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==When does [[Shabbat]] start?==
 # It is absolutely forbidden to do any Melachah (activities forbidden on [[Shabbat]]) after sunset on Friday. (See footnote for background)<ref>* Shulchan Aruch 261:2 writes that one should accept [[shabbat]] early during the time between [[Shekiyah]] (sunset) and [[Bein HaShemashot]] (twilight) to fulfill the mitzvah of Tofeset [[Shabbat]]. Shulchan Aruch explains that this time period is the length of time it takes to walk 3.25 [[mil]]. Then [[Bein HaShemashot]] (twilight) lasts for a period of 3/4 of a [[mil]] which is followed by [[Tzet HaKochavim]] (emergence of the stars). For this discussion, we're assuming that a [[mil]] is considered 18 minutes like the ruling of Shulchan Aruch 459:2 and Mishna Brurah 459:15. If so, Shulchan Aruch holds that one must accept [[Shabbat]] 13.5 minutes before [[Tzet HaKochavim]] which is 58.5 minutes after [[Shekiyah]]. * However, Mishna Brurah 261:23 quotes many Rishonim and the Gra who hold that between Sheiyah and [[Tzet HaKochavim]] there is a short [[Bein HaShemashot]] of 3/4 of a [[mil]] (13.5 minutes) and afterwards it's considered nighttime Deoraitta. According this opinion the Mishna Brurah writes that one may absolutely stop doing Melacha (activities forbidden on [[Shabbat]]) before [[Shekiyah]]. * Baal Hatanya, Siddur:Seder Kabalat [[Shabbat]], writes that Shkiyah starts approximately 6 minutes after sea-level shkiyah (generally considered shkiyah)and then the 3/4 of a [[mil]] start. However, he holds that a [[mil]] is twenty four minutes so 3/4 of a [[mil]] is 18 minutes. Obviously, this applies to Jerusalem during the spring and fall equinox and would fluctuate accordingly throughout the world and various seasons. See there that in Russia it is approximately 34 minutes after shkiyah.* The 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 1, pg 145) writes that the accepted practice is in accordance with the Gra and so it's strictly forbidden from doing Melacha from the time of [[Shekiyah]]. Yalkut Yosef ([[Shabbat]], vol 1, pg 128) agrees. </ref>
==Tosefet [[Shabbat]] (the mitzvah of accepting [[Shabbat]] early)==
 # It is a mitzvah to accept [[Shabbat]] early and add from the weekdays onto [[Shabbat]]. <ref> Gemara [[Rosh Hashana]] 9a learns from Vayikra 23:32 that there is an obligation to add from the weekday onto [[Yom Kippur]] called Tosefet [[Shabbat]]. The gemara then continues to include all other [[holidays]] and [[Shabbat]] in this halacha. (This also appears in Yoma 81b). Shulchan Aruch 263:2 brings this as halacha. Beiur Halacha 261:2 "yeish omrim" quotes several poskim that believe that tosefet [[shabbat]] is a mitzva from the torah. Included in this is the Or Zarua Hilchot Erev [[Shabbat]] 20 Rambam as well as the Tur however do not mention the idea of Tosefet [[Shabbat]] anywhere. [[Maggid]] Mishneh in Hilchot Shvitat Esor 1:6, is quoted by the Beiur Halacha 261:2 "yeish omrim," as explaining it to be rabbinic according to the Rambam. The Kessef Mishne Hilchot [[Shabbat]] 4:3 says that the Rambam rejects the idea of adding on to [[shabbat]] entirely even midirabanan. </ref> ## The Torah states "Veshameru Beneh Yisrael Et Hashabbat La'asot Et Hashabbat." The Or Hachaim hints to an explanation of "La'asot Et Hashabbat" that describes the halacha of tosefet [[shabbat]]. Therefore, tosefet [[shabbat]] fulfills the obligation of "La'asot Et Hashabbat." <ref> Shemot (31:16) and the Or Hachaim on Shemot (31:16) </ref> This mitzva applies to both men and women. <ref> Kaf Hachayim 261:16. Az Nidberu quotes the Ktav