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# If one concluded with “Yotzer HaMeorot” but started the bracha of Yotzer with “Baruch atta Hashem…Asher Bidvaro [[Mariv]] Aravim” (the words usually said by [[Brachot]] Shema of [[Arvit]]), there’s a dispute whether one fulfills his obligation and so one shouldn’t repeat the bracha ([[Safek Brachot LeHakel]]). <Ref> See previous note. Bet Yosef gives two explanations in the Tur. The first explanation (which is the opinion of the Rosh [[Brachot]] 1:14), is that one needs both the beginning and conclusion of the Bracha to mention Yotzer Or to fulfill one’s obligation. S”A 59:2 (along with Rama’s comment) rules that if one didn’t say the beginning of the Bracha and the conclusion correctly one doesn’t fulfill his obligation and so he must repeat. This is also the opinion of the Prisha 59:3. Derisha 59:1, Levush 59:2, Bach 59, Hagahot Maralach 59:1, Taz 59:1, Magen Avraham 59:1, Chemed Moshe 59:1, Mamer Mordechai 59:4, Shulchan Aruch HaRav 59:1, and Kaf HaChaim 59:15. The second explanation is that as long as the conclusion is correct one fulfills his obligation. The Bet Yosef says that this is also the opinion of the Rashba (Brachot 12a) in name of Rashi. So holds the Gra 59:4, and Erech Lechem 59. Halacha Brurah says that this is also the opinion of the Rambam (according to Talmedei Rabbenu Yonah 6a, Rabbenu Manoach, and Sefer HaBatim against the Kesef Mishna’s understanding of the Rambam), Rif (according to Hashlama, Sefer Meorot (Brachot 12a), and Rashbetz against the implication that the Rosh and Bet Yosef didn’t quote the Rif), the Rivavan Rid, Nemukei Yosef and Meiri in name of Yesh Omrim. Mishna Brurah (Biur Halacha D”H VeLo Amar) adds that this is the opinion of Ramban (who was explaining the Yerushalmi [[Brachot]] 1:4). Therefore, Halacha Brurah and Ish Matzliach on Mishna Brurah conclude because of a [[Safek Brachot LeHakel]] even against S”A (based on the opinion of the Chida in Sh”t Chaim Shoel 2:248) and so we don’t repeat the bracha. </ref>
# If one concluded “Yotzer HaMeorot” and said the words “Yotzer Or” in the beginning of the Bracha (even not within Toch Kedei Dibur of the phrase “Bidvaro Mariv Aravim”) one fulfills his obligation. <Ref> S”A 59:2 says it counts as a mentioning of the beginning is one remembers “Meyad”(immediately). Bach 59, Perisha 59:3, Pri Chadash 59:2 say that if one forgot to mention in the first phrase “Asher Bidvaro Mariv Aravim” and remembers immediately meaning within Toche Kadei Dibbur it’s considered as mentioning it in the beginning. If only remembers later on it doesn’t count as a mentioning in the beginning. So explains the Pri Megadim (M”Z 59:1) the words of S”A. However, Mamer Mordechai 59:4, Mishna Brurah (Biur Halacha s.v. Venizkar Meyad), Shalmei Tzibbur 90a, Kaf HaChaim 59:16, and Halacha Brurah 59:7 explain that S”A used the word “Meyad” as the usual case as it seems from Bet Yosef and so one only needs to remember anytime before the bracha at the conclusion. </ref>
# If one needs to repeat the bracha of Yotzer Or (because of a mistake) it should be said immediately. However if one didn’t realize the mistake until after the next bracha of Ahavat Olam then one should only say it after Shemona Esrah. Ashkenazim have what to rely on to say Yotzer Or after Ahavat Olam before Shema. <Ref> S”A 60:2 rules that