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==What can one do without a Kippah?==
# One shouldn’t walk (or travel)<ref> Taz 2:5 writes that traveling is the same as walking in this regard. Malbim in Artzot Hachaim (6, Meir LeAretz 48) and Halacha Brurah 2:11 concur. </ref> 4 [[amotAmot]] without a Kippah. Nowadays, the Kippah serves as an identification of religious Jews and so it’s important to wear it in order to show that one fears Heaven. <ref> * The Gemara Kedushin 31a records Rabbi Yehoshua’s practice not to walk 4 [[amotAmot]] without a head covering so that he would be reminded of Shechina that’s above him. [[Shabbat]] 156b writes that Rav Nachman’s mother was careful that her son always wore a head covering so that he is always cognizant of the fear of Heaven.
* There is a long standing dispute whether there is an obligation or it’s only a Midat Chasidut. The Zohar (Pinchas pg 245b, Naso pg 122b) implies that it’s an obligation for a Talmid Chacham but for everyone else it is only a Midat Chasidut to wear it. Rambam (Deot 5:6; Moreh Nevuchim 3:52), Kol Bo 11, Orchot Chaim (Tefiliah 48), and Tashbetz 547 quoting the Maharam imply that it’s only a Midat Chasidut for a non-Talmid Chacham. However, Sefer Manhig (Tefilah 49), Kitzur Piskei HaRosh (first perek of Kedushin), and Sh”t Mahari MeBruna 34, 165 write that it’s a obligation on every Jew to wear.
* S”A 2:6 writes "It’s forbidden to walk with an arrogant posture and one shouldn’t walk 4 [[amotAmot]] without a head covering". The language of S"A implies that wearing a Kippah is only a Midat Chasidut. See also Bet Yosef (Siman 8, 46, and 91). Many poskim agree that it is only a Midat Chasidut including the Darkei Moshe (2:3 and 8:4), Maharshal 72, Birkei Yosef 2:2, Magan Avraham 91:3, Buir HaGra 8:6, and Maamer Mordechai (2 and 91:5).
* However, the Taz 8:3 writes that it’s forbidden not to wear a Kippah because of [[Chukat Akum]]. (Even according to this opinion one can be lenient if one has a reason to take off the Kippah as per Bet Yosef Y”D 178 and Rama against the Gra who forbids Chukot HaGoyim even if there is a reason to take it off.) Pri Megadim A”A 2:6 and Sh”t Elef Lecha Shlomo O”C 3 differentiate between a complete head covering which is a Midat Chasidut and a partial head covering which is an obligation. However, Sh”t Igrot Moshe O”C 1 argues on this distinction and adds that perhaps one can make such a distinction within the opinion of the Taz. Rabbi Shalom Mashash in Shemesh U'Magen 2:58 writes that when walking outdoors or in a shul it is obligatory. Sh”t Otzrot Yosef 1:4, Sh”t Yabia Omer 6:15 (4-5), Sh”t Yachave Daat 4:1, and Yalkut Yosef 1:7 write that even if the halacha is that it is only a Midat Chasidut, nowadays, since wearing the Kippah is a symbol of a religious Jew, wearing a Kippah is somewhat more obligatory than a Midat Chasidut because there is a concern of [[Marit Ayin]] (suspicion) if one is seen without a Kippah. </ref>
# It is a proper and praiseworthy practice to wear a Kippah even when one walks less than 4 [[amotAmot]] <ref> Sh”t Mahari MeBruna 34 permits if one walks less than 4 [[amotAmot]]. However the Bach 2 implies from Rambam (Deot 5:6; More Nevuchim 3:52) that less than 4 [[amotAmot]] is also forbidden. Taz 8:3, Bchor Shor ([[Shabbat]] 118b), and Birkei Yosef 2:3 concur. Magan Avraham 2:6 writes that it’s only a Midat Chasidut to wear it for walking less than 4 [[amotAmot]]. </ref> or one stands or sits for the time it takes to walk 4 [[amotAmot]] <ref> Sh”T Mahari MeBruna 34 permits if one is just sitting and Magan Avraham 282:8 permits whether one is sitting or standing. Bechor Shor ([[Shabbat]] 118b), Birkei Yosef 2:3, Halacha Brurah 2:11 are strict as long as one waits the time it takes to walk 4 [[amotAmot]]. </ref>, whether one is outside or indoors. <ref> Sh”t Maharshal 72 permits one not to wear a Kippah indoors. Knesset Hagedolah 2, Bear Heteiv 