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* [http://www.yutorah.org/lectures/lecture.cfm/728553/Rabbi_Hershel_Schachter/Shiur_on_Zmanim_in_Halacha Rav Hershel Schachter on yutorah.org] (min 68-70) says that Rav Moshe held [[MeSheYakir]] is between 35-40 minutes before sunrise and seems to agree with him, although he mentions that some say it’s 55 minutes before sunrise.</ref>
===HaNetz HaChama (Sunrise)===
# [[HaNetz HaChama]] is sunrise which, in general, is halachically the same as the astronomical calculation of sunrise.<ref>* [http://www.yutorah.org/lectures/lecture.cfm/728553/Rabbi_Hershel_Schachter/Shiur_on_Zmanim_in_Halacha Rav Hershel Schachter on yutorah.org] (min 69-72) says that sunrise is the same as the sunrise calculated by the naval observatory which is when the sun begins to rise. Halacha Brurah 58:7 proves that netz is astronomical sunrise when the upper edge of the sun is on the horizon as opposed to the opinion of the Divrei Dovid 36 and Ben Ish Chai Vayishlach no. 4 that it is 2.6 minutes earlier. * [http://www.yutorah.org/lectures/lecture.cfm/728553/Rabbi_Hershel_Schachter/Shiur_on_Zmanim_in_Halacha Rav Hershel Schachter on yutorah.org] (min 72-77) says that sunset should be determined as though the mountains to the east and west are at sea level and do not block the visibility of the sun. However, the elevation of the place one is currently located is taken into consideration and if one is in a valley the sunset is a little later (less than 5 minutes) than what would have been visible. Yet, he adds, that most opinions hold that regarding sunrise both one’s location’s elevation and surrounding mountains are taken into consideration. </ref>This is the standard time printed for netz such as on myzmanim.com. 
===Chatzot===
# [[Chatzot]] is midday and midnight, always separated by 12 hours.<ref>Mishna Brurah 1:9 writes that [[chatzot]] at night is always 12 hours after [[chatzot]] of day for any place in the world.</ref>

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