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Text replacement - "S"A" to "Shulchan Aruch"
# There is an obligation to eat three meals on [[Shabbat]], <ref> Shulchan Aruch 291:1, Mishna Brurah 291:1, Rambam [[Shabbat]] 30:9, Yalkut Yosef [[Shabbat]] Volume 1 page 399. This is based on the gemara in [[shabbat]] 117b which derives from the verse in Shemot 16:25 which mentions the word "hayom" meaning today three times. The gemara 118b goes through the great rewards for one who eats all three meals on [[shabbat]]. </ref> and if one missed the meal on friday night, he should eat three during the day. <ref> Rama 291:1 </ref>
# The obligation of eating the third meal of [[Shabbat]] (Seudat Shelishit) is rabbinic. <ref> Mishna Brurah 291:1, Shu"t Maharil 94, Pri Megadim Mishbetzot Zahav 291:1. See Sh"t Tzitz Eliezer 16:13. Pri Megadim Mishbetzot Zahav 291:1 quotes the Levush who says that this obligation is from the torah, even though he himself disagrees. The Sefer Chareidim 14:3 and Maharal quoted by the Taz 472:1 agree with this opinion. </ref>
# Women are obligated in Seudat Shelishit. <ref> S"A Shulchan Aruch 291:6, Kitzur S"A Shulchan Aruch 77:16, Yalkut Yosef ([[Shabbat]] vol 1, pg 410). This is based on Rabbeinu Tam in Sefer Hayashar 70:4 which says that women are obligated because they too were part of the miracle of the manna. The Ran on [[Shabbat]] 44a "vikatav" says that it is based on the same source as a woman's obligation in [[Kiddush]] mentioned in [[Berachot]] 20a, that since they are obligated in refraining from melacha, they are also obligated in the mitzvot aseh even if it is only rabbinic. The Meiri [[Shabbat]] 118a seems to agree. The Aruch Hashulchan 291:4 says that many women are unaware of their obligation and a person should try to fix this misconception. </ref>
==Amount to eat==
# If one is full one should eat at least a [[KeBaytzah]] of bread.<ref> S"A Shulchan Aruch 291:1, Kitzur S"A Shulchan Aruch 77:16 </ref> However, if one is unable, one should at least have a [[Kezayit]]. <ref> Mishna Brurah 291:2, Kaf HaChaim 291:5, Yalkut Yosef ([[Shabbat]] vol 1 pg 399) </ref># This obligation applies even if one is not hungry, <ref> Shulchan Aruch 291:1. Kaf Hachayim 291:3 quotes the Chida saying that one should really make that extra effort because one would normally would eat a meal friday night and [[shabbat]] morning anyway so the afternoon meal is the only one that is clearly for the honor of [[shabbat]], and proves that the first two were as well. </ref> but if one can not eat at all then one is not obligated to pain oneself, as this would violate oneg [[shabbos]]. Nonetheless, a wise person will see ahead and leave room for Suedat Shelishit. <ref> S"A Shulchan Aruch 291:1 </ref>
==What to Eat?==
# One must eat bread for Seudat Shelishit, however, if one is very full and is unable, then one should eat [[Mezonot]]. If that is also impossible one should have food which usually accompany bread such as meat or fish or at least fruit (cooked fruit is preferable). If one doesn't have fruit then one may use a [[Revi'it]] of wine. <ref> The above is from Yalkut Yosef ([[Shabbat]] vol 1 pg 409).
* Tosafot Yoma 79b "minai" says that one must eat bread based on the connection between seuda shlishit and the manna. Rambam Hilchot [[Shabbat]] 30:9, Tur 291, SA 291:4-5 all accept this opinion. Rabbeinu Tam quoted in Tosafot [[Brachot]] 49b "ee ba'ay achil" allows eating minei targima to fulfill the obligation of seudat shlishit based on Rabbi Eliezer's statement on Succa 27a who says that you can fulfill the obligation for a meal on succot with minei targima. Rabbeinu Yona on the Rif [[Brachot]] 36b "Birkat" agrees. The Rosh [[Brachot]] 2:13 says that minei targima are foods made from one of the five species of grain based on a Tosefta that says that the beracha on minei targima is borei minei [[mezonot]]. Tosafot to Succa 27a "minei targima" say that foods which usually accompany bread such as meat or fish are included in this as well. Rashi "minei targima" there, as well as Rabbeinu Yona [[Brachot]] 36b "birkat," and the Ran [[Shabbat]] 44a "v'ika" include even fruit in this category.
* Shulchan Aruch 291:5 quotes all these opinions and concludes that one should eat bread.
* Kitzur S"A Shulchan Aruch 77:16 writes that one must eat bread for Seudat Shelishit, however, if one is very full and is unable, then one should eat [[Mezonot]]. If that is also impossible one should have food which usually accompany bread such as meat or fish. If that too is impossible one should have at least fruit cooked fruit.
* Aruch Hashulchan 291:12 says that it is not proper to rely on any of these opinions unless one is sick.