Sofer 56 who agrees. </ref># Some say that it's sufficient to add any amount of time before sunset, while others hold that one should add 20 or 30 minutes to [[Shabbat]]. (See footnote for background) <ref>* How long is Tosefet [[Shabbat]]? Rosh [[Brachot]] 4:6 and Tosafot [[Brachot]] 27a s.v. DeRav agree that one doesn’t have to accept [[Shabbat]] from Plag [[Mincha]] (from ten and three quarter hours). Nonetheless, the Rosh Brachot 4:6 writes that certainly there is a minimum time limit but leaves it unclear as to what the limit is. This is also the opinion of the Tosfot Beitzah 30a s.v. deha. Rabbenu Yonah ([[Brachot]] 18b s.v. Rav) quotes Rabbi Yacov who says that there’s no minimum time and any amount suffices. * Shulchan Aruch 261:2 and 608:1 rules that there's no minimum requirement of time one needs to add to [[Shabbat]] to fulfill Tosefet [[Shabbat]] seeming to follow the opinion of Rabbi Yacov. Tur 509:1 seems also to hold any amount of time suffices. 39 Melachos (vol 1, pg 150) rules like Shulchan Aruch that there's no specific minimum time for Tosefet [[Shabbat]]. 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, Hakdama LeMelachat [[Shabbat]], note 667) quotes Rav Henkin who said that in order not to violate [[Shabbat]] and in order to fulfill Tosefet [[Shabbat]] one must add a few minutes before [[Shekiyah]] refraining from Melacha and agrees with this opinion. Eretz Tzvi 70 and Iggerot Moshe 1:96 suggest that one add at least two minutes, Avnei Nezer 4:98 suggests at least four minutes, while Minchat Elazar 1:23 and Teshuvot Maharshag 38 say at least 5. * However, the Mishna Brurah 261:22 quotes the Rosh who argues that a certain amount of time is needed. Beiur Halacha s.v. Ayzo Zman posits that this period of time should be no longer than 3/4 of a [[mil]] (which is 13.5 minutes). The Mishna Brurah 261:23 concludes that in order to fulfill the mitzvah of Tosefet [[Shabbat]] (adding onto [[Shabbat]]) one should refrain from work from the time that the sun is seen at the top of the trees, or to be strict 30 or 20 minutes before [[Shekiyah]]. [Mishna Brurah (Shaar HaTziyun 261:21) explains that by refraining from melacha 20 minutes before sunset one will have satisfied the opinion of the Yerayim to consider the [[mil]] to be 24 minutes and 3/4 of a [[mil]] is 18 minutes.] 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 1, pg 145) writes that it's not practical to rely upon the method of determining the beginning of [[Shabbat]] by looking at when the sun hits the tree tops but rather one should rely upon times printed on calendars made by halachic experts.* Tosfot Rabbenu Peretz (Beitza 30a s.v. Di'ha) quotes the Ri who says that the minimum amount of time to add for tosefet Shabbat is 30 minutes. Rav Hershel Schachter (Nefesh Harav pg. 154) cites this opinion and adds from Rav Yosef Dov Soloveitchik that this was the practice in Europe to light candles 30 minutes before sunset.</ref>## The minhag of yerushalayim is to add 45 minutes to [[Shabbat]]. However, women don't need to abide by this minhag. <ref> Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata chap 46 note 20. </ref># [[Mincha]] should be scheduled at least 20-25 minutes before sunset so that you can finish before sunset and everybody could fulfill the mitzva. <ref> Shemirat [[Shabbat]] Kihilchita 46:5. </ref> If the [[minyan]] starts late so that it won't be able to accept [[shabbat]] before sunset, one should do it after his silent shmoneh esrei, and still answer [[kedusha]] afterwards. <ref> Rabbi Doniel Neustadt ( writes that one should accept [[shabbat]] early after the