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# The melacha is defined as the constructive reduction of a large singular entity into small parts whereby it serves a new purpose.<ref> Rambam Peirush HaMishnayot 7:2 </ref> Examples include chopping wood into small chips for a fire, shaving down a metal rod to form small strips or dicing vegetables to cook them.<ref> Rambam Shabbos 8:15 </ref>
# There is a biblical violation of [[grinding]] when [[grinding]] wheat, barley, spices, spices, and the like. Similarly, it’s biblically forbidden to saw wood for the sawdust. <Ref>Yalkut Yosef ([[Shabbat]], vol 3, pg 377) </ref>
# The prohibition of Tochen ([[grinding]]) includes chopping, grating, crushing, mashing, shredding, or breaking something into small pieces. <ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 6:1 </ref>
# Tochen also applies to non-foods for . For example it's forbidden to crush a clod of dirt, shave splinters off a piece of wood, sawing wood with intent for the dust. <ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 6:1 in the note, Yalkut Yosef ([[Shabbat]], vol 3, pg 377) </ref>==In the Mishkan==# Tochen (grinding) was performed in the mishkan in the process of crushing herbs to make dyes.<ref> Rashi Shabbos 73a s.v. HaOfeh. See 39 Melochos (Rabbi Ribiat vol. 2, Zoreiah footnote 7) </ref>
==Utensils designed for grinding==
# Any tool which is designated for crushing or the like such as a mortar or a knife used only for dicing may not be used in any manner even if it doesn't involve any prohibition of Tochen. <ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 6:2, Sh”t Rivash 184</ref>
# One should not use an onion slicer (a machine which is made of a set of knifes that surrounds the onion and dices it). <ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 6:3 [I'm not entirely clear about what an onion slicer is.] </ref>
# A vegetable chopper (with blades fitted with springs on an axis) is forbidden since it chops vegetables thinly. <Ref> Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 6:3 </ref>
# An egg slicer (with equally spaced wires that slice the egg when pressed) is permitted. <Ref> Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 6:3 </ref>
# A special cheese knife isn’t a utensil designated to be used for chopping finely. <Ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 6:11 . See Shemiras Shabbos Kehilchasa (6 no. 9) citing R’ Shlomo Zalman Auerbach where he discusses that with a cheese grater there is an issur of uvdin d’chol even if one will eat the grated cheese immediately based on the Rivash 184. However, one can use a knife and even perhaps a special chopping knife if one will eat the food subsequently in the meal since cutting is not exactly like regular tochein, which is closer to grating or mashing. </ref>
# One may cut bread in a machine (manual, non-electric) which cuts slices of bread. <ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 6:11 (note) </ref>
# It’s forbidden to grind coffee beans it a grinder meant for it. <Ref>Yalkut Yosef ([[Shabbat]], vol 3, pg 377) </ref>
# For a child or someone who can't eat large pieces there is what to rely on to cut it up into small pieces as long as one does so right before the meal. <ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 6:6 </ref>
# It's forbidden to crush a banana or avocado unless it's already so soft that when one pulls a part of the fruit, that part separates from the rest of the fruit. <ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 6:7 </ref>
# One may There is a debate amongst the Poskim if the prohibition of Tochen applies to fruit or vegetables such as bananas and avocados which when mashed do not crush separate into individual pieces but rather just change shape and remain one large mass. Therefore, it is better to do so with a shinui.<ref> The Tosefta (Beitza 1:19) says that "Pressed or dried figs cannot be crushed before the elderly." The Chazon Ish (57, “nimtzeinu”) writes that when pressed or dried figs are crushed, they remain one mass, and therefore even in such a case tochen is applicable. In light of this, the Chazon Ish writes that it is forbidden to mash a banana or tomato even though it remains one mass, even for immediate eating (lishitaso with above about immediate eating). Therefore, he says one must do so with a shinui. However, Rav Moshe Feinstein (Iggerot Moshe OC 4:74:Tochen 2) rules that they are not subject to the prohibition of Tochen and may be mashed in the regular manner. He says even if afterwards we accept that the prohibition applies even for immediate eating, it is only applicable when one takes one body and turns it into smaller components. However, taking a substance and mashing it while remain it remains one mass isn’t a cohesive mushproblem. For someone whom He nevertheless concludes that if possible, one should do it is hard with a shinui to eat such food it be machmir for the Chazon Ish. Rabbi Ribiat (“The 39 Melochos” pg. 461) sides with Rav Moshe. Chacham Ovadia Yosef (Yechave Daat 5:27), though he agrees that mashing is permissible as included in tochen, permits one does to mash a Shinui banana with a fork to feed immediately to a child. Rabbi Moshe Halevi (changeMenuchat Ahava 2: pg. 278) , writes that he should preferably do so in an unusual manner, such as by using a spoon or the back of the fork and not the prongs handle of the fork which are usually used during the week. <ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata Shabbos Kehilchita 6:7-8 forbids mashing a banana or avocado unless one uses a shinui. <br/> </ref>
==Cooked fruit or vegetables==