2:5, and Olat Tamid 2:5 quote the Maharshal. However, the Bach 2 argues on this distinction. Eliyah Rabba 2:4, Mishna Brurah 2:10, and Halacha Brurah 2:11 concur. </ref>
# One isn’t allowed to make [[Brachot]] without a Kippah, but if by accident (for example, the kippah fell off and one didn’t notice) one made a bracha without a Kippah, the bracha is acceptable after the fact. <Ref> Sh”t Otzrot Yosef 1:5 say that since the Rosh (on [[Brachot]] 60b), Rambam (Tefilah 7:4), and S”A 4 hold that the order of the [[Brachot]] is precise and Oter [[Israel]] BeTifarah is made for having a head covering, implying that the other [[Brachot]] can be made without a Kippah (Gra 8:6 makes similar implication from Rif). Nonetheless, Masechet Soferim has a dispute whether one can say Hashem’s name without a Kippah and Rabbenu Yerucham (quoted by Bet Yosef 91:3), Or Zaruha 2:43, S”A 91:3 rule stringently. Lechem Yehuda (Tefilah 5:5) argues that it seems that S”A 91:5 holds that one in [[Shemoneh Esrei]] is forbidden not to have a Kippah. Perhaps S”A (retracting from his ruling in Bet Yosef like Rabbenu Yerucham) rules with the term “Yesh Omrim” and then an anonymous opinion and so we should follow the anonymous opinion. Yet, Sh”t Yabia Omer O”C 6:15(3) rejects this because S”A 206:3 is very clear that one can’t say Hashem’s name without a Kippah and S”A 91:5 meant there’s an added reason to wear a Kippah in Shemona Esrah. Sh”t Maharshal 72 says that perhaps from halacha it’s permitted but since the Minhag is not to say a bracha without a Kippah one shouldn’t be lenient (Chida in Sh”t Chaim Shaal 2:35 and Kiseh Rachamim (Masechet Soferim 14) writes similarly). Gra (Biur HaGra 8:6 and Meorei Or (Bear Sheva 15b)) writes it’s only a Midat Chasidut and if there’s a bracha which one will miss if he gets a Kippah (such as if he just heard thunder) he can make the bracha. Sh”t Yabia Omer 6:15(6) says Bedieved one fulfills his bracha. </ref>
# One is allowed to think about Torah even if he's not wearing a Kippah (, such as if he’s in bed (although not if one just awoke and has yet to say the [[Birkat Hatorah]]) or by a pool). <ref> Sh”t Yabia Omer 6:15(7), Sherit Yosef 2 pg 370 </ref>
# One is allowed to greet a Jew who isn’t wearing a Kippah even if he’ll respond “Shalom” which has the status of Hashem’s name. <Ref> Sh”t Yabia Omer 6:15(8). See further Sh”t Otzrot Yosef 1:5e </ref>
# One is permitted to shower, sleep, and swim without a head covering. <ref> Sh"t Yabia Omer 6:15:7, Sh"t Otzrot Yosef 1:5 </ref>Even at places where the minhag isn't to wear a Kippah, such as one who is swimming, one must nonetheless wear a Kippah in order to say a Bracha. <ref>Vezot Habracha (p. 8)</ref>
==Wearing a Kippah to sleep==
# There is a pious practice to wear a Kippah to sleep and if it’s . If it falls off when one is sleeping, one doesn’t have to be concerned with it. <Ref> Sh”t Otzrot Yosef 1:5 say that since the Rosh (on [[Brachot]] 60b), Rambam (Tefilah 7:4), and S”A 4 hold that the order of the [[Brachot]] is precise and Oter [[Israel]] BeTifarah is made for having a head covering, implying that the other [[Brachot]] can be made without a Kippah (Gra 8:6 makes similar implication from Rif). Certainly then, there’s no obligation to wear a Kippah to sleep as the Leket Yosher pg 46 writes. However, Eliyah Rabba in name of the Shlah says that one should wear it to sleep as a Midat Chasidut. Mishna Brurah 2:11, Kaf HaChaim 2:18, and Halacha Brurah 2:12 bring this opinion as halacha. </ref>
==Size and Material of Kippah==