silent shemona esreh. He adds that one may still answer [[kedusha]] based on Tzitz Eliezer 10:15(1) and Yabia Omer 6:21(3) who hold that even after one said [[maariv]] on Friday night one is allowed to answer [[kedusha]] of a [[minyan]] saying [[kedusha]] of [[mincha]]. </ref># Some hold that in order to fulfill the mitzvah of adding from the weekday to [[Shabbat]] one doesn't need to make any verbal declaration, while others hold that one should verbally accept [[Shabbat]]. <ref> * Mishna Brurah 261:21 based on Rama 608:3 holds that a verbal declaration is needed and an acceptance in one's heart is insufficient. Shemirat [[Shabbat]] Kihilchita 46:2, Az Nidberu 1:1, Tehilah l'David 263:10, and L'horot Natan 5:15 agree. According to Rabbi Akiva Eiger 271:1 saying good [[shabbos]] may be enough of a declaration.* 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 1, pg 150) writes that no verbal declaration is needed rather once one resolves to accept [[Shabbat]] early [[Shabbat]] takes effect. This dispute may be reflected in a dispute in Mishna Brurah 553:2, who quotes Bach and Gra that it is sufficient. *Rav Doniel Neustadt in quotes Aruch HaShulchan 261:2, Eretz Tzvi 60, Yabia Omer 7:34, Chidushei Ra'ah [[Berachos]] 26b, Beiur Hagra O.C. 393:2 and Chayei Adam 5:2, Shevet ha-Levi 10:50, Imrei Shalom 4:18 as possibly holding that even just refraining from doing any melacha is enough for tosefet [[shabbat]] and you don't even have to have it in mind. </ref>
==Making early [[Shabbat]] (effects of accepting [[Shabbat]] early)==
===Refraining from Melacha===
 # It is forbidden to do any Melacha after one accepted [[Shabbat]]. <ref> Shulchan Aruch 263:10, Mishna Brurah 261:28 </ref>#If there's only one minyan in the community and they accepted Shabbat then the individuals of the community automatically have to accept Shabbat then as well.<ref>Mordechai Bameh Madlikin, Shulchan Aruch O.C. 263:12. See Igrot Moshe O.C. 3:38 who suggests that if the community accepted Shabbat early for convenience such as those shuls which only have early minyanim for the summer it isn't binding on the whole community. He doesn't resolve the issue conclusively.</ref># If one accepted [[Shabbat]] early and most of the community didn't accept [[Shabbat]] it is permitted to ask a Jew who didn't accept to do a Melacha for him. <ref>Shulchan Aruch 263:17, Mishna Brurah 263:64 </ref># If it's necessary to do a Melacha and it's still early in the day before sunset, some say that may perform a Heiter Nederim, [[nullification]] of one's vow to accept [[Shabbat]] before 3 people, while others hold that the annulment isn't effective. <ref>Taz 263:3 and Levush hold that one may do Hatarat Nedarim to annul one's early acceptance of [[Shabbat]], while the Magen Avraham 263:31, Aruch HaShulchan 263:25, Mishna Brurah 263:5 hold that this annulment will not be effective to permit one to do Melacha. See Igrot Moshe 2:38 </ref># If someone made a mistake on Friday afternoon and prayed [[Arvit]] thinking that it was nighttime one has not fulfilled one’s obligation and would have to pray again. One would be permissible to do Melacha (activity forbidden on [[Shabbat]]) until one prays again, while others forbid. However, if a community made such a mistake they would not have to repeat [[Shmoneh Esrei]]. According to many one is permissible to do Melacha until one prays again while other to some it’s forbidden to do Melacha. <Refref>Gemara [[Brachot]] 27b writes that on Friday afternoon someone who made a mistake and said [[Arvit]] early thinking it was nighttime according to Abaye he would have to pray again and it would be permissible to do Melacha. However, if it’s a community who made such a mistake Rebbe said that they do not have to repeat [[Shmoneh Esrei]] because of Tirech DeTzibbur. The Rosh 4:6, Tur, and S”A 263:14 rule that it’s permissible to do Melacha until they pray again, while the Magen Avraham 263:26 quotes many Rishonim (Or Zaruha, Rokeach, Raavan) who are strict and forbid Melacha since they don’t have to pray again. </ref> 
===Saying Arvit/Mariv early===