# Fruits or vegetables which were cooked to the point that it's easy to crush may be crushed on [[Shabbat]]. <ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 6:9 </ref>
# Potatoes or vegetables which were cooked may not be put through a strainer in order to puree it (as the strainer is designated for that purpose) but one is permitted to crush it with a fork (even the prongs) as long as it was cooked to the point that it's easy to crush. <ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 6:10 </ref>
==Pre-crushed food==
# Food which was made from crushed particles may be crushed on [[Shabbat]] (not using a utensil designated for crushed but rather a regular knife) if one is going to eat it on [[Shabbat]]. For example, one may crush [[matza]], bread, crackers, chocolate, and sugar. <ref>The Rama 321:12 rules that it is permitted to crush up bread because the flour was already ground up when it was made. Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 6:11 extends this to breaking up [[matza]], crackers, chocolate, and sugar.</ref>
# Food which was crushed very well before [[Shabbat]] or on [[Shabbat]] in a permissible may may be further cut on [[Shabbat]] even in the normal fashion. <ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 6:12 </ref>
# One may pour hot water (even from a Kli Rishon) onto farina, rice porridge, or corn flour and mix it around even crushing the clump with a spoon. <ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 6:13 </ref>
==Cooked fruits and vegetables==
# There’s no prohibition of [[grinding]] concerning fruit or vegetables cooked to the extent that it’s soft and easy to mash such as jam. <Ref> Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 6:9 </ref>
# One shouldn’t use a fork to mash a cooked fruit or vegetable unless it was partly crushed out of shape before or during the [[cooking]] and is easily mashed. <Ref> Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 6:10. Orchot [[Shabbat]] 1:5:9 </ref>
# One shouldn’t use a strainer to puree or cream a cooked fruit or vegetable since the strainer has a designated purpose of being used to mash. <Ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 6:10 </ref>
==Foods which don't grow from the ground==
# Foods which don't Even though there is an issue of tochen on non-food items as well as food items, foods that do not grow from the ground such as cooked meat, eggs, meat, or fish may be crushed on [[Shabbat]] (and cheese are not using a utensil designated for crushing) if subject to the prohibition as long as one plans on eating it them that [[Shabbat]]Shabbos. <ref>Gemara Shabbos 74b writes that one who grinds firewood into small pieces is chayav for tochen. Rambam Shabbos 7:5 includes metal as a tolada of tochen. The Minchat Chinuch (Musach Hashabbos Tochen 4) concludes based on the Rambam’s example that tochen applies to items which are not gidulei karka, and he adds that this is also the view of the Rashi (74b “Sheva”), who writes that there is a prohibition of tochen for clods of earth. However, the Pri Megadim (Mishbetzot Zahav 321:10) write that both dirt and metal may be considered gidulei karka. Shulchan Aruch Siman 321:9 based on Terumat Hadeshen 56 writes that one may cut cooked meat into very small pieces. Mishna Brura 321:31 explains that this is because it isn’t gidulei karka and therefore the prohibition doesn’t apply. Shemirat [[Shabbat]] Shabbos KeHilchata 6:14, and Yalkut Yosef ([[Shabbat]]Shabbos, vol 3, pg 391) extend this to eggs and cheese. Shoneh Halachot 321:24 quotes the Chazon Ish that one may not be lenient with things that do not grow in the ground unless the intention is to eat them immediately.<br/> </ref>  
==Grinding for a small child==
# One can be lenient to cut a food very small for a small child to eat so long as it’s immediately prior to the meal. <Ref> Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 6:6, Iggeros Moshe OC 4:74, Tochen 2. </ref>
# It’s forbidden to mash or squash a fruit or vegetable such as a banana or tomato. If one has to mash a banana for a small child one should do it with a variation such as using the handle of a fork or a spoon. <Ref> Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 6:8 </ref>
# There is a machloket amongst the poskim if the prohibition applies only if the food is being cut very small in all dimensions or if it even applies if one is slicing in one direction such as an egg or tomato.<ref> Rav Moshe Feinstein (Iggerot Moshe OC 4:74:Tochen 3) writes that slicing foods in one direction isn’t considered tochen because otherwise there would be no limit. Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach (Sh”t Minchat Shlomo 91:13) also rules this way. On the other hand, Ketzot HaShulchan Siman 129 Badei HaShulchan 2 quotes that the Tzemach Tzedek was stringent. Additionally, Orchot Shabbos page 217 chapter 5:footnote 12 writes that Rav Elyashiv was stringent as well.<br/> </ref>
# Cutting up vegetables into small pieces in order to cook them and shaving down a metal rod are examples of toldot of Tochen.<ref> Rambam Shabbos 7:5, 8:15, 21:18 </ref>
==Related Pages==
# [[Medicine on Shabbat|Taking Medicine on Shabbat]] (which is a rabbinic decree because of [[grinding]])<ref> Gemara 53b and Rashi s.v. Gezeira </ref> ==Links==# [ The Shabbos Kitchen: Slicing and Dicing (Tochen)] by Rabbi Shalom Rosner# [ Back to the Grind] on Jewish Pathways

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