one can say Shema without [[Brachot]] and then later say the [[Brachot]]. Therefore, Magen Avraham 59:1 says if one needs to repeat the bracha and one already said the bracha of Ahavat Olam one shouldn’t interrupt there with Yotzer Or but rather should say it after [[Shemoneh Shmoneh Esrei]]. This is also the opinion of Beir Heteiv 59:2, Machsit HaShekel 59:1, Kesher Gudal 1:4, Shalmei Tzibbur 90a, Shulchan Aruch HaRav 59:1, Siddur Bet Ovad (Dinei [[Kriyat Shema]] 4), and Halacha Brurah 59:8. However the Eliyah Raba 59:2 argues that it’s not an interruption and needs to be said before Shema. This is also the opinion of Derech HaChaim in name of the Rashba, Kaf HaChaim 59:17, and Mishna Brurah 59:2. However Halacha Brurah and Sh”t Tehila LeDavid 59:5 say that the Eliyah Raba says it’s not an interruption only according to Rashba (Brachot 11b) who says that Ahavat Olam isn’t a Brachot HaMitzah. However, Ramban (Likutei HaRamban beginning of Brachot D”H Kavar Haya) disagrees and holds it’s a Birkat HaMitzvah. Thus, one should not interrupt like the Magen Avraham. [The first explanation of the Bet Yosef 59 says that the Rosh (Sh”t HaRosh 4:19) holds Ahavat Olam isn’t a Birkat HaMitzvah and Rambam ([[Brachot]] 1:17) holds it is a Birkat HaMitzvah.] </ref>
# If one is unsure whether he’s in middle of [[Brachot]] Yotzer Or or Ahavat Olam such as he was caught saying “HaGadol Hagibor VeHanorah” which appears in both [[Brachot]] and was unsure which he was saying, he should return the Hagol Hagibor of the first bracha. Yet, one has what to rely on to continue with the second Bracha. <ref> Sh”t Pri HaAretz 1:3 rules that one should return to the first bracha. Sh”t Mateh Efraim Arditi 2 pg 3b, Sh”t Kol Eliyahu 2:4, Petach Dvir 60:3 concur. Halacha Brurah 59:17 supports this from the Meiri ([[Brachot]] 16a), Nemukei Yosef (16a), and Piskei Riaz ([[Brachot]] 2:3(3)) who write the law if one is unsure while in middle of [[Kriyat Shema]] he should return the earlier mention of the similar words and conclude “so too by [[Brachot]] of Shema before and after.” Halacha Brurah concludes that in our case there isn’t an issue of [[Safek Brachot LeHakel]] since according to some Rishonim if one doesn’t say the first bracha at all and only said the second one would be making a bracha levatala because both are necessary. In our case there is a safek whether to go back and perhaps say an extra bracha that’s unnecessary or to continue and perhaps be actively making the second bracha levatala. Nonetheless, many Achronim rule that a person should continue from the second bracha because of [[Safek Brachot LeHakel]] including Yad Aharon (Hagahot Tur 60), Bear Heteiv 60:1, Sh”t Kiryat Chana 1, Shalmei Tzibbur 91c, Kesher Gudal 10:8, Hagahot Rabbi Akiva Eiger 64:3, Sh”t Nishmat Chaim 6, Chesed LeAlafim 60:5, and Ben Ish Chai Shemot 4. </ref>
== Interruptions==
