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There are certain prayers known as [[Tikkun Chatzot]] which are said slightly before [[Chatzot]] (midnight).== Is it an The obligation? Who is obligated?==# In order to feel pain over the destruction of the Bet HaMikdash, every night slightly before [[Chatzot]], one should say Tikkun [[Chatzot]]. <Ref>S”A 1:3 writes that it is proper for a God fearing person to be pained and agonize over the destruction of the Bet Hamikdash. Mishna Brurah 1:9 writes that the Mekubalim emphasized the great importance of [[waking up]] at [[chatzot]] to say a certain seder Seder of tefillot Tefillot organized by the Arizal, printed in the siddurim. </ref> However, the minhag Minhag is not to say Tikkun [[Chatzot]] and some achronim justify the minhag, nonetheless, it’s praiseworthy to say it from time to time. <Ref>Piskei Teshuvot 1:10. Yavetz in Mor UKesiah ([[Siman 1]]) writes that the obligation only applies to Torah scholars and in [[Israel]]. The Chida in Machzik Bracha 1:3 argues that it applies to all people in all places. Kitzur S”A 1:5 writes that it’s good to say Tikkun [[Chatzot]] if a person is able to wake up at [[Chatzot]] and say Tikkun [[Chatzot]].</ref>
# Women may say Tikkun [[Chatzot]]. <ref> Sh"t Rav Poalim 1:9 (Sod Yesharim), Ben Ish Chai Vayishlach 6 write that women shouldn't say Tikkun [[Chatzot]]. However, Kaf HaChaim 1:15, Halichot Olam 1 pg 48, and Halacha Brurah 7 write that women are allowed to say Tikkun [[Chatzot]]. Yalkut Yosef (vol 1, pg 173) rules like the Kaf HaChaim but writes that the minhag is that women don't say Tikkun [[Chatzot]]. </ref>
==When it should be said==
# Ashkenazim hold that it should be said right before [[Chatzot]] (midnight) and then one should learn from [[Chatzot]] until morning when one can pray. <ref> Mikdash Melech on Zohar (Vayahakel 195c) writes the Tikkun [[Chatzot]] can be said from the second section of the night which is 2 hours ([[Shaot Zmaniot]]) before [[Chatzot]]. Shulchan Aruch HaRav rules like that. Similarly, Yeshuot Yacov 1 writes that [[Chatzot]] should be said a little before [[Chatzot]]. So rule the Malbim in Arsot HaChaim 1:31 and Mishna Brurah 1:9. See also S"A 1:2 who writes one should wake up to pray to Hashem specifically at the end of the first third, the second third, or at the end of the night because [[prayer]] is especially accepted at those times.</ref> However, Sephardim hold that it should be said at [[Chatzot]] of night or afterwards until [[Olot HaShachar]]. <ref> Sh"t Yachave Daat 1:46 pg 135 based on the Zohar (Chaye Sara pg 132b) and Arizal (Shaar Kavanot pg 52d) that one should not say Tikkun [[Chatzot]] before [[Chatzot]]. This is also the opinion of Aruch HaShulchan 1:21, Birkei Yosef 1:6, Ben Ish Chai (Vishlach 4), Yalkut Yosef (5764 edition, vol 1, pg 165), and Halacha Brurah 1:5 </ref>
# Tikkun [[Chatzot]] should be said before [[Olot HaShachar]]. However, many poskim say that one may say Tikkun Leah after [[Olot HaShachar]]. <ref> Kitzur S”A 1:5 writes that if a person can’t wake up at [[Chatzot]] a person should wake up before Olot Hashachar. Igret Rramaz 11 writes that one should say it before [[Olot HaShachar]] and in a Shat HaDachak one can say it after Olot. This is brought down by the Shaarei [[Teshuva]] 1:6. However, Sh"t Lev Chaim writes that one can say it until the time to put on [[Talit]] and [[Tefilin]]. Ben Ish Chai Vayishlach 8 argues on this based on the language of the Arizal that one shouldn't say it after Olot. Nonetheless, Zichronot Eliyahu 400:17 and Nemukei Orach Chaim (quoted in Maasef LeKol HaMachanot 1:29) say that one can lenient regarding Tikkun Leah. This is also the opinion of Rav Ovadyah in Halichot Olam 1 pg 49, and Halacha Brurah 1:6. </ref>
# During the three weeks (Ben HaMetzarim), Tikkun [[Chatzot]] should be said after [[Chatzot]] of the day. <ref> Kaf HaChaim 