* Magen Avraham 444:2 when discussing what to do on erev [[pesach]] that falls out on [[shabbat]] gives several options and also quotes the Shla saying that one may fulfill seudat shlishit with divrei torah. The Rokeach 55 allows one to skip seudat shlishit to go here a shiur in the afternoon. Pri Megadim (E"A 290) disagrees and says one shouldn't miss seudat shlishit even to hear a shiur. Aruch Hashulchan 290:3 and Kaf Hachayim 290:14 agree with the Pri Megadim.</ref>
# According to Sephardim one should be careful to have two whole loaves of bread for [[Lechem Mishneh]] at Seudat Shelishit. However, according to Ashkenazim, it's preferable to have two whole loaves but it's sufficient to have just one whole loaf. <ref>S"A Shulchan Aruch and Rama 291:4. S"A Shulchan Aruch is based on Rambam [[Shabbat]] 30:9 and Rama based on Tosafot Yoma 79b "minei". Kitzur S"A Shulchan Aruch 77:17 simply writes that one should have [[Lechem Mishneh]] for all three meals of [[Shabbat]]. </ref>
# If one only has one whole loaf of bread and a broken piece one should use the whole one for Seuda Shelishit instead of saving it for [[Melava Malka]]. <ref> Beiur Halacha 291 s.v. VeLePachot </ref>
# One doesn't need to cover the loaves of bread before making [[HaMotzei]], however, it's preferable to cover them. <ref> Yalkut Yosef (Kitzur S"A Shulchan Aruch 291:9) </ref>
#One should try to have fish even for seuda shlishit, except if one doesn't like fish he should not force himself. <ref> Yalkut Yosef [[Shabbat]] volume 1 page 408. Mishna Brurah 242:2 says this enhances kavod [[shabbat]].</ref>
==Timing==
# The earliest time to fulfill Seudat Shelishit is from 6 and a 1/2 hours ([[Shaot Zmaniot]]) into the day. <ref>S"A Shulchan Aruch 291:2, Kitzur S"A Shulchan Aruch 77:16, Yalkut Yosef [[shabbat]] volume 1 page 402. The Behag quoted by the Ran [[Shabbat]] 43b "tanu rabanan" says that it could be eaten at any time of the day, but Tosfot [[Shabbat]] 118a "bimincha" and Rosh [[Shabbat]] 16:5 say that it is specifically at the start of [[Mincha]] gedola. Shulchan Aruch rules like Tosfot and the Rosh. Aruch Hashulchan 291:3 says that you don't fulfill your obligation if you eat earlier than that. </ref> If one began before the time and continued and ate at least a [[Kezayit]] after the time he does fulfill his obligation for seuda shlishit. <ref> Yalkut Yosef [[shabbat]] volume 1 page 402. Aruch Hashulchan 291:6 says also that if one began before mid-day and had in mind to continue until after mid-day and fulfill his obligation then he does fulfill it. </ref>
# The Minhag is to eat Seudat Shelishit between [[Mincha]] and [[Maariv]]/Arvit. <ref> Rama 291:2. Yalkut Yosef [[shabbat]] volume 1 page 402-403 Rabbeinu Tam quoted by the Tosfot Pesachim 105a "vihani milei", as well as the Rosh [[Shabbat]] 10:13 say that one should eat before saying [[Mincha]] because it is forbidden to drink water between [[Mincha]] and [[Mariv/Arvit|Arvit]] on [[shabbat]] because drinking between [[Mincha]] and [[Mariv/Arvit|Arvit]] could cause harm to the souls that leave after [[shabbat]]. Rambam Hilchot [[Shabbat]] 30:10 writes that it is best to eat it after saying [[Mincha]] and the hagahot maimoniot hilchot [[shabbat]] 30:20 agrees and quotes a different version of rabbeinu tam. The Rama quotes both opinions and says that the minhag is to do like the Rambam. The Magen Avraham 291:5 says this is because of the prohibition to eat before [[davening]] [[mincha]]. Aruch Hashulchan 291:4 also says the minhag is that way also. </ref> If one is unable to have it after [[Mincha]] one should have it before [[mincha]]. <ref> Aruch HaShulchan 291:4. Mishna Brurah 291:11 says to make sure to eat before the time of [[Mincha]] ketana arrives. Yalkut Yosef [[Shabbat]] volume 1 page 402 says also that you fulfill your obligation but should try to get somebody to remind you to say [[Mincha]] if you are going to eat before saying it. </ref>
# Although it is forbidden to begin eating after sunset until one says [[Havdalah]], <ref> Shulchan Aruch 291:1, Rif Pesachim 21b. </ref> and it is definitely preferable to eat before sunset, <ref> Mishna Brurah 299:1, Magen Avraham 299:1. See Shmirat [[Shabbat]] Kihilchita chapter 56 note 15 where he says that the idea that one should eat at least a [[Kezayit]] of bread after [[Tzet HaKochavim]] on friday night quoted in Mishna Brurah 267:5, because there is an opinion that says you cannot fulfill a seudat [[shabbat]] during tosefet [[shabbat]], should carry over to seudat shlishit, and therefore to satisfy this opinion one should be stringent and eat prior to sunset. </ref> some poskim give extra time to begin the meal if one hasn't yet eaten seuda shlishit. <ref> Shaar Hatziyun 299:2 gives two reasons for this. First, he says one can rely on the opinion of the Taz 299:1 who thinks that the Rosh Pesachim 12:10 allows eating until nightfall since there is a potential fulfillment of a mitzva. Second, the potential fulfillment of the mitzvah of [[seudah]] shlishit should override the potential prohibition of eating during bein hashimashot. Menuchat Ahava (v. 1, p. 184) agrees.

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