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There is a mitzvah to eat three meals of bread on [[Shabbat]]. At the Friday night and the first meal on [[Shabbat]] day, [[Kiddush]] is recited. The laws that relate specifically to the [[third meal of Shabbat]] are on the [[Seudat Shelishit]] page. Additionally, in order to escort out [[Shabbat]] there is a fourth meal at the conclusion of [[Shabbat]], called [[Melaveh Malka]].
==Covering the Challah==
# There are multiple reasons for covering the [[challah]]. Some say that it is in commemoration of the Maan which was covered with dew. Others say that it is so as not to "embarressembarrass" the bread as we are reciting the [[Kiddush]] before [[HaMotzei]]. <ref> Tosafot in Pesachim 100b says that because the maan fell between layers of dew, which preserved it, we cover the [[challah]] above and below. Rosh Pesachim 10:3 as well as the Tur 271 quote the Yerushalmi saying that since wheat is written first in the pasuk of the seven species for which [[Israel]] is praised and the beracha on it should be recited first, we don't want to embarrass the [[challah]] by saying the beracha on the wine first, therefore, we cover the [[Challah]]. Mishna Brurah 271:41 cites the reason of the maan even if one recites [[Kiddush]] over the [[Challah]] one should cover the [[Challah]], but according to the Tur this isn't necessary. THe Mishna Brurah concludes that the minhag is to cover the [[Challah]] even in such a case.</ref># Even if one is not going to make [[Kiddish]] oneself but rather hear it from someone else one should still cover the challahs. <ref> Rav Moshe Feinstein (quoted in back of Radiance of [[Shabbos]], [[Siman 1]]) , Iggrot Moshe OC 5:18 </ref> 
==Having two loaves of Challah==
# For the [[Shabbat]] meals one should have Lechem Mishna meaning that one needs to make [[Hamotzei]] over [[two loaves of bread]] on [[Shabbat]] and [[Yom Tov]] in commemoration of the double portion of Man that fell before [[Shabbat]] and [[Yom Tov]]. <ref> S”A 274:1, Mishna Brurah 274:1. The poskim have a debate of whether this obligation is from the torah or the rabbis. The Taz OC 678:2, Chatam Sofer OC no. 46, and Aruch Hashulchan 274:1 all say it is from the torah while the Magen Avraham 254:23 says that it is only rabbinic. </ref>
# Women are also obligated in [[Lechem Mishneh]]. <Ref>Meiri [[Shabbat]] 118a writes that women are obligated in [[Lechem Mishneh]] just as they are obligated in other mitzvot of [[Shabbat]] such as the meals of [[Shabbat]], [[Kiddish]], and [[Havdalah]]. Mishna Brurah 274:1 rules that women are obligated in [[Lechem Mishneh]] based on the reasoning that they too enjoyed from the miracle of the manna. Beiur Halacha 291 "s.v. nashim", Chazon Ovadyah ([[Shabbat]] vol 2, pg 172), and Aruch Hashulchan 274:4 agree. Shemirat [[Shabbat]] kihilchita 55:3 says that although this is the accepted opinion, Rav Shlomo Kluger in Haelef licha shlomo 114 writes that women don't have the custom to eat lechem mishne because it is a mitzva on the sanctity of [[shabbat]] which is a mitzvat aseh shehazman grama, and is not included in the source for their obligation in [[Kiddush]]. </ref>Some say that the women should hear the Bracha from the one making [[HaMotzei]] on the two loaves, while others defend the minhag of those who don’t hear the [[HaMotzei]] and make [[HaMotzei]] on the piece given to them. <Ref> Sh”t Kinyan Torah 1:88 and Eshel Avraham (siman 274) defend the minhag, while Sh”t Bear Moshe quotes the Chatom Sofer who was insistent on having the women hear the Bracha of [[HaMotzei]] from the one making it over two loaves. </ref># Kabbalistically, one should try to have 12 loaves of bread corresponding to the Lechem HaPanim for the meals of Shabbat. If one can't, one should try to have at least 4 loaves and if one has 5 or 6, one should take 4 and leave the others out. Similarly, if one only has 3 loaves, one should use 2 loaves and leave the third one out. <ref>Kaf HaChaim 262:2-3</ref> Some say that there's no need to have 12 loaves but one should cut both loaves at each meal and end up with 12 half loaves from the 3 meals and 2 loaves at each meal.