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==If one's in doubt if one made a bracha==
# If one is in doubt whether one can make a Bracha the general rule is that one shouldn’t make the Bracha. <Ref>S”A 209:3, Kitzur S"A 6:6 </ref>
# If one is in doubt whether one made a [[Bracha Rishona ]] or not, one may not make the Bracha, rather it’s permissible to eat without a Bracha because of [[Safek Brachot LeHakel]]. <Ref>S”A in 167:9 and 209:3 writes clearly that if one is in doubt whether one made a Bracha one doesn’t not go back and say it except for [[Birkat HaMazon]]. Mishna Brurah 167:49 adds that it’s forbidden to make a Bracha in a case whether there’s a doubt. </ref>
# If there’s a doubt whether one interrupted his eating (with a [[Hesech Hadaat]]) one shouldn’t make another Bracha and it’s permissible to continue eating. <Ref> VeZot HaBracha (beginning of chapter 10, pg 87) </ref>
==Alternatives to saying the actual bracha==
# It’s preferable to make the same Bracha on another food upon which one didn’t originally intend to eat and have intent to cover the doubt one is in. <ref>Vezot HaBracha (pg 87, chapter 10) </ref>
# Alternatively it’s preferable to listen to someone making that Bracha, while the one making the Bracha has intent to fulfill the obligation of the one listening and the one listening should intend to fulfill the obligation. <ref> Mishna Brurah 167:49, Vezot HaBracha (pg 87, chapter 10) </ref>
# Another preferable option is to obligate oneself to make another Bracha by making a proper [[Shinui Makom]]. <Ref>Vezot HaBracha (beginning of chapter 10, pg 87) in name of Rav Elyashiv </ref>
# In these situations there are a number of suggestions of how to make the Bracha without making an unnecessary Bracha.
## Some say that one can say the Bracha in a language other than Hebrew, however, many great authorities disagree and forbid this. <Ref>Mishna Brurah 215:11, Piskei Teshuvot 209:7. Pri Megadim (M”Z 319:3), Sh”t Igrot Moshe 4:49, and Chazon Ovadyah [[Sukkot]] (pg 245) in cases of doubt forbid saying Bracha with the language of Barich Rachmana Malka DeAlma and continuing with the text of the bracha. </ref>
# If after saying Baruch Atta Hashem one realizes that one shouldn't say that Bracha, one should conclude with the words "Lamdeni Chukecha", which is a pasuk in Tehillim and the Bracha isn't Levatala.<ref>Kitzur S"A 6:4</ref>
# If one already said Elokey and didn't say the last syllable, Nu, then one should conclude with the words " Yisrael Avinu MeOlam VeAd Olam", however, in this case one should also say Baruch Shem afterwards.<ref>Kitzur S"A 6:4</ref>
# If one recited a [[Bracha Rishona ]] while holding a specific food and it fell on the floor (rendering it inedible) before one has the chance to take a bit from it, it depends on the situation as to whether one's original bracha was invalid and a new bracha is necessary if one wants to eat food of the same kind.
## If one intended not to include any other food with that Bracha, one's original bracha is a Bracha Levatala. In such a case, one should recite Baruch Shem Kavod Malchuto LeOlam VaEd. <ref>S"A and Rama 206:6</ref>
## If one intended to include other food in one's bracha, then even if that food is somewhere else, one's original bracha is valid.<Ref>Rama 206:6, Mishna Brurah 206:26</ref>
## If one didn't specifically mean to include or exclude other food that was in front of him from his bracha, one's original bracha is valid.<ref>Mishna Brurah 206:26 writes that if one didn't specifically intend to include or exclude any food one had in front of him, then if the food which one's holding falls, one should not recite a new bracha because of [[Safek Brachot LeHakel]]</ref>
==Birkat HaMazon==
# If one had a bread meal, was full, and is in doubt whether one made Birkat Hamazon, one should say [[Birkat HaMazon]] since [[Birkat HaMazon]] is Deoritta. <Ref> S”A 209:3 </ref> However, if one’s not full or isn’t sure if one’s full, one doesn’t make [[Birkat HaMazon]]. <Ref> Mishna Brurah 209:10 writes that one makes [[Birkat HaMazon]] out of doubt only if one’s full. Kaf HaChaim 184:20 (quoted by VeZot HaBracha (pg 87, beginning of chapter 10) adds that even if one is in doubt whether one’s full, one doesn’t make [[Birkat HaMazon]]. </ref>
==Al HaMichya==
# If one had a [[Kezayit]] of [[mezonot ]] and is in doubt whether one made [[Al HaMichya]], one should and may not go ahead make [[Al HaMichya ]] out of doubt rather one should be careful to eat another [[Kezayit]] (without a [[Bracha Rishona]]) and then make [[Al HaMichya]]. <Ref> Mishna Brurah 209:10 </ref>

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