kiseh Eliyahu 61:3 and Yabia Omer 10:5 agree. Yaavetz (Mor UKesiyah 61) argues that the Yershalmi is against the Bavli it is totally permissible to say [[Amen]] [[Amen]].
* Yabia Omer 10:5 concludes that when saying [[Amen]] [[Amen]] [[Amen]] in Birkat Halevana one should pause between each [[Amen]]. This is also the ruling of Kaf HaChaim 61:43. </ref>
==Women==
 # Women According to most authorities this blessing is a [[time-bound commandment]], thus exempting women from obligation of its recital.<ref>Meiri (Sanhedrin 42a) seems to hold that women are exempt obligated in its recital. Rabbi Shlomo Kluger (Chochmas Shlomo 426:1) explains that although this ritual is time-framed it does not fall under the category of time-bound obligations from Birkat HaLevanah. Even though Ashkenazic which women usually are permitted exempt for. He reasons that Birkas Halevana is not attached to volunteer a specific time on the calendar, as most time-bound commandments, rather this ritual which is a "response" to make a bracha natural phenomenon - the moon's renewal - which so happens to be at specific part of the month, and women are therefore obligated. Rabbi Joseph Ber Soloveitchik held this way as well (Nefesh Harav, pg. 176) See Yabia Omer (Orach Chaim 5:36) for more on this topic. Rav Moshe Feinstein (Choshen Mishpat 2:47) however argued that even when they this is considered time-framed as it comes around at a same specific time monthly, and that suffices to consider it a time-bound commandment from which women are exemptfrom. Mishnah Berurah (426:1) considers it so as well. </ref>#When it comes to other time-bound commandments there is a dispute between the Sephardic and Ashkenazic authorities as to whether they may opt-in and recite the blessing if they so wish.<ref>{{Bracha on Mitzvot Aseh Shehazman Grama}}</ref> When it comes to this blessing however, the minhag widespread custom is that they don't say Birkat HaLevanahall women do not in fact recite it. <ref> Sh"t Ateret Paz (vol 4 Chap 10 #37), Magen Avraham Mishnah Berurah 426:1, Sh"t Haelef Licha Shlomo OC 193 </ref> Others argue Some suggest that they women should really recite itattempt to hear the blessing recited by a man who has in mind that the blessing be behalf of them as well.<ref> Rav Soloveitchik Kaf HaChaim (cited in Nefesh Harav pg. 176Orach Chaim 426:1) </ref>
==Blind==
 # Blind men The authorities dispute whether a blind person is obligated in this blessing or not.<ref>Responsa Maharshal (no. 77) explains that this blessing was instituted in recognition of the renewal of the moon, and it, thus, follows that even the blind be obligated. Additionally, even the blind benefit from the moon, for others use its light in escorting them. This is also the opinion of the Mishnah Berurah (426:1). See however Biur Halachah (s.v. nehenin) who cites many who hold that he should not recite this blessing. See Ya'avetz's Siddur (Kiddush Levana) who writes that he should recite birkat halevana even though they cannot see the moonblessing with omitting God's name.</ref> Many suggest that he should listen to another while having in mind to fulfill his obligation. <ref> Mishneh Brura Biur Halachah (426:1 , s.v. nehenin) </ref>  ==Hebrew Text==#Ashkenazic text of Birkat Halevana: [https://he.wikisource.org/wiki/%D7%A1%D7%99%D7%93%D7%95%D7%A8/%D7%A0%D7%95%D7%A1%D7%97_%D7%90%D7%A9%D7%9B%D7%A0%D7%96/%D7%A7%D7%99%D7%93%D7%95%D7%A9_%D7%9C%D7%91%D7%A0%D7%94 Wikisource.org].#Sephardic text of Birkat Halevana: [https://www.sefaria.org/Siddur_Edot_HaMizrach,_Blessing_of_the_Moon Sefaria.org]. 
==Sources==
<references/>
[[Category:Brachot]]
[[Category:Prayer]]

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