<ref>[ Rav Schachter (Brachot Shiur 76 min 44)] quoting the Gra</ref># One should wait for everyone to sit before reciting [[Hamotzei]] in order to fulfill Lechem Mishna.<ref>Chazon Ovadyah ([[Shabbat]] vol 2, pg 172) </ref># Some say that one should hold both loaves even while one is breaking or cutting the first loaf. Others say that one may put one of them down and then break the other.<ref>Kaf HaChaim 274:12 writes that one should continue to hold both loaves of bread while one breaks the first loaf. Shulchan Aruch HaRav 274:2 argues that one making [[Hamotzei]] may place one of them down after the bracha and then break the other loaf. Chazon Ovadyah (v. 2, p. 170) agrees but adds that one who follows the Kaf HaChaim should be blessed. </ref># The loaves should wait be at least the size of a Kezayit.<ref>Shemirat Shabbat Kehilchata 2:55:5, Chazon Ovadia (v. 2 p. 187). Chazon Ovadia cies the Chikrei Lev YD 1:57 who wrote that the breads for everyone lechem mishneh need to be at least a kezayit but the Bet Menucha 51a argues a loaf any size is fine. Kaf Hachaim Palagi 36:44 sided with the Chikrei Lev since the Lechem Mishneh corresponds to sit in order the meals of the maan and it says eating with respect to fulfill Lechem Mishnathe maan (Shemot 16:25), which implies the size of eating which is a kezayit.</ref>
# Some have the custom to cut a little bit of the [[challah]] before reciting the beracha. <ref> Mishna Brurah 274:5 quoting the Magen Avraham 274:1. Aruch Hashulchan 274:6. The Tzlach on [[Berachot]] 39b says that this is an incorrect practice. </ref>
# Some have the custom to recite "birshus," meaning, "with your permission," before reciting the beracha. <ref> Rama 167:14, Aruch Hashulchan 167:29 and Mishna Brurah 274:2. The Vilna Gaon (Maaseh Rav 78), however, views this as a [[hefsek]] and says it should not be recited. </ref>
# It is a custom among Sepharadim to sing "lemivtza al rifta" between netilat yadayim and the beracha of hamotzi for the bread. <ref> Maran HaHida (Mahaziq Berakha 166:3) writes that he saw Rabanan Qadisha (our Holy Sages) sing LeMibsa’ ‘al Rifta after washing and before hamosi. The Ben Ish Hai (VaYera, 14) quotes the above statement of Maran HaHida and adds: “In our own home we have the custom from our forefathers to recite LeMibsa’ between washing and hamosi, and it should be said at all three meals of Shabbat.” See Sh"t (p.192) by Ribi Barukh Toledano. Ribi Ya’aqob Benaim Sh”t (Maghen Abot, O”H p.426 §40) attests to this being the minhag of Tetouan. </ref>
# Before eating the challah, one should dip it in salt. <ref> Rama 167:5, Yalkut Yosef 274:18, [ Taamei Haminhagim pg. 78]. Beit Yosef 167 brings from the Shibbolei Haleket that this is because one's table is compared to the mizbeach, and salt was used with every sacrifice in the beit hamikdash. see also [ Salt and challah] by Rabbi Gil Student</ref> If one does not have salt, he should dip it in something else which has salt or in sugar. <ref> Yalkut Yosef 274:18 </ref>
==What kind of challah should be used==
# Both challahs should be complete. <ref> Shulchan Aruch 274:1. Arukh Ha-shulchan HaShulchan 274:5 says that if a whole one is not available then the mitzva can nevertheless be fulfilled with two broken ones.</ref> Even if part of the [[challah]] is burnt it is still considered whole. <ref> Mishna Brurah 274:2. </ref># Preferably, both loaves should be fresh but if one is frozen after the fact they may be used for making the Bracha of [[HaMotzei]]. <Ref>Sh”t Yabia Omer 7:32, Or Letzion (vol 2, chapter 21:2). Tshuvot V’hanhagot 2:170 and Shmirat [[Shabbat]] K'hilchata 55:12 say that since the bread will soon become edible it is still evident that you have two loaves. Sh"t Bitzel Hachochma 3:110, and Rav Moshe Feinstein (cited in Radiance of Shabbos page 76) likewise maintained that one may use frozen challah as Lechem Mishnah. Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach quoted in note 39 in SSK Semirat Shabbat Kehilchata chapter 55 says that it might only be permissible if the bread will defrost by the end of the meal.