 # One may say [[Arvit]] earlier than the rest of the week even if one normally prays [[Mincha]] after Plag [[Mincha]] and [[Arvit]] after nighttime. Many authorities hold that if one is going to pray [[Arvit]] before nighttime that one should make sure to pray [[Mincha]] before Plag [[Mincha]] even if one will pray privately, while some defend those who are lenient in a [[minyan]] to pray both [[Mincha]] and [[Arvit]] after Plag [[Mincha]] before nighttime. <ref>* The Mishna ([[Brachot]] 26a) writes that according to Rabbi Yehuda one must pray [[Mincha]] prior to ten and three quarter hours while according to Rabbanan [[Mincha]] may be said until nighttime. According to Rabbi Yehuda the earliest time to say [[Mariv]] is ten and three quarter hours while according to Rabbanan the earliest time is nighttime.* Many Rishonim (Tosfot ([[Brachot]] 2a s.v. MeMaymatai), Rabbenu Yonah ([[Brachot]] 18b s.v. DeAved), Rosh ([[Brachot]] 4:3), Kesef Mishna ([[Tefillah]] 3:4), S”A 233:1) write that one must be consistent to either always follow Rabbi Yehuda or Rabbanan. * In fact, the Tur 293 quotes the Ritz Gayit who argues that since the minhag is to pray [[Mincha]] during the week after Plag [[Mincha]], on Friday night as well one may not pray early. [Similarly, Gemara [[Brachot]] 27a-b records the practice of Rav to pray [[Arvit]] early on Friday afternoon. Tosfot ([[Brachot]] 27a s.v. DeRav) understands that Rav held like Rabbi Yehuda that the latest [[time for Mincha]] is Plag [[Mincha]] (ten and three quarter hours) and the earliest time for [[Arvit]] is also Plag [[Mincha]].]* However, the Bet Yosef 267:2 argues based on the Rambam ([[Tefillah]] 3:7) and Rosh ([[Brachot]] 4:6) who simply codify the halacha of praying [[Arvit]] early on Friday that one is permitted to pray [[Arvit]] early even if one doesn’t do so during the week. [The same implication could be made from the Tur 267:1.] S”A codifies this as halacha that one is permitted to pray [[Arvit]] earlier than one does during the week. * [Magen Avraham 267:1 at first questions this ruling of S”A because the Gemara [[Brachot]] 27a seems to assign Rav to the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda meaning that one may only pray early on Friday night if one always follows Rabbi Yehuda. He adds that this is also implied from Kesef Mishna ([[Tefillah]] 3:7) who says that Friday night has the same status as the rest of the week. However, the Magen Avraham answers that the Gemara only meant to assign Rav to Rabbi Yehuda’s opinion in the initial discussion but in conclusion the Gemara reinterpreted the story of Rav to mean that one may pray [[Arvit]] earlier than one does during the week. Additionally he explains that [[Arvit]] was instituted corresponding to the limbs and fats burned at night, however, on Friday night the limbs and fats were not burnt after nightfall. Mishna Brurah 267:3 adds that the ruling of S”A is based on those who say that accepting [[Shabbat]] makes it considered as if it was night regarding [[prayer]].] * Nonetheless, the Mishna Brurah 267:3 writes that if one follows Rabbi Yehuda on Friday night (and prays [[Arvit]] early) one should make sure to say [[Mincha]] before Plag [[Mincha]] (ten and three quarter hours) so that one doesn’t contradict oneself within one night. The Beiur Halacha (267:2 s.v. VeBePlag) writes that even though there is a lenient opinion which permits a [[minyan]] to pray both [[Mincha]] and [[Arvit]] between Plag [[Mincha]] and nighttime, since the minhag isn’t to rely on this opinion during the week because this opinion isn’t supported by the Gemara on Friday night as well one shouldn’t rely on this opinion. The Mishna Brurah 267:3 writes that the only time to rely on this lenient opinion is in a need of great need and if one prays [[Arvit]] during the time of [[Bein HaShemashot]]. Yalkut Yosef ([[Shabbat]], vol 1, pg 204-5) writes that one shouldn't contradict oneself to pray [[Mincha]] after plag [[Mincha]] and [[Mariv/Arvit|Arvit]] before nighttime. Nonetheless, Menuchat Ahava (vol 1, chap 6, note 6) writes that it is completely permitted but the minhag is to pray [[Mariv/Arvit|Arvit]] after nightfall. * [ Rabbi Aryeh Lebowitz] quotes Rav Soleveitchik who held like the Mishna Brurah and concluded that one should pray [[Mincha]] privately without a [[minyan]] before Plag [[Mincha]] so as not to contradict oneself. He also writes that in order to avoid issues of Yuhara (appearing religiously arrogant) one should go to [[Mincha]] when the [[minyan]] is praying and pretend to pray along with them. see Nefesh Harav pg. 157-158 where Rav Hershel Schachter writes that Rav Soloveitchik would not daven Maariv after Plag Hamincha even if it was on Friday Afternoon for Tosefet Shabbat. * Rav Simcha Bunim Cohen (The Aura of Shabbos p. 268) quotes Rav Elyashiv as saying that if someone has small children and will have to have the Shabbat meal early, it is preferable to eat the Shabbat meal after mincha before maariv and daven maariv after sunset rather than daven maariv before sunset. His reasoning was that it is problematic to daven maariv early in Israel since the minhag is to daven after sunset. Also, davening early involves saying Kriyat Shema before sunset. </ref># Only after ten and three quarter hours (Plag [[Mincha]]) one may light [[Shabbat]] candles, and then accept [[Shabbat]] with saying [[Arvit]]. <Refref>S”A 267:2  * Gemara [[Shabbat]] 118b quotes Rabbi Yose who prayed to have his portion among the people of Teveriyah who accepted [[Shabbat]] early. Rashi (D”H MeMachnisei) explains that since Teveriyah was in a valley and the sun appeared to set earlier the people would accept [[Shabbat]] early. Additionally, in Gemara Pesachim 105b Rav Nachman Bar Yitchak says that going into [[Shabbat]] the earlier one accepts [[Shabbat]] the better. Rashbam (D”H Ayulei) explains that it’s preferable because one is showing a love for the mitzvah to do it early and Zarizin Makdimin LeMitzvot (the enthusiastic are eager to do מצות early). * How early can one accept [[Shabbat]] and light candles? Gemara [[Brachot]] 27a-b records the practice of Rav to pray [[Arvit]] early on Friday afternoon. Tosfot ([[Brachot]] 27a s.v. DeRav) understands that this practice of accepting [[Shabbat]] early and lighting [[Shabbat]] candles early is only permitted starting from Plag [[Mincha]] (ten and three quarter hours). Rabbenu Yonah ([[Brachot]] 18b s.v. Rav Tzali), Mordechai ([[Brachot]] Siman 90), and Rosh ([[Brachot]] 4:6) agree. [This is how the Bet Yosef 263:4 and 267:2 understands the above Rishonim.]