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* [Magan Avraham 267:1 at first questions this ruling of S”A because the Gemara [[Brachot]] 27a seems to assign Rav to the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda meaning that one may only pray early on Friday night if one always follows Rabbi Yehuda. He adds that this is also implied from Kesef Mishna ([[Tefillah]] 3:7) who says that Friday night has the same status as the rest of the week. However, the Magan Avraham answers that the Gemara only meant to assign Rav to Rabbi Yehuda’s opinion in the initial discussion but in conclusion the Gemara reinterpreted the story of Rav to mean that one may pray [[Arvit]] earlier than one does during the week. Additionally he explains that [[Arvit]] was instituted corresponding to the limbs and fats burned at night, however, on Friday night the limbs and fats were not burnt after nightfall. Mishna Brurah 267:3 adds that the ruling of S”A is based on those who say that accepting [[Shabbat]] makes it considered as if it was night regarding [[prayer]].]
* Nonetheless, the Mishna Brurah 267:3 writes that if one follows Rabbi Yehuda on Friday night (and prays [[Arvit]] early) one should make sure to say [[Mincha]] before Plag [[Mincha]] (ten and three quarter hours) so that one doesn’t contradict oneself within one night. The Beiur Halacha (267:2 s.v. VeBePlag) writes that even though there is a lenient opinion which permits a [[minyan]] to pray both [[Mincha]] and [[Arvit]] between Plag [[Mincha]] and nighttime, since the minhag isn’t to rely on this opinion during the week because this opinion isn’t supported by the Gemara on Friday night as well one shouldn’t rely on this opinion. The Mishna Brurah 267:3 writes that the only time to rely on this lenient opinion is in a need of great need and if one prays [[Arvit]] during the time of [[Bein HaShemashot]]. Yalkut Yosef ([[Shabbat]], vol 1, pg 204-5) writes that one shouldn't contradict oneself to pray [[Mincha]] after plag [[Mincha]] and [[Mariv/Arvit|Arvit]] before nighttime. Nonetheless, Menuchat Ahava (vol 1, chap 6, note 6) writes that it is completely permitted but the minhag is to pray [[Mariv/Arvit|Arvit]] after nightfall.
* [ Rabbi Aryeh Lebowitz] quotes Rav Soleveitchik who held like the Mishna Brurah and concluded that one should pray [[Mincha]] privately without a [[minyan]] before Plag [[Mincha]] so as not to contradict oneself. He also writes that in order to avoid issues of Yuhara (appearing religiously arrogant) one should go to [[Mincha]] when the [[minyan]] is praying and pretend to pray along with them. * Rav Simcha Bunim Cohen (The Aura of Shabbos p. 268) quotes Rav Elyashiv as saying that if someone has small children and will have to have the Shabbat meal early, it is preferable to eat the Shabbat meal after mincha before maariv and daven maariv after sunset rather than daven maariv before sunset. His reasoning was that it is problematic to daven maariv early in Israel since the minhag is to daven after sunset. Also, davening early involves saying Kriyat Shema before sunset. </ref>
# Only after ten and three quarter hours (Plag [[Mincha]]) one may light [[Shabbat]] candles, and then accept [[Shabbat]] with saying [[Arvit]]. <Ref>S”A 267:2
* Gemara [[Shabbat]] 118b quotes Rabbi Yose who prayed to have his portion among the people of Teveriyah who accepted [[Shabbat]] early. Rashi (D”H MeMachnisei) explains that since Teveriyah was in a valley and the sun appeared to set earlier the people would accept [[Shabbat]] early. Additionally, in Gemara Pesachim 105b Rav Nachman Bar Yitchak says that going into [[Shabbat]] the earlier one accepts [[Shabbat]] the better. Rashbam (D”H Ayulei) explains that it’s preferable because one is showing a love for the mitzvah to do it early and Zarizin Makdimin LeMitzvot (the enthusiastic are eager to do מצות early).
* How early can one say Shema? The Rabbenu Yonah (18b s.v. Rav Tzali) and Rosh ([[Brachot]] 4:6) add that one who prays [[Arvit]] early should only say [[Shemoneh Esrei]] early and say [[Brachot]] Shema and Shema after [[Tzet HaKochavim]]. Even though one is losing out on juxtaposing Shema to [[Shemoneh Esrei]] it’s preferable to accept [[Shabbat]] early because of the mitzvah to add from the week onto [[Shabbat]]. The Rambam ([[Tefillah]] 3:7) agrees that it’s an issue to separate Shema from [[Shemoneh Esrei]] against the Raavad.
* The S”A 235:1 concludes that even though the halacha accepts the opinions that one doesn’t fulfill Shema before [[Tzet HaKochavim]] if one is praying in a [[minyan]] which is praying [[Arvit]] before [[Tzet HaKochavim]] one should still pray Shema with the [[Brachot]] together with the [[minyan]] and repeat Shema after [[Tzet HaKochavim]]. (See further discussion there). </ref> Acceptance of [[Shabbat]] before that time is null and void. <Ref>Mishna Brurah 267:4 </ref>
===Saying [[Kiddush]] after making early Shabbat===
# One is permitted to do [[Kiddish]] and the [[Friday night meal]] before nightfall, however it's preferable to have at least a [[Kezayit]] of food after nightfall. <ref> Bach 473 writes that one can't have the [[Shabbat]] meal before nightfall. However, Taz argues and permits having a meal before nightfall. Chaye Adam ([[Shabbat]] 6:2) and Mishna Brurah 267:5 rule that one can have one's meal early but one should preferably have a [[Kezayit]] of food after nightfall to satisfy the opinion of the Bach. </ref>

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