551:222. Hinted to in Mishna Brurah 551:103, see Piskei Teshuvot there. </ref>
==How it should be said==# It is the practice to say Tikkun [[Chatzot]] while sitting on the floor near a doorpost that has a [[mezuzah]]. One shouldn't sit directly on the ground rather one should sit on a cloth, pillow or small bench. If the floor is tiled one can be lenient to sit directly on the floor. <ref> Yalkut Yosef (5764 edition, vol 1, pg 161) </ref># The feelings Minhag is to place ashes on one 's head in the area where the [[Tefilin]] Shel Rosh is placed. <ref> Yalkut Yosef (5764 edition, vol 1, pg 161) </ref># Another practice is to not to wear shoes during Tikkun [[Chatzot]]. <ref> Yalkut Yosef (5764 edition, vol 1, pg 161) </ref># Some had the practice to say Tikkun [[Chatzot]] communally in shul. Even though some oppose the practice, it has what to rely on and has it's benefits. <ref> Sh"t Shevut Yacov writes that the practice of some groups to get together to say Tikkun [[Chatzot]] at night in Shul was inappropriate because it displayed arrogance as Tikkun [[Chatzot]] is something only a minority of people keep. However, Chida in Birkei Yosef 1:3 and Mishna Brurah 1:9 argue on the Shevut Yacov because it's preferable to pray as a community as it says "BeRov Am Hadrat Melech". </ref> ==The feeling with which it should feelbe said==
# One should be pained over the destruction of the Temple. <ref> S"A 1:3 based on the Rosh ([[Brachot]] 3b). </ref> However, in general, when one is learning or praying one should do so with happiness.<ref>Mishna Brurah 1:10, Kaf HaChaim 1:25</reF>
==Relative Precedenceprecedence==
# If one only has time for Tikkun [[Chatzot]] and [[Selichot]], one should say Tikkun [[Chatzot]]. <ref> Ben Ish Chai (Vayishlach 9), Yalkut Yosef (5764 edition, vol 1, pg 191) Rav Mordechai Eliyahu (Maamer Mordechai 34:6). </ref>
# If one only has time for Tikkun [[Chatzot]] and learning torah, one should say Tikkun [[Chatzot]]. <ref> Ben Ish Chai (Vayishlach 9), Yalkut Yosef (5764 edition, vol 1, pg 174) and Rav Mordechai Eliyahu (Maamer Mordechai 34:6). </ref>
# If saying Tikkun [[Chatzot]] will prevent one from being able to wake up for praying at [[HaNetz]] ([[Vatikin]]), nonetheless, one should say Tikkun [[Chatzot]] and pray after [[HaNetz]]. However, even if one is [[waking up]] to pray after [[HaNetz]], one must ensure to say [[Shema]] before the [[latest time for Shema]] and pray [[Shemona Esreh]] before the [[latest time for Shemona Esreh]].<ref>Halacha Brurah 1:4</ref>
==How should Days it be said?==# It is the practice to say Tikkun [[Chatzot]] while sitting on the floor near a doorpost that has a [[mezuzah]]. One shouldn't sit directly on the ground rather one should sit on a cloth, pillow or small bench. If the floor is tiled one can be lenient to sit directly on the floor. <ref> Yalkut Yosef (5764 edition, vol 1, pg 161) </ref># The Minhag is to place ashes on one's head in the area where the [[Tefilin]] Shel Rosh is placed. <ref> Yalkut Yosef (5764 edition, vol 1, pg 161) </ref># Another practice is to not to wear shoes during Tikkun [[Chatzot]]. <ref> Yalkut Yosef (5764 edition, vol 1, pg 161) </ref># Some had the practice to say Tikkun [[Chatzot]] communally in shul. Even though some oppose the practice, it has what to rely on and has it's benefits. <ref> Sh"t Shevut Yacov writes that the practice of some groups to get together to say Tikkun [[Chatzot]] at night in Shul was inappropriate because it displayed arrogance as Tikkun [[Chatzot]] is something only a minority of people keep. However, Chida in Birkei Yosef 1:3 and Mishna Brurah 1:9 argue on the Shevut Yacov because it's preferable to pray as a community as it says "BeRov Am Hadrat Melech". </ref>  ==When should it be said?