* How early can one say Shema? The Rabbenu Yonah (18b s.v. Rav Tzali) and Rosh ([[Brachot]] 4:6) add that one who prays [[Arvit]] early should only say [[Shmoneh Esrei]] early and say [[Brachot]] Shema and Shema after [[Tzet HaKochavim]]. Even though one is losing out on juxtaposing Shema to [[Shmoneh Esrei]] it’s preferable to accept [[Shabbat]] early because of the mitzvah to add from the week onto [[Shabbat]]. The Rambam ([[Tefillah]] 3:7) agrees that it’s an issue to separate Shema from [[Shmoneh Esrei]] against the Raavad. * The S”A 235:1 concludes that even though the halacha accepts the opinions that one doesn’t fulfill Shema before [[Tzet HaKochavim]] if one is praying in a [[minyan]] which is praying [[Arvit]] before [[Tzet HaKochavim]] one should still pray Shema with the [[Brachot]] together with the [[minyan]] and repeat Shema after [[Tzet HaKochavim]]. (See further discussion there). </ref> Acceptance of [[Shabbat]] before that time is null and void. <Refref>Mishna Brurah 267:4 </ref>
===Saying [[Kiddush]] after making early Shabbat===
 # One is permitted to do [[Kiddish]] and the [[Friday night meal]] before nightfall, however it's preferable to have at least a [[Kezayit]] of food after nightfall. <ref> Bach 473 writes that one can't have the [[Shabbat]] meal before nightfall. However, Taz argues and permits having a meal before nightfall. Chaye Adam ([[Shabbat]] 6:2) and Mishna Brurah 267:5 rule that one can have one's meal early but one should preferably have a [[Kezayit]] of food after nightfall to satisfy the opinion of the Bach. </ref># If one accepted [[Shabbat]] early one may say [[Kiddush]] <Refref> In Gemara [[Brachot]] 27b Shmuel says that if one accepted [[Shabbat]] early one may make [[Kiddish]] early (before nighttime). This is brought as halacha by the Rif ([[Brachot]] 18b, on the bottom), Rosh ([[Brachot]] 4:6, at the end), and Rambam ([[Shabbat]] 29:11). The S”A 267:2 writes that one may even before nighttime implying that one may make [[Kiddish]] early. The Mishna Brurah 267:5 writes explicitly that one may make [[Kiddish]] before nighttime.  * [The Mishna Brurah 267:5 writes the reason one may make [[Kiddish]] before nightfall is because the acceptance of [[Shabbat]] early makes it considered as if it was already [[Shabbat]]. See Yalkut Yosef ([[Shabbat]] vol 1 pg 201-4) who discusses how the Rambam could hold of this considering that he omits the entire idea of Tosefet [[Shabbat]] (accepting [[Shabbat]] early).] </ref> and eat the [[Friday night meal]] before nighttime. However, some argue that one doesn’t fulfill one’s obligation before nighttime and so some say one shouldn’t start one’s meal until [[Tzet HaKochavim]] and some say that one should eat at least a [[Kezayit]] of bread after nightfall. <Refref>The Bet Yosef 267:2 quotes the Mahari Avuhav who infers from the Rosh who says that one should wait to have [[Matza]] on [[Pesach]] after nightfall that on a regular [[Shabbat]] one could fulfill one’s obligation of the [[Shabbat]] meal before nighttime. The Magen Avraham 267:1 (at the end) agrees that from many Rishonim it’s implied that one who makes early [[Shabbat]] may have one’s meal early, however, the Shelah and Bach say that one must have at least a [[Kezayit]] of bread after [[Tzet HaKochavim]]. Mishna Brurah 267:5 rules that preferably one should be concerned for the strict opinions to have at least a [[Kezayit]] of bread after nightfall. Yalkut Yosef ([[Shabbat]] vol 1 pg 201-4) agrees that preferably one should be concerned for the strict opinions one’s entire meal after nightfall. </ref>#Some poskim permit saying [[Kiddush]] and eating the meal before [[Mariv/Arvit|Arvit]] as long as the meal begins a half hour before [[Tzet HaKochavim]] <ref> Mishna Brurah 271:11 quoting the Magen Avraham,</ref> while others say that it isn't proper. <ref> Kaf Hachayim 271:22 and 272:3 says that it is not proper to do these mitzvot out of sequence. The Gra in Maasei Rav 117 also says that it is forbidden for more than just kabbalistic reasons. </ref> 
===Starting one's meal after making early Shabbat===
