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==If one's in doubt if one made a bracha==
# If one is in doubt whether one can make a Bracha the general rule is that one shouldn’t make the Bracha. <Ref>S”A Rif Brachot 12a, Shulchan Aruch 209:3, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 6:6; Kitzur S"A Shulchan Aruch of Rav Mordechai Eliyahu 6:6 </ref># If one is in doubt whether one made a [[Bracha Rishona]] or not, one may not make the Bracha, rather it’s permissible to eat without a Bracha because of [[Safek Brachot LeHakel]]. <Ref>S”A Shulchan Aruch in 167:9 and 209:3 writes clearly that if one is in doubt whether one made a Bracha one doesn’t not go back and say it except for [[Birkat HaMazon]]. Mishna Brurah 167:49 adds that it’s forbidden to make a Bracha in a case whether there’s a doubt. </ref>
# If there’s a doubt whether one interrupted his eating (with a [[Hesech Hadaat]]) one shouldn’t make another Bracha and it’s permissible to continue eating. <Ref> VeZot HaBracha (beginning of chapter 10, pg 87) </ref>
# If a person has two factors to make a bracha (Safek Safeka) he still shouldn't make the bracha.<ref>Mishna Brurah 215:20 quotes the Chaye Adam who says that for a Safek Safeka you can't make a bracha in a case of safek safeka. However, in Mishna Brurah 4:30 he quotes Rabbi Akiva Eiger (Magen Avraham 4:12) who says you can make a bracha because of a safek safeka. Sdei Chemed Asifat Dinim Marechet Brachot 1:18, Michtam Ldovid, and Torat Chesed say not to make a bracha with a safek safeka. Dovev Meisharim 32 says that you could make the bracha but you don't have to. If there's three sefakot the Tuv Taam Vdaat 1:181 that you can make the bracha but the Michtam Ldovid and Torat Chesed say it doesn't help. Lechem Mishna Brachot 4:6 says you can make a bracha.</ref>
# If there's a dispute whether one should make a bracha one shouldn't recite it just like if there was a doubt if one needed to recite it. However, if the minhag in a certain case is to recite it then one can.<ref>Trumat Hadeshen 34 explicitly writes that even though when there's a dispute about a bracha a person shouldn't make that bracha because of safek brachot when there's a minhag he can recite that bracha. Rav Ovadia in Yabia Omer OC 1:40:14, 2:25, 3:17, 4:23, 7:51, 8:8, 8:23, 9:23, 9:84, YD 10:58 accepts this principle and quotes scores of achronim who agree.</ref>
==Alternatives to saying the actual bracha==
# Another preferable option is to obligate oneself to make another Bracha by making a proper [[Shinui Makom]]. <Ref>Vezot HaBracha (beginning of chapter 10, pg 87) in name of Rav Elyashiv </ref>
# In these situations there are a number of suggestions of how to make the Bracha without making an unnecessary Bracha.
## Some say that one can say the Bracha in a language other than Hebrewor in Hebrew with another nickname of Hashem, however, many great authorities disagree and forbid this. <Ref>Rabbi Akiva Eiger 1:25 writes that it is forbidden to say a bracha with a nickname of Hashem because it is considered saying a name of Hashem in vain. Even though the Shach says you can erase a nickname of Hashem that's only erasing it but mentioning it is still forbidden. Therefore, unless one is obligated one may not say the bracha with a nickname of Hashem. However, Aruch Hashulchan 202:3 argues that you can say the bracha with a nickname of Hashem and it isn't an issue of saying Hashem's name in vain since it is only a nickname. Mishna Brurah 215:11, Piskei Teshuvot 209:7. , Pri Megadim (M”Z 319219:3), Sh”t Igrot Moshe 4:40:27, 4:49, and Chazon Ovadyah [[Sukkot]] (pg 245) agree with Rabbi Akiva Eiger and in cases of doubt forbid saying Bracha with the language of Barich Rachmana Malka DeAlma and continuing with the text of the bracha. </ref>
## Some say that one may say the Bracha as part of learning (reading it from Shulchan Aruch or Rambam), however, many argue that this too is forbidden. <Ref> Piskei Teshuvot 209:7 </ref>
## Some say that one should think of the Bracha or at the name of Hashem and not verbalize it. <ref>Piskei Teshuvot 209:7, Kaf HaChaim 157:10, Vezot HaBracha (beginning of chapter 10, pg 87) </ref>
## Some say to read the פסוק of Vayivarech David until the words MeOlam VeAd Olam and then conclude the Bracha according to the appropriate ending. <Ref> Halichot Shlomo (end Tefillah 22:22) writes that one should recite the pasuk if Vayivarech Dovid... Baruch Atta Hashem Elokey Yisrael Avinu Molam Vad Olam and then continue with your bracha. He says that you can use that if you're unsure if you said a bracha but not if the halacha is that you don't recite a bracha because of chapter 22a doubt. He says that saying it for no reason is a degradation of Hashem but saying it for a bracha starting with a pasuk isn't inappropriate.</ref>## A minority opinion holds that you can recite the bracha in a manner of praising Hashem without intent to fulfill the bracha.<ref>Chashukei Chemed Niddah 73a relies on the Chavot Daat (Bet Hasafek 110:20) who holds that one can recite a bracha one isn't obligated in as a praise to Hashem as long as one doesn't intend for it to be a bracha.</ref> 
==Bracha Levatala==