# If one hears [[Kedusha]], one can only answer “Kadosh Kadosh…” and “Baruch Kavod…”, but not “Yimloch Hashem…” <ref> By Birchot Shema, Rosh [[brachot]] 2:5 quotes Maharam MeRutenberg who says even though the gemara ([[Brachot]] 13b) allows an interruption of greeting one who is due respect still one can’t interrupt one praise of Hashem with another. The Rosh argues that one can answer [[kaddish]] or [[kedusha]] and brings a proof from [[Brachot]] 21a that only in [[Shemoneh Shmoneh Esrei]] one can’t answer dvarim shebekedusha. This is also the opinion of Tur and S”A 66:3 that one in [[kiryat Shema]] one can interrupt for [[Kaddish]], [[kedusha]] and baruchu.. Since regularly Shulchan Aruch 125:1 holds one doesn’t say the entire passage of [[Kedusha]] and the Arizal (Shaar Kavanot 3 of Chazarat Amida pg 39a) holds one does say the entire passage, in a place where one can’t interrupt then one shouldn’t say the entire passage, so holds Kaf Hachaim of Rabbi Chaim Sofer 66:18. Concerning Yimloch, the Divrei Chamudot Brachot 2:23 says Yimloch isn’t one of the relevant pasukim said by Yishya and Yichezkel from the angels. Magen Avraham 66:6 supports this with a Tosefta and we hold not like the Hagat Yesh Nochlin (azharat tefilah 12 D”H vechen le’inyan). So holds Eliyah Raba 66:5, Yad Aharon 66 Hagahot Hatur, Shulchan Aruch HaRav 66:5,Shalmei Tzibbur 96, Chaye Adam 20:4, Sh”t Chatom Sofer Kovetz teshuvot 4, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 16:3, Mishna Brurah 66:17, Sh”t Yabia Omer O”C 2:4, Sh”t Yechave Daat 6:3, Halichot Olam 1 Shemot 5 D”H VeDah. However the Gra 66:10 argues based on many rishonim (such as Ravya [[Brachot]] 66, Orchot Chaim Tefilah 78) that Yimloch is part of [[Kedusha]]. Therefore one should refrain from saying Yimloch during [[Brachot]] Kiyat Shema. </ref># One can’t answer Baruch Hu Ubaruch Shemo <ref> Magen Avraham 124:9 says any time one isn’t allow to talk one can’t answer Baruch Hu UBaruch Shemo, therefore seemingly in [[Pesukei DeZimrah]] and [[Brachot]] [[Kriyat Shema]] one can’t answer it (according to Rif and Rosh ([[Brachot]], Ein Omdin) who say not to interrupt with speech from Brauch Shamar until after [[Shemoneh Shmoneh Esrei]]). Bear Heteiv 66:9, Chida in Tov Ayin 18:35, Shulchan Aruch HaRav 124:8, Sh”t Zechur LeYitzchak Harari 7, implied by Mishna Brurah 51:8, and Halacha Brurah 51:16 forbid answering Baruch Hu UBaruch Shemo. However, Kaf HaChaim Palagi 18:13, however holds that one can answer it even in [[Brachot]] [[Kriyat Shema]].</ref>
# One can’t answer the [[Kedusha]] of Brachat Yotzer or Uva Letzion. <Ref> Sh”t Yabia Omer 5:7(2) says not to answer because of the Rishonim who hold that it’s not a Dvar Shebekedusha (Ravya 1:2,66, Talmedei Rabbenu Yonah 13a in name of some Geonim, Hagahot Maymonit Tefilah 7:90 in name of Rashi, Sh”t Maharam 143, Mordechai [[Brachot]] 69, Rosh ([[Brachot]] 3:18, Megilah 3:7), Tur 59, Orchot Chaim (Din [[Kedusha]] Meyushav 1), Ritva Megilah 23b). Sh”t Otzrot Yosef 4:4 rules that even in Pesukei Dezimrah one shouldn’t answer it for the same reason. </ref>
# One can’t interrupt for the Vayavor and the 13 midot. <Ref> Sh”t Otzrot Yosef 4:4 </ref>
# Lechatchila, one must say Shema together with the [[Brachot]]. However, the [[Brachot]] aren’t Me’akev (necessary and prevent one from fulfilling the mitzvah) and so one fulfills his mitzvah even if he read Shema without [[Brachot]]. <Ref> Rosh ([[Brachot]] 2:1) writes one fulfills Shema without the [[Brachot]] and that Rabbenu Chananel ([[Brachot]] 13a; not like our version of Rabbenu Chananel) concurs. Bahag (end of first perek of [[Brachot]]), Rashba ([[Brachot]] 12a s.v. UShma Minah), Sh”t HaRashba 1:47, 69, 319 in name of the Rambam, Piekei Rid ([[Brachot]] 13a), and Meiri ([[Brachot]] 11b) hold that the [[Brachot]] aren’t Me’akev. However, he quotes Rav Hai Goan (based on [[Brachot]] 12a) who holds that they are Me’akev but the order isn’t Me’akev. However, the Yerushlami which says the [[Brachot]] aren’t Me’akev is referring to an individual, but in a Tzibbur the [[Brachot]] are Me’akev. Tosfot ([[Brachot]] 13a s.v. Haya Koreh) and Sefer Eshkol 1:6 pg 12 hold like Rav Hai Goan. S”A 60:3 rules that the [[Brachot]] aren’t Me’akev not like Rav Hai Goan. The Gra (Shenot Eliyahu) asks why is it different from any other mitzvah which the [[Brachot]] aren’t Me’akev. Halacha Brurah (Birur Halacha 60:3) and Sh”t Mishkenot Yacov O”C 81 explain that since most of [[Kriyat Shema]] is derabanan (only the first pasuk is deoraitta according to many Rishonim) that part of the mitzvah was instituted in a larger structure with [[Brachot]] and not saying [[Brachot]] ruins one’s fulfillment of that part of the mitzvah. Bet Yosef asks on the Tur who doesn’t differentiate between an individual and a Tzibbur. [See Perisha and Bach who argue on the Bet Yosef.] </ref>
# If one only knows the [[Brachot]] or only has a Siddur with the [[Brachot]] and not Shema, one should still say the [[Brachot]] because Shema isn’t Me’akev the [[Brachot]]. However, if one knows at least the pasuk of “Shema Yisrael” one should say it with the [[Brachot]]. <Ref> Halacha Brurah 60:7 based on the Meiri who writes that someone who only knows the [[Brachot]] of Shema or only has a Siddur with the [[Brachot]] one should say the [[Brachot]] without Shema since the [[Brachot]] aren’t [[Brachot]] HaMitzvah. Halacha Brurah argues that even Ramban who holds that Ahavat Olam is a Birchat HaMitzvah may agree here because it’s not a complete Birchat HaMitzvah in that we don’t say “Asher Kidishanu …Likroh Shema” in the bracha. </ref>
# If one said Shema without [[Brachot]], later one can say the [[Brachot]] without Shema, but it’s preferable when one says the [[Brachot]] to repeat Shema. <Ref> S”A 60:2 rules that one can say Shema without [[Brachot]] and then later say the [[Brachot]] based on Rashba ([[Brachot]] 12a s.v. UShema Minah), and Orchot Chaim ([[Kriyat Shema]] 14). S”A adds that in his opinion when one says the [[Brachot]] one should also say Shema. Divrei Chamudot ([[Brachot]] 2:3) explains that it’s in order to maintain the order of [[prayer]]. Gra 60:6 explains to precede [[Shemoneh Shmoneh Esrei]] with words of Torah. Sefer Meorot ([[Brachot]] 12a) discusses whether one can say Ahavat Olam after saying Shema and concludes that one can (like S”A). See further Sh”t Maharil Diskin 2:22. Yotzer Or clearly can be said after [[Shemoneh Shmoneh Esrei]] as in [[Brachot]] 12a that says in the Beit HaMikdash they would say [[Shemoneh Shmoneh Esrei]] and only when the time for Yotzer Or came would they say that bracha (quoted by Magen Avraham 59:1). </ref>
# The order of the [[Brachot]] aren’t Me’akev. Lechatchila one should say them in order, but if one said the Ahavat Olam first and then Yotzer Or one fulfills his obligation. <Ref> [[Brachot]] 12a concludes that the order of the [[Brachot]] isn’t Me’akev. Rambam ([[Kriyat Shema]] 1:8), Tur and S”A 60:3 bring this down as halacha. The language that it’s not Me’akev implies that Lechatchila one shouldn’t change the order. However, Sefer Meorot ([[Brachot]] 12a), Rashba ([[Brachot]] 11a s.v. Achat), and Ohel Moed ([[Kriyat Shema]] 4 pg 36a) hold that one can change the