 # If one prayed [[Arvit]] if there’s more than a half hour before [[Tzet HaKochavim]] one may begin one’s meal, however, if there’s less than a half hour one shouldn’t begin one’s meal, however, those who do have what to rely on. Whether or not one began one’s [[Shabbat]] meal early one should make sure to repeat Shema after [[Tzet HaKochavim]].<ref> * The Bet Yosef 267:2 asks that even if one is permitted to have one’s [[Shabbat]] meal before nighttime how could it permitted to eat before saying Shema. The Bet Yosef answers that even though we hold that one doesn’t fulfill Shema until [[Tzet HaKochavim]] since many opinions hold that one may fulfill saying Shema earlier it’s not considered like eating before having said Shema. * The Magen Avraham 267:2 argues on the Bet Yosef and says that since one didn’t fulfill Shema one may begin one’s meal within a half hour of [[Tzet HaKochavim]]. * Mishna Brurah 267:6 rules that if there’s less than a half hour before [[Tzet HaKochavim]] one shouldn’t begin one’s meal because according to many opinions one hasn’t fulfilled one’s obligation of Shema, however, those who do begin the meal at that time have what to rely on. Nonetheless, concludes Mishna Brurah, whether or not one eats one’s meal early one must make sure to repeat Shema after [[Tzet HaKochavim]]. Yalkut Yosef ([[Shabbat]] vol 1 pg 201-4) agrees that one should make sure to start one’s meal before a half hour before [[Tzet HaKochavim]]. </ref> 
===Praying Mincha after accepting Shabbat===
 # Once one accepts [[Shabbat]] one may not pray [[Mincha]] of Friday but rather one must pray [[Mariv]] twice (for [[Tashlumin]]). <ref>Shulchan Aruch 263:15. Avnei Yashfei 1:56 quotes Rav Yosef Shalom Elyashiv as saying that if one didn't actively accept [[shabbat]] you can still daven [[Mincha]] afterwards because you haven't officially taken on [[shabbat]]. </ref># If one arrived in Shul which was up to [[Barchu]] of [[Mariv]] on Friday night and one still didn't pray [[mincha]], one should say [[Mincha]] in a different shul or outside that Shul but not answer Brachu before saying [[Mincha]]. <ref>Shulchan Aruch 263:15, Mishna Brurah 263:58 </ref># If the Tzibur did not yet reach [[Barchu]] one may pray [[Mincha]] in the shul even if they will reach [[Barchu]] while one is still saying [[Mincha]], nonetheless it's preferable to say it outside the Shul (if the Tzibbur will reach [[Barchu]] while one is still saying [[Mincha]]). <ref>Shulchan Aruch 263:16, Mishna Brurah 263:63 </ref> 
==Ending Shabbat Late==
 # Just like there's a mitzvah to start Shabbat early there's a mitzvah to end Shabbat late.# For those who keep Shabbat until 42 minutes after Shekiya it is permissible to daven maariv after 30 minutes after shekiya so that you can finish maariv and be ready for Havdalah at 42 minutes after Shekiya.<ref>Mpenini Harav p. 88 writes that in Boston Rav Soloveitchik allowed maariv to start 30 minutes after Shekiya even though they didn't recite Havdalah until 42 minutes after Shekiya after maariv. Additionally, he personally didn't do melacha for 90 minutes after Shekiya. See Mpeninei Harav p. 92 writes that based on Tosfot Brachot 27b s.v. rav it sounds like you can't do tosefet Shabbat after you do havdalah.</ref>

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