# One should be very careful not to say a Bracha Levatala, a Bracha in vain, or cause oneself to make a Bracha Sheina Tzaricha, an unnecessary Bracha. If one said a Bracha Levatala or say Hashem's name in vain, one should say "Baruch Shem Kavod Malchuto LeOlam VaEd". <ref>Rabbi Tanchum in Yerushalmi Brachot 6:1 explains that if one made a bracha levatala he should say baruch shem kavod malchuto lolam vaed. Tosfot Brachot 39a s.v. basar, Rabbenu Yonah Brachot 28a s.v. ubyerushalmi, Rosh 6:20, Rambam Brachot 4:10, Rambam Shevuot 12:11, Shulchan Aruch OC 206:6, and Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 6:4codify this Yerushalmi. Rambam Shevuot explains that it is effective so that the mentioning of Hashem's name shouldn't be in vain but that it should be mentioned for a praise. Chazon Ish OC 137 thinks that this reason can only if bracha levatala is derabbanan and not deoritta. Aruch Hashulchan 206:16 implies that baruch shem is a fix for bracha levatala completely. </ref># If after saying Baruch Atta Hashem one realizes that one shouldn't say that Bracha, one should conclude with the words "Lamdeni Chukecha", which is a pasuk in Tehillim and the Bracha isn't Levatala.<ref>Rabbenu Yonah Brachot 28a ubyerushalmi, Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 6:4, Aruch Hashulchan 206:16</ref># If one already said Elokey and didn't say the last syllable, Nu, then one should conclude with the words " Yisrael Avinu MeOlam VeAd Olam", however, in this case one should also say Baruch Shem afterwards.<ref>Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 6:4</ref>
# If one recited a [[Bracha Rishona]] while holding a specific food and it fell on the floor (rendering it inedible) before one has the chance to take a bit from it, it depends on the situation as to whether one's original bracha was invalid and a new bracha is necessary if one wants to eat food of the same kind.
## If one intended not to include any other food with that Bracha, one's original bracha is a Bracha Levatala. In such a case, one should recite Baruch Shem Kavod Malchuto LeOlam VaEd. <ref>Shulchan Aruch and Rama 206:6</ref>
## If one intended to include other food in one's bracha, then even if that food is somewhere else, one's original bracha is valid.<Ref>Rama 206:6, Mishna Brurah 206:26. See Yeshuot Dovid ch. 2 who quotes the Halacha Brurah Minchat Shmuel who says fundamentally Shulchan Aruch agrees with the Rama when a person has direct intent to exempt other food. See there for his proof from Shulchan Aruch 206:2.</ref>## If one didn't specifically mean to include or exclude other food that was in front of him from his bracha, one's original bracha is valid.<ref>Mishna Brurah 206:26 writes that if one didn't specifically intend to include or exclude any food one had in front of him, then if the food which one's holding falls, one should not recite a new bracha because of [[Safek Brachot LeHakel]].</ref>==Bracha Sheina Tzaricha==# If there's a situation where one needs to cause oneself to become obligated in a bracha to avoid a dispute one can do so and it isn't considered a bracha sheina tzaricha. If one can avoid this one should do so.<ref>Vezot Habracha Birur Halacha 29. Shulchan Aruch O.C. 174:4 to avoid the dispute in the rishonim if wine of melava malka is covered by the havdalah wine you should intend that the wine of havdalah doesn't exempt it. Shulchan Aruch O.C. 174:7 codifies Rosh that since Rashi holds water isn't exempted by the meal you should make shehakol on a glass of water before a meal in order to exempt it in the meal rather than have it in the meal without a bracha and rely on the rest of the rishonim. Igrot Moshe 4:40:1 writes that you should lechatchila make shinuy makom to avoid a safek brachot and that's called tzaricha.</ref> 
==Birkat HaMazon==
# If one had a bread meal, was full, and is in doubt whether one made Birkat Hamazon, one should say [[Birkat HaMazon]] since [[Birkat HaMazon]] is Deoritta. <Ref> S”A 209:3 </ref> However, if one’s not full or isn’t sure if one’s full, one doesn’t make [[Birkat HaMazon]]. <Ref> Mishna Brurah 209:10 writes that one makes [[Birkat HaMazon]] out of doubt only if one’s full. Kaf HaChaim 184:20 (quoted by VeZot HaBracha (pg 87, beginning of chapter 10) adds that even if one is in doubt whether one’s full, one doesn’t make [[Birkat HaMazon]]. </ref>
==Al HaMichya==
# If one had a [[Kezayit]] of [[mezonot]] and is in doubt whether one made [[Al HaMichya]], one should and may not go ahead make [[Al HaMichya]] out of doubt rather one should be careful to eat another [[Kezayit]] (without a [[Bracha Rishona]]) and then make [[Al HaMichya]]. <Ref> Mishna Brurah 209:10 </ref>See [[Bracha Achat Mein Shalosh#Al Hamichya]] for details. 
==Mistaken Brachot==
#See [[Correcting_a_Mistaken_Bracha]]===Bracha Rishona===# After the fact if one recited mezonot on anything besides water or salt one fulfilled one's obligation.<ref>Chaye Adam (v. 1, 58:3), Halacha Brurah 206:7, Igrot Moshe OC 4:40. Ritva Brachot 2:16 writes that after the fact Mezonot is effective even for bread.</ref>
# After the fact if one recited shehakol on anything one fulfilled one's obligation.<ref>Chaye Adam (v. 1, 58:5)</ref>
#If you make haadama on bread after the fact you fulfilled your obligation since wheat grows from the ground.<ref> Kesef Mishna Brachot 4:6, Nishmat Adam 58:3</ref>
===Bracha Achrona===
{{Mistaken Bracha Achrona}}
[[Category:Meta Concepts of Halacha]]

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