order even Lechatchila. Nonetheless, Halacha Brurah 60:9 argues that this is only according to the opinion that the Ahavat Olam are [[Brachot]] HaShevach and not [[Brachot]] HaMitzvah, but according to the Rishonim who hold it’s [[Brachot]] HaMitzvah would say that Ahavat Olam should be said right before Shema. Additionally, Lechatchila one should say it in order to satisfy the opinion of the Meiri ([[Brachot]] 11b) who holds that Ahavat Olam should start with Baruch if it’s said alone. Additionally, Kaf HaChaim 60:9 says that according to the Zohar (Pekudei 260b) and Arizal (Shaar Kavanot, Yotzer 18d) one is changing the order of the upper worlds by saying it out of order. </ref>
# If one only has a Siddur with one or two of the [[Brachot]] and not the others or one only knows some of the [[Brachot]], one shouldn’t say them at all because there’s a Safek [[Brachot]] Lehakel since some Rishonim hold that saying the [[Brachot]] altogether is Me’akev. The same applies if one is very close to the end of Zman [[Shemoneh Shmoneh Esrei]] after which one can’t say the [[Brachot]], one shouldn’t only say some of the [[Brachot]]. <Ref> Mishna Brurah 60:6 rules that if someone only says one bracha one fulfills his obligation for that bracha. In Beiur Halacha s.v. Im Hikdim he explains that according to S”A that one can say Shema without [[Brachot]] certainly one can say only one bracha and even according to Rav Hai Goan that one can’t say Shema without [[Brachot]] that’s only by a Tzibbur and not an individual. However, Halacha Brurah 60:10 argues strongly that the topics of saying without [[Brachot]] and saying one Bracha without another Bracha are unrelated as is evident in the fact that the Sefer Hashlama and Meorot ([[Brachot]] 12a) are uncertain whether one fulfills his obligation if he only says one bracha, even though they clearly rule like S”A unlike Rav Hai that one can say Shema with [[Brachot]]. Additionally, there is a dispute in the Rishonim and Achronim about this topic. Rabbenu Avraham Aleshvili ([[Brachot]] 12a), Ritva ([[Brachot]] 12a), Meiri ([[Brachot]] 11b), Rashbetz ([[Brachot]] 13a), and Pri [[Chadash]] 60:1 hold that if one only made one bracha, one fulfills the obligation for that bracha. On the other hand, Rabbenu Chananel ([[Brachot]] 12a), Ravyah 1:36, Or Zaruh 1:25 in name of the Rach and Sefer Eshkol (pg 104), and Rambam (according to Pri Megadim M”Z 60:1 and Sh”t Shagat Aryeh 26 D”S VeKivan) hold that one doesn’t fulfill any obligation if one only makes one bracha. [These Rishonim don’t differentiate between an individual and a Tzibbur according to the opinion of Rav Hai seemingly because this topic is unrelated to the opinion of Rav Hai. However Ohel Moed 1:4 pg 36a does differentiate like the connection of the Mishna Brurah to the opinion of Rav Hai.] Pri [[Chadash]] 60:2 implies from S”A that only the order isn’t Me’akev but actually saying all the [[Brachot]] is Me’akev (and then argues on S”A). Chida (Machzik Bracha 60:1, Kiseh Eliyah 60:1 support S”A against Pri [[Chadash]] that saying all the [[Brachot]] is Me’akev. Therefore, concludes the Halacha Brurah because of the dispute on the issue and we hold [[Safek Brachot LeHakel]] one shouldn’t only say one bracha. </ref>
==Sources==
<references/>
[[Category:Brachot]][[Category:Prayer]]

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