==For Personal Use==
# Many poskim hold that it is stealing to copy someone else’s intellectual property or copyrighted material.<ref>Mishnat Yehoshua cites Igrot Moshe 4:40:19, Rav Elyashiv (Mishnat Zchiyot Hayotzer ch. 18, Emek Hamishpat), Teshuvot Vhanhagot 1:829, Netsiv in Meishiv Dvar 24, Minchat Yitzchak 9:153, and Shevet Halevi 10:276 forbid copying copyrighted materials because it is stealing intellectual property. Even though the law isn't enforced and many people copy the copyrighted materials that doesn't permit it since according to these poskim copying intellectual property is stealing which is forbidden even if many others do it. Mishnat Yehoshua p. 154 quotes Rav Asher Weiss as holding that it is stealing to violate a copyright. This is also implied from Rav Shimon Schkop b"k siman 1. This is also the conclusion of Piksei Din of Yerushalayim Mamonot Ubirurei Yuchsin v. 13 p. 293.
* How is it possible for it to be stealing if intellectual property isn’t tangible? Mishnat Yehoshua p. 130-1 suggests two answers. First, the Maharshal responsa 36 writes that one can’t buy something not tangible if it will later become tangible but something that always is non-tangible one can buy. Second, intellectual property is a product of a person’s mind which is tangible and so it is considered something tangible. Rav Asher Weiss (cited by Mishnat Yehoshua p. 154) holds it is possible to own intellectual property since it is a product of a person and it is no different than how a person owns the products of his field. </ref> Accordingly, it is forbidden even for personal use.<ref>Based on this approach Mishnat Yehoshua p. 153-4 writes that it would be forbidden to violate the copyright of a non-Jew since it is stealing. Additionally, it would be forbidden even for personal use. Lastly, it would be forbidden to copy even if it is a derivative source and not the original ones sold.
* Shraga Hameir 4:77 forbids copying even one page even for personal use without permission. Practical Laws of Money p. 122 quotes Rav Elyashiv, Rav Moshe, Rav Zalman Nechemya Goldberg, Mishpat Shlomo 3:10, Rabbi Yehoshua Neuwrith, and Rabbi Benayhu Dayan (Divrei Benayahu 4:35) as holding that it is forbidden to copy copyrighted material even for personal use.</ref> Many other poskim hold that it isn’t actual stealing since intellectual property isn’t something tangible. Rather it is forbidden to commercial violate a copyright but for personal use it would be permitted to copy a small portion of something copyrighted.<ref>
* Shevet Halevi 4:202 allows copying some pages for students. He reasons that it isn’t considered ''yored lumanut chavero'' by copying a few pages for educational purposes where the students were not going to buy all the sefarim anyway. Tzitz Eliezer 18:80, Minchat Tzvi 1:164, Rav Sheinberg (4:287), Rav Ben Zion Bar Shalom (Practical Laws of Money p. 122), and Mishna Halachot agree. Mishnat Yehoshua p. 155 cites Rav Ben Tzion Abba Shaul (Chukat Mishpat) and Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach who also permit copying individual pages for personal use. Mishnat Yehoshua p. 156 agrees with Rav Shlomo Zalman. Rav Meir Mazuz (cited by Practical Laws of Money p. 122) allows copying pages of a book but not a CD.</ref> Within the approach that permits copying for personal use the poskim qualify that it is only permitted to copy small portion such that a person wouldn't have anyway bought the book for that portion. But if copying portions prevents a person from buying the book it is forbidden.<ref>
* [https://www.koltorah.org/halachah/halachah-and-copyright-laws-by-rabbi-chaim-jachter Rabbi Jachter] cites Rav Shlomo Zalman (Nishmat Avraham 4:204-206) held that copying small portions of a book is permitted if one wouldn't have bought the book anyway.
* Similarly, Rabbi Hershel Schachter in a [http://www.yutorah.org/lectures/lecture.cfm/788264/Rabbi_Hershel_Schachter/Copyright_Law shiur on yutorah.org, titled Copyright Law] explained that since intellectual property isn't tangible there's the inventor or author doesn't own it
Biblically. However, there is a rabbinic ownership on it since he did create it similar to someone who plants an ownerless tree is considered an owner rabbinically. If the owner is selling the product then the rabbinic ownership of the intellectual property allows the author the rights to his product and taking them without paying is stealing. However, if the rabbinic ownership doesn't give him exclusive rights to the intellectual property. That is, if he has no intention to sell them then there is no right just to hold onto them. Therefore, if a person is a potential buyer it is forbidden to violate a copyright. However, if the author doesn't have any copies to sell or the person isn't a potential customer the author has no right to restrict him copying the intellectual property for personal use.
* Mishnat Yehoshua p. 157-8 argues that everyone can agree that copying a small portion of a book for a source sheet or the like is permitted since the authors don't care if you do that. Even though the copyrights explicitly state that no portion of the book can be copied that is merely an exxegration because they don't want someone to take advantage and copy a large portion. However, they wouldn't be makpid on a tiny portion. Even if someone is in fact makpid he has knowledge that it is going to happen anyway since it is the universal practice and they wouldn't want to cause others to be sinning. In truth this isn’t agreed upon as the Sharaga Hameir and Practical Laws of Money point out that some forbid copying even one page of a book.</ref>
## There are some poskim who are more inclined to allow copying small selections for personal or educational purposes if the material is Torah.<ref>Mordechai (Bava Metsia n. 293) writes that one may not copy from a sefer torah that one is watching. However, a talmid chacham who doesn’t have another sefer can do so. He suggests two reasons for this: (1) The owner knew that the talmid chacham would copy it if he didn’t have another sefer and he gave it with that understanding. (2) Even if he does care, it is permitted since is for the purpose of learning Torah. This is based on Mishlei 6:35 and Tosefta Bava Kama 7:13.
The Rama 292:20 codifies the Mordechai. The Sama 292:45 sides with the first reason but if the owner didn’t allow it it would be forbidden. This is also implied by the Rama 292:20. The Shach 292:35 and Gra 292:46 stand by both reasons of the Mordechai based on the pasuk in Mishlei 6:30 it is sometimes permitted to “steal” in order to learn.
* Bet Yitzchak YD 2:75 suggests that the reason it is permitted to copy the sefer even against the will of the owner is because of ''kofin al midat sedom''. However, this seems to be contradicted by the poskim who hold that we do not do ''kofin al midat sedom'' to force someone else to allow them to use their property (Rama CM 363:6). See the Rif responsa 34 writes that it is forbidden to copy from a stolen sefer. Rashba responsa 6:286 quotes this. Mishnat Yehoshua p. 132 writes that this isn't a contradiction to the Mordechai since here one stole a tangible item.
* Mishnat Yehoshua p. 132 and Tzitz Eliezer 18:80 apply this Mordechai to the discussion of copying intellectual property of Torah.</ref>