==Tosefet [[Shabbat]] (the mitzvah of accepting [[Shabbat]] early)==
# It is a mitzvah to accept [[Shabbat]] early and add from the weekdays onto [[Shabbat]]. <ref> Gemara [[Rosh Hashana]] 9a learns from Vayikra 23:32 that there is an obligation to add from the weekday onto [[Yom Kippur]] called Tosefet [[Shabbat]]. The gemara then continues to include all other [[holidays]] and [[Shabbat]] in this halacha. (This also appears in Yoma 81b). Shulchan Aruch 263:2 brings this as halacha. Beiur Halacha 261:2 "yeish omrim" quotes several poskim that believe that tosefet [[shabbat]] is a mitzva from the torah. Included in this is the Or Zarua Hilchot Erev [[Shabbat]] 20 Rambam as well as the Tur however do not mention the idea of Tosefet [[Shabbat]] anywhere. [[Maggid]] Mishneh in Hilchot Shvitat Esor 1:6, is quoted by the Beiur Halacha 261:2 "yeish omrim," as explaining it to be rabbinic according to the Rambam. The Kessef Mishne Hilchot [[Shabbat]] 4:3 says that the Rambam rejects the idea of adding on to [[shabbat]] entirely even midirabanan. </ref> The Torah states "Veshameru Beneh Yisrael Et Hashabbat La'asot Et Hashabbat." The Or Hachaim hints to an explanation of "La'asot Et Hashabbat" that describes the halacha of tosefet [[shabbat]]. Therefore, tosefet [[shabbat]] fulfills the obligation of "La'asot Et Hashabbat." <ref> Shemot (31:16) and the Or Hachaim on Shemot (31:16) </ref> This mitzva
appllies to both men and women. <ref> Kaf Hachayim 261:16. Az Nidberu quotes the Ktav Sofer 56 who agrees. </ref>
# [[Mincha]] should be scheduled at least 20-25 minutes before sunset so that you can finish before sunset and everybody could fulfill the mitzva. <ref> Shemirat [[Shabbat]] Kihilchita 46:5. </ref> If the [[minyan]] starts late so that it won't be able to accept [[shabbat]] before sunset, one should do it after his silent shmoneh esrei, and still answer [[kedusha]] afterwards. <ref> Rabbi Doniel Neustadt (http://www.torah.org/advanced/weekly-halacha/5762/lechlecha.html) writes that one should accept [[shabbat]] early after the silent shemona esreh. He adds that one may still answer [[kedusha]] based on Tzitz Eliezer 10:15(1) and Yabia Omer 6:21(3) who hold that even after one said [[maariv]] on Friday night one is allowed to answer [[kedusha]] of a [[minyan]] saying [[kedusha]] of [[mincha]]. </ref>
# Some hold that in order to fulfill the mitzvah of adding from the weekday to [[Shabbat]] one doesn't need to make any verbal declaration, while others hold that one should verbally accept [[Shabbat]]. <ref>
* Mishna Brurah 261:21 based on Rama 608:3 holds that a verbal declaration is needed and a acceptance in one's heart isn't sufficient. Shemirat [[Shabbat]] Kihilchita 46:2, Az Nidberu 1:1, Tehilah l'David 263:10. According to Rabbi Akiva Eiger 271:1 saying good [[shabbos]] may be enough of a declaration.
* 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 1, pg 150) writes that no verbal declaration is needed rather once one resolves to accept [[Shabbat]] early [[Shabbat]] takes effect. This dispute may be reflected in a dispute in Mishna Brurah 553:2, who quotes Bach and Gra that it is sufficient.
*Rav Doniel Neustadt in http://www.torah.org/advanced/weekly-halacha/5762/lechlecha.html quotes Aruch
ha-Shulchan 261:2, Eretz Tzvi 60, Yabia Omer 7:34, Chidushei Ra'ah [[Berachos]] 26b, Beiur ha-Gr"a O.C. 393:2 and Chayei Adam 5:2, Shevet ha-Levi 10:50, Imrei Shalom 4:18 as possibly holding that even just refraining from doing any melacha is enough for tosefet [[shabbat]] and you don't even have to have it in mind . </ref> # Some say that it's sufficient to add any amount of time before sunset, while others hold that one should add 20 or 30 minutes to [[Shabbat]]. (See footnote for background) <ref> * How long is Tosefet [[Shabbat]]? Rosh [[Brachot]] 4:6 and Tosafot [[Brachot]] 27a s.v. DeRav agree that one doesn’t have to accept [[Shabbat]] from Plag [[Mincha]] (from ten and three quarter hours). Nonetheless, the Rosh 4:6 writes that certainly there is a minimum time limit but leaves it unclear as to what the limit is. Rabbenu Yonah ([[Brachot]] 18b s.v. Rav) quotes Rabbi Yacov who says that there’s no minimum time and any amount suffices. * Shulchan Aruch 261:2 and 608:1 rules that there's no minimum requirement of time one needs to add to [[Shabbat]] to fulfill Tosefet [[Shabbat]]. 39 Melachos (vol 1, pg 150) rules like Shulchan Aruch that there's no specific minimum time for Tosefet [[Shabbat]]. 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, Hakdama LeMelachat [[Shabbat]], note 667) quotes Rav Henkin who said that in order not to violate [[Shabbat]] and in order to fulfill Tosefet [[Shabbat]] one must add a few minutes before [[Shekiyah]] refraining from Melacha and agrees with this opinion. Eretz Tzvi 70 and Iggerot Moshe 1:96 suggest that one add at least two minutes, Avnei Nezer 4:98 suggests at least four minutes, while Minchat Elazar 1:23 and Teshuvot Maharshag 38 say at least 5. * However, the Mishna Brurah 261:22 quotes the Rosh who argues that a certain amount of time is needed. Beiur Halacha s.v. Ayzo Zman posits that this period of time should be no longer than 3/4 of a [[mil]] (which is 13.5 minutes). The Mishna Brurah 261:23 concludes that in order to fulfill the mitzvah of Tosefet [[Shabbat]] (adding onto [[Shabbat]]) one should refrain from work from the time that the sun is seen at the top of the trees, or to be strict 30 or 20 minutes before [[Shekiyah]]. [Mishna Brurah (Shaar HaTziyun 261:21) explains that by refraining from melacha 20 minutes before sunset one will have satisfied the opinion of the Yerayim to consider the [[mil]] to be 24 minutes and 3/4 of a [[mil]] is 18 minutes.] 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 1, pg 145) writes that it's not practical to rely upon the method of determining the beginning of [[Shabbat]] by looking at when the sun hits the tree tops but rather one should rely upon times printed on calendars made by halachic experts. * Rav Hershel Schachter (Nefesh Harav pg. 154) quotes Rabbenu Peretz (Beitza 30a d"h Di'ha) that the minimum is 30 minutes, and adds from Rav Yosef Dov Soloveitchik that this was the practice in Europe to light candles 30 minutes before sunset. </ref> # The minhag of yerushalayim is to add 45 minutes to [[Shabbat]]. However, women don't need to abide by this minhag. <ref> Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata chap 46 note 20. </ref>
==Making early [[Shabbat]] (effects of accepting [[Shabbat]] early)==