[[Laundering]] garments is a subsection of Bleaching, [[Melaben]] (one of the 39 principle [[
Shabbos]] Labors). While [[laundering]] usually entails the use of water and/or cleaning agents, removing dirt from a garment even without these may also fall under the halachic prohibition of [[laundering]].
==Removing dust or dirt particles from a garment==
# If one’s garment became dusty on [[Shabbat]], if one isn’t concerned about the dust on the garment (and would wear it without cleaning it) one may gently shake it out, or gently hit it with one’s hand or dry rag, but one may not shake it out vigorously, rub it, or use a brush.<ref>
* In theory, there may be some dust which lies completely on the surface of the garment and is not absorbed into the fabric. In practice, however, this is almost impossible to determine. [See Shalmas Chayim, 2nd edition, 283, concerning surface dust on shoes.]
* The middle of the road opinion allows removing a feather or a loose thread that has landed on the garment (Rama). A minority view rules like the first opinion that even feathers and threads are prohibited: Magen Avraham, quoted by Chayei Adam 22:9 and Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 80:39; Ben Ish Chai, quoted by Kaf ha-Chayim 302:11. See also Aruch ha-Shulchan 302:9, who rules according to this view in the unlikely event of a person who is reluctant to wear a garment because of the feathers, etc. See Machazeh Eliyahu 44-4.
poskim are concerned with the issue of [[ muktzeh]] (See Shulchan Aruch ha-Rav 302:3 and Ketzos ha-Shulchan 116:3). To avoid the problem, the dirt can be removed indirectly or via his body; Sha’ar ha-Tziyun 337:7. Other poskim, however, are not concerned with the [[ muktzeh]] issue; see Chazon Ish 47:21 and Shulchan Shelomo 302:5 and 302:12.* Beiur Halachah 302:1, s.v. lachosh writes that a brush may not be used. Mishnah Berurah 302:6 writes that one should be careful not to let his clothing fall on the ground and get dusty so that he does not come to desecrate the [[Shabbos]].</ref>Some say that nowadays people are particular about their [[Shabbat]] clothes and so one may not remove the dust at all.<ref>Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 15:29 (based on Beiur Halacha 302:1 s.v. Aleha) writes that a black or dark-colored new looking garment is assumed to be a garment which a person is concerned about and wouldn’t wear without cleaning it and a light colored or old garment is assumed to be garments a person isn’t concerned about. However, if one’s personal attitude is different it would depend on that. 39 Melachos (Rabbi Ribiat, vol 3, pg 708-9) writes that nowadays people are particular about the appearance of one’s [[Shabbat]] clothes even if they are light colored and old and so dust shouldn’t be removed from one’s garments in any way. See Chut Shani 2:33-1. </ref>Sephardim may be lenient to shake out any garment, however, one who is strict should be blessed. <ref>Even though the Ben Ish Chai (Vayechei #8) and Kaf HaChaim 302:8 are strict, Yalkut Yosef ([[Shabbat]] vol 2, pg 76) permits like the opinion of Shulchan Aruch. Menuchat Ahava (vol 2, 12:17) writes that it is permitted but one who is strict should be blessed. </ref>
# If the owner of a dusty garment [that is significantly dirty] has no other suitable clothing and is embarrassed to be seen publicly in such a dirty garment, then the poskim permit one to ask a non-Jew to remove the dust.<ref>Mishnah Berurah 302:6.</ref> While generally one may not ask a non-Jew to do anything that a Jew is not permitted to do on [[Shabbos]], in this case he may, since as stated above, there are opinions that maintain that it is even permitted for a Jew to remove dust from a garment on [[Shabbos]]. [It is questionable, however, whether one may instruct the non-Jew to use a brush.<ref>Since this may be prohibited according to all views. If the non-Jew uses the brush on his own, to make his job easier, he need not be stopped.</ref>]
# If a non-Jew is not available and the owner is embarrassed to be seen in public wearing a dusty garment, some poskim permit a Jew to clean the garment, provided that it is cleaned in an unusual manner, e.g., with one's elbow.<ref>Misgeres ha-Shulchan on Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 80:80, quoted by Minchas [[Shabbos]] 80:143. See Beiur Halachah 302:1 (s.v. lachush), who seems to rely on this only when the garment is clearly not new or newly pressed. See also She’arim Metzuyanim b’Halachah 80:36, who disagrees with this leniency.</ref>