# A kippah with holes in it is an acceptable Kippah. <Ref> S”A 91:4 based on Sh”t Trumat HaDeshen 10 says that even a straw head covering is acceptable. Sh”t Chatam Sofer 6:2 (quoted by Halacha Brurah 2:14) says that this permits even Kippah’s made with holes in them. </ref>
# If someone is wearing a wig with which there is a cloth underneath that’s not visible to the outside, there’s a dispute whether it counts as a Kippah or not. It’s preferable to be strict especially during Tefilah and while making [[Brachot]]. <Ref> Pachad Yitzchak (20 s.v. Kama Chasif, 80 s.v. Peirukanu), Olot HaTamid 2, Sh”t Levushei Mordechai (Tanina O”C 108) say that Marit HaAyin applies to Kipah and so one should wear a Kippah on top of the wig. Maamer Mordechai 91:6 says limits it to Tefilah and [[Brachot]]. However Mekor Chaim 2:6, Hagahot Rabbi Akiva Eiger 91, and Artzot HaChaim (2, Meir LeAretz 54) argue that there’s no issue of [[Marit Ayin]] since Kippah is only a Midat Chasidut to start with. Mishna Brurah 2:12 quotes the dispute without ruling on the topic. Sh”t Chaim Shaal 2:35(1) writes that one should wear it because of Minhag. Halacha Brurah 2:15 quotes the dispute and says it’s preferable to be strict especially during Tefilah and [[Brachot]]. </ref>
# One’s hand isn’t considered a Kippah in order to make [[Brachot]], however someone else’s hand or one’s sleeve is sufficient. <Ref> S”A 91:4 (based on Sh”t Trumat HaDeshen 10 against the Sh”t Maharshal 72 who is more lenient) rules that one’s own hand isn’t acceptable but one’s friend’s hand is acceptable. Eliyah Rabba 91:5, Taz 8:3, Machsit HaShekel 91:4, Artzot HaChaim 2:6, Mishna Brurah 2:11, Halacha Brurah 2:16 conclude that one can rely on the Maharshal to walk four [[amotAmot]] but not to make [[Brachot]]. Bach 91 says one’s sleeve is acceptable and so is the Minhag. Mishna Brurah 2:12 and Halacha Brurah 2:16 bring this as halacha. </ref>
==Who’s obligated to wear a Kippah?==
# The minhag is that unmarried women don't cover their heads, yet, it’s correct for them to wear a head covering during [[Shemoneh Esrei]]. Those who don’t wear a covering at all have what to rely on. <Ref> Yalkut Yosef (91:8, Tefilah pg 318, Sherit Yosef 2 pg 368), Sh”t Otzrot Yosef 1:5, Tzitz Eliezer 12:13, [[Tefilla]] KeHilchata quoting Echad MeGedolei HaDor </ref>
==Wearing a Kippah in a place not-suitable for a religious Jew==# If one is in a place that’s not suitable for a religious Jew to be such as a party with mixed dancing (or perhaps even a museum or theater) one should not remove one’s Kippah so as not to make a Chilul Hashem. <Ref> Sh”t Igrot Moshe O”C 2:95e writes that if one goes to a museum or theater which is forbidden, one shouldn’t take off one’s Kippah as we don’t say since you’re doing one sin you can do another also. [Perhaps Rav Moshe considers entering a museum or theater inappropriate, perhaps because of possible inappropriate or profane material that’s on display.] A more substantial claim is that if one’s Yetzer Hara is overpowering and one is going to go to the museum anyway, in order to minimize Chilul Hashem one should take off one’s Kippah if one does it Leshem Shamayim, to which Rav Moshe writes, if this is a case of a person giving into their Yetzer there is little chance he’s going to take off his Kippah Leshem Shamayim and so it’s forbidden. Sh”t Igrot Moshe Y”D 2:33 writes that teens going to a place where there is mixed dancing and Perisut Peritzut which is totally forbidden, should not remove their Kippah. He says that the claim that if they wear their Kippah people will think that a religious Jew is allowed to be involved in mixed dancing is incorrect, rather, we don’t tell someone who’s already doing a sin to do another one. Following the incorrect logic, Rav Moshe writes, we should also tell him not to follow any mitzvah so it’s clear he’s a Rasha so that people don’t think that a religious Jew can go mixed dancing. Since he’s doing a sin in public it’s also a source for Chilul Hashem but would only increase Chilul Hashem for him to do another sin of not wearing a Kippah. Nonetheless, the religious community should make it clear that it’s forbidden so that people don’t learn from such teens who are sinning. </ref>
==Wearing a Kippah at work==

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