</ref># The challahs should not be in a bag or wrapped up during the beracha. <ref> MB 167:23, Shemirat [[Shabbat]] Kihilchita volume 2,55:11:38, and Rav Scheinberg quoted in The Radiance of [[Shabbos]] page 79 footnote 18. see also Sh"t Rivivos Ephraim 1:201 </ref>
# If two pieces of bread stuck together in the oven and then were separated gently each one is considered whole for the mitzvah of Lechem Mishna. <ref>Chazon Ovadyah ([[Shabbat]], vol 2, pg 176). </ref>
#The challahs used should preferably be larger than a [[Kezayit]]. <ref> Shemirat [[Shabbat]] Kihilchita vol. 2, 55:5, Rav Scheinberg quoted in The Radiance of [[Shabbos]] page 79 footnote 15. </ref>
# If one only has one loaf of bread one may use [[Pas habah BeKisnin]] for the second loaf to fulfill Lechem Mishna. <ref>Chazon Ovadyah ([[Shabbat]], vol 2, pg 185), Shemirat [[Shabbat]] Kihilchita volume 2, 55:16 and Rav Moshe Feinstein quoted in The Radiance of [[Shabbos]] page 78 footnote 13. </ref>
#Preferably pas yisrael should be used, meaning bread that was baked by a Jew, but if this isn't possible then any kosher bread can be used. <ref> Mishna Brurah 242:6. </ref>
#If one doesn't have even one whole loaf, it is still preferable to use two slices than just one. <ref> Aruch Hashulchan 274:5 and the HaNetziv in Meishiv Davar 1:21 and the reasoning being that the obligation for lechem mishne and whole bread are two separate ones. </ref>
# Bagels may be used for lechem mishne and are considered complete even though there is a hole in the middle. <ref>Sh"t Rivivot Ephraim 1:204:2 </ref>
==Passing the Challah==
# One shouldn’t give the [[Challah]] directly into the hands of someone else but rather one should place it down on a plate or the table to pass it to someone else. <Ref>Yalkut Yosef ([[Shabbat]] vol 1 pg 312), Piskei Teshuvot (Siman 274 note 7) </ref>
# One should not throw the challah across the table. <Ref>Rabbi David Yosef (Halacha Brurah Vol: pg. 49, Magen Avraham 167:38, Pri Megadim E"A 167:38, Mishnah Brurah 167:88, Minhag Yisroel Torah 167:4, [ Throwing Bread] on Halacha Yomit </ref>
# The one who made hamotzei should take a bite of the first piece and then cut the rest of the pieces.<ref>Mishna Brurah 167:79 quotes the achronim who say that initially one shouldn’t cut the challah for everyone listening before eating since that is a hefsek initially but after the fact it isn’t an issue.</ref> However, some have the practice to cut all of the pieces and only then eat. <ref>[Rav Hershel Schachter (Brachot Shiur 92 min 30)] said that his father’s practice was to cut all of the pieces of challah before he ate. He felt that was more derech eretz to cut up for everyone before you start to eat yourself. It is in line with the Rama 167:15.</ref> In that case the others have to wait to eat their piece until the one who made a bracha eats.<ref>Gemara Brachot 47a, Shulchan Aruch OC 167:15</ref>
==How much to eat==
# It is preferable to eat slightly more than a KeBaytzeh of bread for the meals of [[Shabbat]], however, many say that after the fact one fulfills one's obligation by eating only a [[Kezayit]]. <ref>
* The Behag ([[Shabbat]] chap. 16) says that one should eat the three meals of [[Shabbat]] and it is permissible separate the two daytime meals by covering the table, making [[Birkat HaMazon]], and then [[HaMotzei]] and eating a [[KeBaytzah]] of bread. The Ran ([[Shabbat]] 43b s.v. Tanu) quotes this Behag. The Tur 291:1 writes that one should eat a [[KeBaytzah]] for [[Seudat Shelishit]]. The Bet Yosef 291:1 explains that the Tur is following the Behag. What's the reason to have a [[KeBaytzah]]?
* (1) The Bach 291:3 writes that the reason to have a [[KeBaytzah]] is that it is preferable to have a Kebaytzeh in order to be obligated to make [[Birkat HaMazon]], even though the actual standard halacha is that someone who ate only a [[Kezayit]] one is obligated to make [[Birkat HaMazon]]. The Eliyah Rabba (291:3) and Hagahot Ben Aryeh (on Behag [[Shabbat]] chap 16), however, reject the Bach because they understand that there's no preference for having a [[KeBaytzah]] in terms of [[Birkat HaMazon]].
