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## According to Sephardim, regarding Deoritta laws (including [[Kriyat Shema]]) one should be strict for the opinion of the Magen Avraham. <ref> In conclusion, Minchat Cohen (Mevoh Hashemesh 2:9), Erech HaShulchan 433, Halichot Olam (vol 1, Vaera 3), and Yalkut Yosef (vol 1, pg 98) write that one should be strict for the opinion of the Magen Avraham for Deoritta issues, for example [[Kriyat Shema]]. </ref>
## Among Ashkenazim, some are strict to hold like the Magen Avraham, unless there is an serious need, in which case one may hold like the Gra. <ref>Rabbi Yechiel Michel Tukachinsky in Sefer Eretz Yisrael (pg 18#3) writes that the minhag of [[Israel]] is to follow the magen avraham and only under pressure may one rely on the Gra.</ref>However, some are lenient to rely on the Gra. <ref>[http://www.yutorah.org/lectures/lecture.cfm/728553/Rabbi_Hershel_Schachter/Shiur_on_Zmanim_in_Halacha Rav Hershel Schachter on yutorah.org] (min 77-79) says that many follow the opinion of the Gra in calculating the time for Sof [[Kriyat Shema]]. </ref>
===Alot Olot HaShachar===
# Many rishonim hold that [[Olot HaShachar]] is 72 minutes before sunrise on a "perfect day" (when sunrise and sunset are exactly 12 hours apart) in Jerusalem which is equivalent to when the sun is 16 degrees below the horizon for everywhere in the world, however, others hold that [[Olot HaShachar]] is 90 minutes on a perfect day which is 19.78 degrees below the horizon. <ref>
* The Rosh (Brachot 4:1) writes that Olot for the korban tamid and Shacharit is after the rays of the sun begin to show and also the Eastern part of the sky began to become light. This is also the opinion of the Rabbenu Yerucham cited by Bet Yosef 89:1. Shulchan Aruch 89:1 codifies their opinion. Magen Avraham 89:3 argues that many rishonim hold that Olot is once the rays of the sun begin to show even though the Eastern part of the sky isn't light. Torat Yoma 28a siman 11 writes that the Rambam Pirush Mishnayot Yoma 3:1 and Ritva Yoma 28a hold like the Rosh and Rabbenu Yerucham, while Rashi sides with the Magen Avraham. Practically, the Mishna Brurah (Biur Halacha 89:1 s.v. v'im) writes that one shouldn't be lenient for the Magen Avraham as the Eliya Rabba, Mateh Yehuda, and Gra argue with the Magen Avraham. Therefore, Olot is once the rays of the sun began to show and also the Eastern part of the sky became light.* Sefer Zmanim KeHilchatam (Rabbi Berstein, pg 347) writes that 72 minutes on a perfect day in Jerusalem is equal to when the sun is 16 degrees below the horizon and 90 minutes is equal to 19.78 degrees below the horizon. He personally rules that one should be strict for both of these opinions for Deoritta halachas and those derabbanan halachas where safek is lechumra. He tries to prove that this is the opinion of the Mishna Brurah (92:3, Beiur Halacha 163:1 s.v. Berachok). However, he totally rejects the opinion that [[Olot HaShachar]] is 120 minutes before sunrise. [It is noteworthy that astronomical dawn is the time when the Sun is at 18 degrees below the horizon and before then the sky is absolutely dark ([timeanddate.com https://www.timeanddate.com/astronomy/different-types-twilight.html]).]
* He also quotes Rabbi Tukachinsky who held like the opinion of 90 minutes.
* [http://www.yutorah.org/lectures/lecture.cfm/728553/Rabbi_Hershel_Schachter/Shiur_on_Zmanim_in_Halacha Rav Hershel Schachter on yutorah.org] (min 65-7) says that we assume that [[Olot HaShachar]] depends on degrees below horizon and the specific times vary according to one’s location. Similarly, [http://www.ou.org/webcast_kosher Rav Yisrael Belsky] (OU Kosher Webcast, 2011, min 19-21) mentioned in passing that [[Olot HaShachar]] is assumed to be 72 minutes before sunrise, varying according to the longitude and latitude. </ref>

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