==# Ashkenazim hold that it should be said right before [[Chatzot]] (midnight) and then one should learn from [[Chatzot]] until morning when one can pray. <ref> Mikdash Melech on Zohar (Vayahakel 195c) writes the Tikkun [[Chatzot]] can be said from the second section of the night which is 2 hours ([[Shaot Zmaniot]]) before [[Chatzot]]. Shulchan Aruch HaRav rules like that. Similarly, Yeshuot Yacov 1 writes that [[Chatzot]] should be said a little before [[Chatzot]]. So rule the Malbim in Arsot HaChaim 1:31 and Mishna Brurah 1:9. See also S"A 1:2 who writes one should wake up to pray to Hashem specifically at the end of the first third, the second third, or at the end of the night because [[prayer]] is especially accepted at those times.</ref> However, Sephardim hold that it should be said at [[Chatzot]] of night or afterwards until [[Olot HaShachar]]. <ref> Sh"t Yachave Daat 1:46 pg 135 based on the Zohar (Chaye Sara pg 132b) and Arizal (Shaar Kavanot pg 52d) that one should not say Tikkun [[Chatzot]] before [[Chatzot]]. This is also the opinion of Aruch HaShulchan 1:21, Birkei Yosef 1:6, Ben Ish Chai (Vishlach 4), Yalkut Yosef (5764 edition, vol 1, pg 165), and Halacha Brurah 1:5 </ref># Tikkun [[Chatzot]] should be said before [[Olot HaShachar]]. However, many poskim say that one may say Tikkun Leah after [[Olot HaShachar]]. <ref> Kitzur S”A 1:5 writes that if a person can’t wake up at [[Chatzot]] a person should wake up before Olot Hashachar. Igret Rramaz 11 writes that one should say it before [[Olot HaShachar]] and in a Shat HaDachak one can say it after Olot. This is brought down by the Shaarei [[Teshuva]] 1:6. However, Sh"t Lev Chaim writes that one can say it until the time to put on [[Talit]] and [[Tefilin]]. Ben Ish Chai Vayishlach 8 argues on this based on the language of the Arizal that one shouldn't say it after Olot. Nonetheless, Zichronot Eliyahu 400:17 and Nemukei Orach Chaim (quoted in Maasef LeKol HaMachanot 1:29) say that one can lenient regarding Tikkun Leah. This is also the opinion of Rav Ovadyah in Halichot Olam 1 pg 49, and Halacha Brurah 1:6. </ref># During the three weeks (Ben HaMetzarim), Tikkun [[Chatzot]] should be said after [[Chatzot]] of the day. <ref> Kaf HaChaim 551:222. Hinted to in Mishna Brurah 551:103, see Piskei Teshuvot there. </ref> ==On what days is it not said?==
# On the following nights no Tikkun [[Chatzot]] is said: [[Shabbat]], <ref> Shaarei Tzion (beginning of sefer) writes that one does say Tikkun Leah on [[Shabbat]], nonetheless, most achronim rule otherwise including the Ben Ish Chai (Vayishlach 7), Kaf HaChaim 1:13, and Halacha Brurah 1:8. </ref> [[Rosh HaShana]], [[Yom Kippur]], [[Pesach]] ([[Yom Tov]] and [[Chol HaMoed]]), [[Shavuot]], [[Sukkot]] (just [[Yom Tov]]), and [[Shemini Aseret]]. <ref> Ben Ish Chai (Vayishlach 7), Kaf HaChaim 1:13, and Halacha Brurah 1:8 quote this list of days that there's no Tikkun [[Chatzot]]. Of course one doesn't say Tikkun [[Chatzot]] on [[Yom Tov]] Sheni Shel Galiyot just like the first day [[Yom Tov]]. However, Chesed LaAlafim 1:2, and Kaf HaChaim Palagi 3:34 write that one does say Tikkun Leah on [[Yom Tov]]. </ref>
# On the following nights no Tikkun Rachel is said, but Tikkun Leah is still said: days when there's no [[Tachanun]], Chol HaMoad [[Sukkot]], Asert Yemei [[Teshuva]], year of Shemittah in [[Israel]], day after the Molad before [[Rosh Chodesh]], <ref> Ben Ish Chai Vayishlach 5, Kaf HaChaim 1:11, Halacha Brurah 1:9 write that the night of the day of the molad has only Tikkun Leah even if it's not the day of [[Rosh Chodesh]] itself. For example, [[Rosh Chodesh]] Sivan 5770 falls out on Friday May 14th 2010 and the molad falls out on Thursday May 13th 2010. If the Molad and [[Rosh Chodesh]] coincide then there's no Tikkun Rachel because there's no [[Tachanun]] on [[Rosh Chodesh]]. </ref> and days of [[Sefirat HaOmer]]. <ref> Ben Ish Chai Vayishlach 5, Kaf HaChaim 1:11, and Halacha Brurah 1:9 </ref>

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