* (2) The Machasit HaShekel 291:1 writes that the reason a [[KeBaytzah]] is necessary is order to make it into a significant meal and not just a snack, though after the fact if one eats only one [[Kezayit]] one fulfilled ones obligation. Though, according to this explanation, the Magen Avraham 291:1 and Mishna Brurah 291:2 explain that really slightly more than a [[KeBaytzah]] is necessary because a significant meal is defined in Hilchot [[Mincha]] (S"A Shulchan Aruch 232) to be more than a KeBeytzah. * (3) The Beiur HaGra 291:2 writes that the amount of a [[KeBaytzah]] is learned out from Hilchot [[Sukkah]]. The Hagahot Ben Aryeh (on Behag [[Shabbat]] chap 16) asks that this explanation can not explain the position of Shulchan Aruch who holds that in Hilchot [[Sukkah]] (S"A Shulchan Aruch 639:2) a significant meal is more than a KeBeytzah. [ Birkat Eliyahu] (commentary to Bieur HaGra 291:2) answers that the Gra thought that really everyone agrees that a significant meal is a [[KeBaytzah]], but for [[Sukkot]] the reason a significant meal is defined as more than a KeBaytzeh is because by [[Sukkot]] we're supposed to dwell in the [[Sukkah]] just as we dwell indoors.
* (4) Hagahot Ben Aryeh (on Behag [[Shabbat]] chap 16, authored by Rav Zev Wolf Ben Aryeh, father of Rav Yisrael Salanter) explains that the Behag is only discussing a case where one wants to have [[Seudat Shelishit]] immediately following the [[Shabbat]] day meal and in order to show that [[Seudat Shelishit]] is a significant meal, one needs to eat a [[KeBaytzah]], but in general if [[Seudat Shelishit]] was eaten as a separate meal, one only needs to eat a [[Kezayit]] for the meals of [[Shabbat]].
* What's the halacha? S"A Shulchan Aruch 291:1 codifies the Tur's statement that one should eat a Kebaytzeh for [[Seudat Shelishit]]. The [ Malbushei [[Yom Tov]] 291:1] in fact argues that he sees no reason that one be obligated to eat more than a [[Kezayit]] as the Gemara [[Shabbat]] 119b says that a [[Kezayit]] is sufficient for the [[Friday night meal]]. [The Sh"t Maharil (end of Siman 94) and Radvaz 1:489 seem to only require a [[Kezayit]].] Eliyah Rabba 291:3 quotes this. See the Machasit HaShekel who answers the Malbushei [[Yom Tov]]'s question from the Gemara [[Shabbat]]. The Mishna Brurah 291:2 quotes the Magen Avraham who says that one should eat more than a [[KeBaytzah]], however, some say one only needs a [[Kezayit]] and he concludes that preferably if one is able, one should be strict to have a Kebaytzeh. Shemirat [[Shabbat]] KeHilchata 54:20 agrees. Yalkut Yosef ([[Shabbat]] vol 1, p. 313) writes that for the [[Friday night meal]] and [[Shabbat]] day meal one needs to have a [[KeBaytzah]] of bread and if that’s difficult one may have a [[Kezayit]] of bread (and in such a case one should wash without a Bracha). </ref>However, if one only eats a [[Kezayit]], according to many opinions one shouldn't say the Bracha of [[Al Netilat Yadayim]] when washing for the bread. <Ref>See [[Netilat_Yadayim_for_a_meal#Minimum_amount_of_bread_to_obligate_Netilat_Yadayim]].</ref>
# One should make sure to eat a [[Kezayit]] of the bread for the meals of [[Shabbat]] within Shiur [[Kedi Achilat Pras]].<ref>Yalkut Yosef ([[Shabbat]] vol 1, p. 313) writes that one should eat a [[Kezayit]] of bread for the meals of [[Shabbat]] within the time of [[Kedi Achilat Pras]]. </ref>
# For the Bracha on honey [[challah]], see [[Pas_Haba_Bikisnin#Honey_Challah]].
==Which Challah to break==
# On Friday night, one should cut the lower of the two loaves. On [[Shabbat]] morning and [[Yom Tov]] night and morning one should cut the upper of the two loaves. <Ref>S”A and Rama 274:1 </ref>
# If one doesn’t have wine and so, one makes [[Kiddish]] on bread one shouldn’t make [[HaMotzei]]. <ref> S”A 271:4 </ref>
==Retzeh in Birkat HaMazon==
# On [[Shabbat]] one should add Retzeh in the middle of the third Bracha of [[Birkat HaMazon]]. <Ref>S”A Shulchan Aruch 188:4,5 </ref>
# If one forgot Retzeh and one realized:
## before saying Hashem’s name at the end of the third Bracha one should return to Retzeh and then continue from there. <ref>Kitzur S"A Shulchan Aruch 44:12, Mishna Brurah 188:22 </ref>## after saying Hashem’s name but before saying Boneh Yerushalayim one should immediately say למדני חוקיך which is the conclusion of a פסוק in Tehillim and then return to Retzeh and continue from there. <ref> Chaye Adam 47:16 writes that if one realizes after having said Baruch Atta Hashem one should conclude with למדני חוקיך so that Hashem’s name isn’t in vain and then one may return to Retzeh. Mishna Brurah 188:22 and Rav Mordechai Eliyahu (comments to Kitzur S"A Shulchan Aruch 44:16) agree. [See Igrot Moshe 4:93 who disagrees with the Mishna Brurah regarding inserting למדני חוקיך in [[Shemoneh Shmoneh Esrei]].] </ref>## after finishing the third Bracha before starting the fourth Bracha one should insert a special Bracha ברוך אתה ה' אלקינו מלך העולם שנתן שבתות למנוחה לעמו ישראל באהבה לאות ולברית ברוך אתה ה' מקדש השבת. <Ref>S”A 188:6, Kitzur S"A Shulchan Aruch 44:12. The S”A HaRav 188:9 writes that the logic behind this is that as long as one didn’t begin the fourth Bracha it’s as though one is still in middle of the third Bracha. The reasoning here is based on the discussion in S”A 114 (see [[Yaaleh VeYavo]] in [[Shemoneh Shmoneh Esrei]] section). </ref>## within the first six words of the fourth Bracha (ברוך אתה ה' אלקינו מלך העולם) one should continue with the special Bracha (שנתן...) mentioned in the last option. <Ref> Chazon Ovadia ([[Berachot]] pages 101-102), Or Litzion (vol 2 p. 113), and Shemirat [[Shabbat]] Kihilchita (vol 2 p. 212 n 6) write that as long as one still within the first six words of the fourth bracha one should continue with the special Bracha for [[Shabbat]] and then say say the fourth bracha from the beginning. Mishna Brurah 188:23 quotes the Chaye Adam 47:18 who says that if one is still within the first six words of the fourth Bracha one may continue with the special Bracha insertion and then start the fourth Bracha again. Even though the Beiur Halacha s.v. Ad questions this Chaye Adam, the Halachos of [[Brachos]] (pg 515-6) rules like the Chaye Adam. However, the Birkei Yosef 188:7 says that once you say the word baruch for the fourth beracha you can no longer say the beracha of "asher natan" and you have to go back to the beginning of [[birkat hamazon]]. Kitzur S"A Shulchan Aruch 44:13, Ben Ish Chai chukat 20, and S"A Shulchan Aruch Harav 188:4 agree with the Birkei Yosef.</ref>## after one said the seventh word in the fourth Bracha, one should repeat Birkat Hamazon. <Ref>S”A Shulchan Aruch 188:6 </ref>
# If the meal extended until after sunset on [[Shabbat]], [[Yom Tov]], etc. and one has to insert the special Bracha between the third and fourth Bracha this special Bracha should be said without [[Shem UMalchut]] meaning one should just say ברוך שנתן…<ref>Halachos of [[Brachos]] (pg 511) based on Beiur Halacha 188:10 s.v. mazkir, Kesot HaShulchan 47:3 </ref>
# If a person wasn't sure if he said retzeh, according to Ashkenazim, he should go back and repeat birkat hamazon.<ref>Shemirat Shabbat Kehilchata 57:7, Mishna Brurah 188:16</ref> According to Sephardim one doesn't have to repeat birkat hamazon.<ref>Yabia Omer OC 7:28</ref>
## If a person knew that he was planning on say retzeh while he was in middle of birkat hamazon but doesn't know if he actually said it one can assume that one did actually say it.<ref>Rav Nevinsal on Mishna Brurah 188:16, See Yabia Omer 7:28 who discuss the idea of the Taz and those who disagree.</ref>
# If a person had kezayit of mezonot at kiddush before birkat hamazon then if one forgot retzeh in birkat hamazon at lunch one doesn't have to repeat birkat hamazon.<ref>[ Divrei Dovid (responsa 86)] holds that since the kiddush counts as a meal in some sense then the lunch afterwards counts as seudat shelishit in which case if one didn't mention retzeh at lunch one doesn't have to repeat it. Shemirat Shabbat Kehilchata 57:9 and Kaf Hachaim 188:40 concur with the Divrei Dovid.</ref>
# If someone forgot to mention Shabbat in al hamichya one doesn't have to repeat it.<ref>Shemirat Shabbat Kehilchata 57:11, Mishna Brurah 208:58</ref>
==Setting the table==
# One should set one's table nicely, make [[Kiddish]], wash, make [[HaMotzei]], and have a nice meal for [[Shabbat]] day. <Ref>S"A Shulchan Aruch 289:1 </ref>
==Kiddish during the day==
# The text of [[Kiddish]] during the day is just Borei Pri Hagefen. <ref> Pesachim 106a writes that the primary [[Kiddish]] is at night but there's also a [[Kiddish]] of the day. Even though it seems to be Deorittah as the gemara learns it from a pasuk, the Rishonim agree that the pasuk is only an asmachta (Ravad and Magid Mishna (Hilchot [[Shabbat]] 29:10), quoted by Bear Heitiv 289:2) and the obligation of [[Kiddish]] during the day is only Rabbinic. The gemara concludes that the text of such a [[Kiddish]] is just Borei Pri [[HaGefen]]. Rambam (Hilchot [[Shabbat]] 29:10) and S"A Shulchan Aruch 289:1 rule this as halacha. </ref> However, many have the minhag to say [[Pesukim ]] before saying the Bracha. Some say two paragraphs "Veshamaroo" and "Zachor". Some skip to the last sentence of "Zachor" starting with "Al cen berach" before saying the bracha on the wine, however, some authorities discourage this practice. <ref>Mishna Brurah 289:2 </ref> 
==Eating before Kiddish==
# It's forbidden to taste anything before [[Kiddish]]. <ref> Rambam (Hilchot [[Shabbat]] 29:10) and S"A Shulchan Aruch 289:1 rule that since there's an obligation to make [[Kiddish]] it's forbidden to eat anything before [[Kiddish]] just like the [[Kiddish]] of Friday night. </ref> This law also applies to women. <ref>Mishna Brurah 289:6 </ref># It's permissible to drink water before [[Shacharit]] on [[Shabbat]] day since the obligation of [[Kiddish]] doesn't apply until one prayed. <ref> Tur writes in the name of his father, the Rosh, and S"A Shulchan Aruch 289:1 </ref>
==Kiddish in the place of a meal==
# [[Kiddush]] of the day must also be made in the place of a meal. <Ref>S"A Shulchan Aruch 289:1 </ref>
==Wine for Kiddish==
# If there's no wine available one may use Chamar Medina which is beer or another drink which is common in that place but not water. If one doesn't even have Chamar Medina, one should say hamotzi and eat the bread and if one doesn't even have bread, one may eat without [[Kiddish]]. <ref>S"A Shulchan Aruch 289:2, Mishna Brurah 289:10 </ref>
==[[Shabbat]] Zemirot==
# After having eaten one's fill it's proper to sing Zemirot (songs) of praise to Hashem. <ref>Mishna Brurah 289:5 </ref>
# It is permitted to say Hashem's name when singing Zemirot.<ref>Rav Moshe Feinstein (quoted by Rabbi Tendler in Moreshet Moshe v. 2 p. 53) held that it is permitted to say Hashem’s name in Shabbos zemirot but if Hashem’s name is repeated the real name should only be said the first time.</ref> Some have the practice not to say Hashem's real name when singing zemiros and simply say Hashem. <ref>Rav Moshe Soloveitchik (cited in Nefesh Harav pg. 160) </ref> See [[Not_Saying_Hashem%27s_Name_in_Vain#Using_Hashem.27s_Name_for_Zemirot]]
* [ Halachos of the Shabbos Meals] by Rabbi Baruch Simon
* [ The Shabbos Meals] by Rabbi Michael Taubes


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